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Full text of "Plato, with an English translation"

Presented to 

THE LIBRARY 

of 

VICTORIA UNIVERSITY 

Toronto 
by 

The late Dr. Carleton Stanley 




THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

EDITED BY 

E. CAPPS. PH.n., IX.D. T. E. PAGE, utt.d. 
W. H. D. ROUSE, LHT-D. 



PLATO 



PLATO 

WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION 
X 

LAWS 



R. G. BURY, Lm.D. 

rORMKRLT SCHOLAR OF TRISTTT COLLEGF, CAMBRISOX 

IN TWO VOLUMES 
II 




LONDON : WILLIAM HEINEMANN 
NEW YORK : G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS 

MCMXXVI 



i2 

1. 2 

op. 3 



Printed in &rea( Britain. 



48846 



CONTEXTS 



PAQK 

BOOK VII 3 

BOOK VIII 125 

BOOK IX 199 

BOOK X 297 

BOOK XI 389 

BOOK XII 475 

INDEX 571 



\ 



LAWS 



NOMOI 



TA TOY AIAAOrOY DPOSfinA 

A0HNAIO2 HEN02, KAEINIA2 KPH2, 
MEriAAOS AAKEAA1M0NI02 



788 A0. Tevo/xevcov Be iraihoiv appevwv kuI Orfkuwv 
Tpo(f>T)V flip TTov Kol TTaiSeiav TO fxera ravra 
Xeyeiv opdorar av ^ 'yl'yvoiO^ rj/xlv, fjv elvai fxev 
apprjTOv iravTox; aSvvarov, Xeyo/xevr) Sk SiSaxfj 
rivl Kal vovOerijaei fidWov rj v6/j,oi<i sIkvV av 
r)pZv (paivoiTO. IBla jap Kal Kar oIklu^ iroWa 
Kal afiiKpa Kal ovk €K(f)avr] irdai yiyvofieva 
paBico^ VTTO T^9 eKaarcov Xvinj'i re Kal rjBovrj^; 

B Kal i7n6vfj,ia<;, erepa irapa Ta<i tov vofModerov 
^u/u,^ovXa<i Trapayevofieva iravroBaTra Kal ov'^ 
onoia dXkrj\oi,<i aTrepyd^oir^ av to, tmv ttoXitcov 
•tjOr]' Tovro Be kukov rai<; TroXeai. Kal yap Bia 
a/xiKporrfTa avTtov Kal irvKvoTrjTa e7n^7]/jLia ri- 
Oevra iroieiv v6/j,ov<; aTrpeTre? dp.a Kal da^rjp-ov. 
BiacfyOetpei Be Kal rov<; ypacpf] redevra^ v6fiov<;, 
ev T0t9 (TfiiKpoi<; Kal TrvKvoit i6icr0evT(ov tcou 

C dvdpcoiroyv irapavofxetv Sore diropia fiev irepl 
avrd vofiodeTelv, aiyav Be dBvvarov. d Be Xeym, 

^ 6p06Tar' iv Ast : opdiraTa MSS. 



LAWS 

[or on legislation, political] 

CHARACTERS 

Ax Athexiax Stranger, Clinias op Crete, 
Megillcs or Lacedaemon 

BOOK VII 

ath. Now that our children, of both sexes, are 
born, our proper course will be to deal in the next 
place with their nurture and education. This is a 
subject which it is wholly impossible to pass over; 
but obviously it can be treated more suitably by way 
of precept and exhortation than by legislation. For 
in the private life of the family many trivial things 
are apt to be done which escape general notice, — 
things which are the result of individual feelings of 
pain, pleasure, or desire, and which contravene the 
instructions of the lawgiver ; and these will produce 
in the citizens a multiplicity of contradictor}' ten- 
dencies. This is bad for a State. For while, on the 
one hand, it is improper and undignified to impose 
penalties on these practices by law, because of their 
triviality and the frequency of their occurrence, on 
the other hand, it detracts from the authority of the 
law which stands written when men grow used to 
breaking the law in trivial matters repeatedly. 
Hence, while it is impossible to pass over these 
practices in silence, it is difficult to legislate con- 
cerning them. The practices I refer to I will try to 

3 
b2 



PLATO 

hrfkwaai Treipareov olov Sety/jLara i^eveyKovTa 
et? ^co9* vvv yap \€yo/jLevoi'i eoiKe Kara ti (tk6to<;. 

KA. ^AXrjdicrrara \6yei<;. 

A0. OvKovv on /lep crco/jbara /cal ■x^u^a? r^v 
ye bpdrjv iravTW^; hel Tpo(f>r}v (^aiveaOai 8vpap,evrjv 
ft)9 KoXKiara Kal apiara i^epyd^€cr6ai, tovto p.lv 
bp6(a<i eiprjrai ttov. 

KA. Tt fi^v ; 
D A0. XtofJ'ara 8e KoXKiaTa, olfiai, to ye dirXova-- 
rarov, eo? opOorara Set pecov ovroov evdv<i (pveadai 
TOiv TralScov. 

KA. Haw fxev ovv. 

A0. Tt he ; roBe ouk evvoovp^v, to? 17 TrpcoTij 
^Xdcrrrj iravTo^ ^coov ttoXv pLeyiarrj Kal TrXeicTTr] 
(j)V€Tai, Mare Kal epiv 7roWol<; 'nape(T')(r)Ke firj 
yiyveadai rd y dvOpcaviva fijjKrj StirXdaia aTTO 
irevre eroiv ev TOt? \onroi<i ecKoaiv ereaiv 
av^avofxeva ; 

KA. WXrjdrj. 

A0. Tt ovv ; iroWrj av^rj orav eiripper] ttovcov 
789 X&>/3t9 TToWoov Kal a-v/xfierpcov, ovk lafiev oti 
/xvpia KaKa ev Tot9 crco/j,aaLV d'TToreXet ; 

KA. Hdvv ye. 

A0. OvKovv Tore BeiTai irXelaTcov ttovoov, orav 
7] TrXeiarrj Tpo<pr} Trpoayiyvrjrai T0i<i crcofiacnv. 

KA. Tt BrjTa, Si ^eve ; rj rot? dpTi yeyovoai 
Kol veooTdroi<i irovovi TrXetaTOv; Trpocrrd^ofxev ; 

A0. OvSafjL(o<i ye, a\X' en Kal irpoTepov toi? 
evT09 rSiv avTMV fxrjrepwv Tpe(f)o/j,evoi<i. 

KA. Ilco9 Xeyea, w Xuxne ; rj to 49 Kvovp.evoia-1 
<}>pd^ei^ ; 

1 643Dflf. 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

make clear by bringing some specimens, as it were, 
to the light ; for at present my words rather resemble 
a "dark speech." 

cuN. That is quite true. 

ATH. When we said ^ that right nurture must be 
manifestly capable of making both bodies and souls 
in all respects as beautiful and good as possible, we 
spoke, I presume, truly ? 

CUN. Certainly we did. 

ATH. And I suppose that (to take the simplest 
point) the most beautiful bodies must grow up from 
earliest infancy as straight as possible. 

CLIN. Most certainly. 

ATH. Well then, do we not observe that in every 
living creature the first shoot makes by far the 
largest and longest growth ; so that many people 
stoutly maintain that in point of height men grow 
more in the first five years of life than in the next 
twenty ? 

CUN. That is true. 

ATH. But we know, don't we, that when growth 
occurs rapidly, without plenty of suitable exercise, 
it produces in the body countless evils .^ 

CUN. Certainly. 

ATH. And when bodies receive most food, then 
they require most exercise ? 

CUN. What is that. Stranger .' Are we to pre- 
scribe most exercise for new-bom babes and tiny 
infants .'' 

ATH. Nay, even earlier than that, — we shall pre- 
scribe it for those nourished inside the bodies of 
their mothers. 

CUN. What do you mean, my dear sir? Is it 
unborn babes you are talking of.' 



PLATO 

B A0. Nat. Oavfiaarov S' ovhev eariv dyvoelv 
vfia<i rrjv rSiv rrjXtKOVTCov jVfivaaTiKrjv, fjv ^ov- 
XoifiTjv av vfiiv, Kaiirep arorrov ovaav, hrfKoiaai. 
KA. Tldvv fiev ovv. 

A&. "EcTTt Toivvv Trap rjfuv fidWov to tolovtov 
Kuravoelv Bid to rd^ 7raiBid<; avTodi fiet^ovoyi 
Tivd(i irai^eLv ■^ Bel. Tpe(f)0vcn ydp Brj Trap rjplv 
ov pbovov TratSe? dWd Kal irpecr^vrepoi Tive^ 
opi'iOcov Opep-fxara, iirl Td<i p^d'X^a'i Ta? tt/so? 
dWrfKa dcrKOvvr€<; rd TOiavTa TOiv O^ipiayv. 

C iroWov Brj Beovcriv rjyela-dai, tov<; irovovi avTol<i 
elvai TOU? TT/jo? dWrjXa perpiov^i, iv ot? avrd 
dvaKivovcri <yup,vd^ovT€<;- irpo^ ydp TOUTOt? Xa- 
^6vT€<; VTTo p,dXrj<; €KacrTO<;, Tov<i p.€v eXdj7ova<i 
€t9 Td<i ')(elpa^, p^ei^ovi S' vtto ttjv dyKaXrjv cVto?, 
TTOpevovTai irepiTraTOvvre^ tnaBiovi irap^TroXXov^ 
€V€Ka Trj<; ev€^La<; ou ri tt}? t&v avTwv crcop-aTtov, 
dXXd TTjf; TovTcov twv 6pep,pdTU>v. koI to ye 
Tocrovrov BrjXovcri rw Bvvapkvw KurapaOelv, on 
rd awpbara iravra vtto twv creicrp,o)v re kuI 

D KLvrjcrewv Kivovpceva aKoira ovivaTai iravroiv oaa 
re VTTO eavTcov rj koX iv alcopaa rj xal Kara 
ddXarrav rj Kal e'^' ittttcov 6)(^ovp,epa ^ Kal utt' 
dXXcov OTTOKTOvv Br) (f)epop,€va>v rwv awpbaroav 
Kivelrai, Kal Bid ravra rd<; rwv alrcov rpo(f)d^ 
Kal TTorcov KaraKparovvra vyieiav Kal KaXXo'i Kal 
rrjv dXXtjv p(op,r]v r^plv Bvvard icrri irapaBiBovai. 
rl OVV av (f)aip€V e^ovrayv ovrco rovrcov to pera 
rovro rjp,d<i Beiv iroieiv ; ^ovXeaOe apa yeXwri 

E <f)pd^o)p,ev, riOevre<i v6piov<i rrjv pev Kvovcrav irepi- 
irarelv, to yevopuevov Be irXdrreiv re olov Krjpivov, 
la)9 vypbv, KciX p^expi Bvoiv erolv airapyavav ; Kal 
6 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

ATH. It is. Still it is by no means suq>rising 
that you know nothing of this pre-natal gymnastic ; 
but, strange though it is, I should like to explain it 
to you. 

CLIN, By all means do so. 

ATH, In our country it is easier to "understand a 
practice of this kind, because there are people there 
who carry their sports to excess. At Athens we find 
not only boys but sometimes old men rearing birds 
and training such creatures to fight one another. 
But they are far from thinking that the training 
they give them by exciting their pugnacity provides 
sufficient exercise ; in addition to this, each man 
takes up his bird and keeps it tucked away in his 
fist, if it is small, or under his arm, if it is large, 
and in this way they walk many a long mile in 
order to improve the condition, not of their own 
bodies, but of these creatures. Thus clearly do they 
show to any observant person that all bodies benefit, 
as by a tonic, when they are moved by any kind of 
shaking or motion, whether they are moved by their 
own action — as in a swing or in a rowing-boat — or 
are carried along on horseback or by any other 
rapidly moving bodies ; and that this is the reason 
why bodies can deal successfully with their supplies 
of meat and drink and provide us with health and 
beauty, and strength as well. This being the state 
of the case, what does it behove us to do in the 
future } Shall we risk ridicule, and lay down a 
law that the pregnant woman shall walk, and that 
the child, while still soft, shall be moulded like wax, 
and be kept in swaddling clothes till it is two years 

* oxovfitva Ast : oxovfidruv MSS. 



PLATO 

Sij Koi TO? Tpoif)ov'i dvayKa^cofiev vofia ^7j/jLiovvre<; 
ra Traihia rj tt/jo? aypov<i rj npk Upa rj irpo^ 
OLKCLOvj det TTT] (f)€peiv, fiexpt-rrep dv Uavm 
laraaOai bvvard yiyvr^rai,, xal t6t€ SievXa^ov- 
ixeva<i hi viwv ovtcov /mtJ -rrrj /Sia eirepeiSo/jLevcop 
aTp€(f}7]Tai TO. KcbXa eTrnrovelv (pepovaaf, ew? dp 
Tpi€T€<; diroTeXeadfi to yevofievov ; ek Bvvafiiv Se 
790 la-xvpd^ avrd^ dvac xpecov [kuI firj fxlav] ; i eVt U 
TOVTOi<; Udajoi^, dv p.r) jLyvrjrai, ^yjfiLav rok p,t] 
iroiovai, ypdjiwpev; rj voXkov ye Sec ; to yap 
dpn pTjdev yiyyoLT dv irokv koi d^Oovov. 
KA. To irolov ; 

A0. ^ To yeXcora dv iroXi/v 6(f>\eiv ^fid<i tt/jo? t&) 
fxrj edeXeiv dv ireideadai yvvaiKeld re koI hovXeia 
ridrj rpo(f)a>v. 

KA. 'AWa TLvo<; Srj x^piv e<papev avrd telv 
pTjOr]vai ; 

A0.^ TovSe- rdrwv hea-noTwv re koI eXevOepwv 
B ev TakiroXea-iv tjOtj rax dv axovaavTa eh avv- 
voiav d(f)UoiT dv ttjv cpOrjv, oti xa)/)t9 t^9 lBta<; 
oioiKijaea)^ evTat<; iroXeaiv opdrjq yiyvopevrjf; pdrrjv 
dv rd KOLvd tl^ oiocto e^eiv rivd ^e^aioTqra 
decreto<; v6p,(ov, Kal ravra ivvocov auTO? v6poi<i dv 
Tot9 vvp prjdelai %^o5to, kuI XP(op,evo<; ev ttjv tc 
oiKiav Kal iroXiv dpa ttjv avjov Bwckcov evSac- 
p,ovol. 

KA. Kal /iaX' €lK6T(0(i €ipr)Ka<i. 

AO. Toiyapovv /nijTro) Xy^^wpev tt}? ToiavTrj<; 
vopode<T{a<i, TTplv dv Kal Ta irepl Ta? '^uxd<; twv 

^ [koJ /xi) ^/a>'] bracketed by W.-M Ollendorff. 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

old ? And shall we also compel the nurses by legal 
penalties to keep carrying the children somehow, 
either to the fields or to the temples or to their 
relatives, all the time until they are able to stand 
upright ; and after that, still to persevere in carrying 
them until they are three years old, as a precaution 
against the danger of distorting their legs by over- 
pressure while they are still young? And that the 
nurses shall be as strong as possible ? And shall we 
impose a written penalty for every failure to carry 
out these injunctions? Such a course is quite out 
of the question ; for it would lead to a super- 
abundance of that consequence which we mentioned 
a moment ago. 

CLIN. What was that ? 

ATH. The consequence of our incurring ridicule 
in abundance, in addition to meeting with a blank 
refusal to obey on the part of the nurses, with their 
womanish and servile minds. 

CLIN. What reason, then, had we for saying that 
these rules ought to be stated ? 

ATH. The reason was this : the minds of the 
masters and of the freemen in the States may 
perhaps listen, and so come to the right conclusion 
that, unless private affairs in a State are rightly 
managed, it is vain to suppose that any stable code 
of laws can exist for public affairs ; and when he 
perceives this, the individual citizen may of himself 
adopt as laws the rules we have now stated, and, by 
so doing and thus ordering aright both his household 
and his State, may achieve happiness. 

CLIN. Such a result seems quite probable. 

ATH. Consequently we must not desist from this 
kind of legislation until we have described in detail 



PLATO 

C Trdvv vecov TraiSwv eTnTrjSevfxara a.7roBa>/jiev Kara 
TOP avTov jpoTTOv ovTTep ijp'yfieda tmv irepl ra 
aayfiaTa fivOwv Xex^^vrayv Biairepaipeiv. 

KA. Tldvv fiev ovv 6p6oi'^. 

A©. Ad^cofiev Toivvv tovto olov (noi')(elov eir 
ap,<^6r€pa, arw/xaTo^i re koX y}rvx^r]<; rcov irdvv vecov 
rrjv ridrjvqaLV Kol Kivrjaiv yiyvofiivrjv on fxdXiara 
Bia 7rdar)<i vvkto^; re koL rj/xepw;, to? eaTt ^vp,(f)opo<; 
diraat fiev, ovx ^fctara Be rot? on vecoTaTOtai, kuI 
D oiKelv, el Svvarov rjv, olov del Tr\eovTa<;' vvv 8' tw? 
iyr^VTaja TOVTOV Troietv Set nepl tu vecyevr/ 
iraihoav dpefx/xara. TeK/j,alpea6ai 8e xph ^<*^ ^"^^ 
T(ov8e 0)9 e^ efnreipia<i avro elXrj^aai koI eyvdtKa- 
aiv ov ')(pi]cnp,ov a'l re Tpo(f)ot tmv cr/xiKptov koX al 
Trepl TO, Tcov Kopv^dvTCOv Idfiara TeXovcrar rjvLKa 
yap av ttov ^ov\7]6(ocn KaraKoifii^eiv to, Bvcrvir- 
vovvra tcov TraiBicov al /iT/re/je?, ou;^ rjcrvx^iav 
avroU 7rpoa(f)epovaiv dXXd Tovvavriov Kivrjcnv, ev 
rat? dyKdXai'i del aeiovaac, Kal ov aiyrjv dXXd 
E TLva fieXmSiav, Kal are^^vw? olov KaTavXovac tcov 
TracSlcov, Kadairepel ^ tmv eK<^p6va)v BaKvelcov , 
Idcrec ^ TavTrj ttj tj}? Ktvr]a€Q)<i dfia ')(ppeLa Kal 
fjLovarj 'xpdtfievai. 

KA. Tt9 ovv alTia tovtcov, & ^eve, fidXiar' ead^ 
rjp,iv ; 

A0. Ov irdvv '^aXeTTT] yiyvataKdV, 

KA. nw9 Br] ; 

A0. Aeifj,aiv€iv ecrn irov raOr' d/xcfyoTcpa rd 



^ Ka6airfpe\ : KaOdwep r) MSS. ; KaOdirep at Aldus, Zur. 
' BoKX*'*'') idffi : /3aKX*'*'' idfffis MSS. iPaKXf'^", Idffti 
England). 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

the treatment suited for the souls of young children 
in the same manner as we commenced our advice 
regarding their bodies. 

CLix. You are quite right. 

ATH. Let us take this, then, as a fundamental 
assumption in both cases, — that for both body and 
soul of the very young a process of nursing and 
moving, that is as continuous as possible both by 
day and by night, is in all cases salutary, and 
especially in the case of the youngest : it is like 
having them always rocked — if that were possible — 
on the sea. As it is, with new-born infants one 
should reproduce this condition as nearly as possible. 
Further evidence of this may be seen in the fact 
that this course is adopted and its usefulness 
recognized both by those who nurse small children 
and by those who administer remedies in cases of 
Corybantism.^ Thus when mothers have children 
suffering from sleeplessness, and want to lull them 
to rest, the treatment they apply is to give them, 
not quiet, but motion, for they rock them constantly 
in their arms ; and instead of silence, they use a 
kind of crooning noise ; and thus they literally cast 
a spell upon the children (like the victims of Bacchic 
frenzy) by employing the combined movements of 
dance and song as a remedy. 

CLIX. And what. Stranger, are we to suppose is 
the main cause of this? 

ATH. It is easy enough to see. 

CLIN. How so ? 

ATH. Both these affections are forms of fright ; 

* " Corybantism " is a technical term for a state of morbid 
mental excitement (cp. " tarantism ") derived from "Corj-- 
bantes," the name given to the frenzied worshippers of 
Bacchus. 



PLATO 

irddtj, Koi ecTTi heifjuira hi- e^iv ^avXrjv t^? 
'^v')(ri<i Tivd. OTav ovv e^aiOev rt? irpoa^eprf rol<i 
791 ToiovTOC<i irdOecn aeiafiov, rj tmv e^codev Kparel 
Kivrjcn<i 7rpo(T(f)€po/jL€vri rrjv evTO<i (po^epav ovcrav 
Kal fiaviKrjv KLvrjcriv, Kparrjcraaa hk yaXrjvrjv 
rjav^iav re iv rfj '^v')(r] (^aiverai aTrepyaaa/Jievr] 
Tfj<; irepl ra t^? Kaphia^ ')(^aKe'7rrj<i 'yevop,evrj<i 
eKacnwv 7rr]8i](T€(o<i, TravTaTracnv d'yairrjrov tc 
TOv<i fiev vTTvov 'Xay^dveiv iroiel, tov<; 8' iyprjjo- 
pora? op)(pvjxevov<i re kol avXovfievov^ fxera dewv, 
B 0^9 av KuWiepovvre^ CKaarot dvcoai, KareLpydcraro 
avrX fiaviKMV rjfuv Siadiaemv e'^et? e/x(f)pova<; e^eti'. 
Kal raina, &)9 hia ^pa')(€Q)v ye ovtox; elireiv, 
TTidavov \6yov e%€f rivd. 

KA. Tldvv fiev ovv. 

A0. Et Se ye ovtco roiavrrjv riva 8vva/xiv e;^et 
ravra, ivvoelv xph ^oSe Trap' avTOi<;, co? aTracra 
i^u^t; Beifxaat ^vvovaa e« vewv jxaWov av hia 
(f>60cov edi^oLTO yiyvecrdai. tovto 8e ttov 7ra? av 
(paLt] Bei\La<; daKrjaiv, aX.V ovk dvSpia^ ytyveadai. 

KA. nft)9 yap ov ; 
C A0. To Be ye evavriov avSpiw; av (f)aip,€v €k 
vewv ev6v<i €Trcrr]8evfia elvai, to' viKav ra irpoa- 
TTLTTTOvO^ TjfMiv Sel/jLard re Kal <f)0^ov<;. 

KA. ^Op6a>^. 

A0. '^FjV Bt] Kal TOVTO €i9 '^I'X'}"? fiopiov dpeTTj^, 
Trjv Twv '7ravTe\co<; TraiBcov yvfxvacrTiKrjv ev Tal<i 
Kivrjaecn, fxeya rjp,tv ypcb/jbev ^v/ju^dWecrdai- 

KA. Tldvv fiev ovv. 

A0. Kat fxrjv TO ye fMrj BvctkoXov ev '^v^'P '^^^ 
TO BvaKoXov ov (T/xiKpbv fxopiov evyjfV^t'Ci'i i(<^>' 
KaKoyjrvxi'Ci'^ eKaTepov yiyvofxevov yiyvoir av. 

12 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

and frights are due to a poor condition of soul. So 
"whenever one applies an external shaking to affections 
of this kind, the external motion thus applied over- 
powers the internal motion of fear and frenzy, and 
by thus overpowering it, it brings about a manifest 
calm in the soul and a cessation of the grievous 
palpitation of the heart which had existed in each 
case. Thus it produces very satisfactory results. 
The children it puts to sleep ; the Bacchants, who 
are awake, it brings into a sound state of mind 
instead of a frenzied condition, by means of dancing 
and playing, with the help of whatsoever gods they 
chance to be worshipping with sacrifice. This is — to 
put it shortly — quite a plausible account of the matter. 

CLIN. Most plausible. 

ATH. Seeing, then, that these causes produce the 
effects described, in the case of the people mentioned 
one should observe this point, — that every soul that 
is subjected to fright from youth will be specially 
liable to become timid : and this, as all would aver, 
is not to practise courage, but cowardice. 

CLIN. Of course it is. 

ATH. The opposite course, of practising courage 
from youth up, consists, we shall say, in the con- 
quering of the frights and fears that assail us. 

CLIN. That is true. 

ATH. Let us say, then, that this factor — namely, 
the exercise of quite young children by the various 
motions — contributes greatly towards developing 
one part of the soul's virtue. 

CLIN. Certainly. 

ATH. Moreover, cheerfulness of soul and its 
opposite will constitute no small part of stout- 
heartedness and faintheartedness. 

»3 



PLATO 

KA. n&>9 8' ou ; 
D A0. TiW ovv av rpoTTov evOixi ^/j,(f)voiO' rjfilv 
OTTorepov ^ovXr]$el/j,€V t5> veoyevel ; (f)pd^€iv 8rf 
Treipareov oiroi'i Ti<i koI Kad^ oaov evTropec tovtoov. 

KA. na)9 <yap ov ; 

A0. Aeyw St) to 76 Trap rjpXv Soy/xa, eo? ^ fiev 
Tpv(f)r] BvcTKoXa Kol axpa-x^oXa koI (r(f)68pa dirb 
afiiKpcov Kivovfxeva rd twv vewv rjdri drrepyd^eTai, 
TO Bk TOVTCOv ivavriov, rj re acfioSpd koI dypia 
BovXcoai<;, raireLvov^ koI dvekevd epov<; koL piaav- 
dpooTTOVi iroioOaa dveTrcTijSeiovi ^vvoLkov^ diro- 
Tekel. 
E KA. IIco? ovv 8t) ')(pr} rd pijirco (f)a)vf]<i ^vvtepra 
fMrjSe TTaihela'i t7]<; dWi]<; Sward yeveadai ttco 
Tp€(p€iv rrjv tt6\lv diraaav ; 

A0. 'nSe TTCt)?' (^diyyeadai ttov fierd ^or]<i 
evOv<i Trdv elooOe to yevvdopevov, Kal ov)(^ rjKiara ro 
rcov dvdpcoTrcov yevo<i' Kal St) Kal rat KXaUiv tt/jo? 
"^V ^ofj p.dWov rcov dWcov avve')(erai. 

KA. Tidvv pev ovv. 

A0. OvKovv al rpo<f)ol aKcrrovcrai rivo<i incdv- 
puei rovroi<; avTOi<i iv rfj irpoacjiopa rcKpaipovrar 
792 ov pev yap dv 7rpoa<f)€pop€vov aiyd, Ka\<t)<; ol'ovrai 
'7rpoa(f)€p€iv, ov S' dv KXair) Kal /3oa, ov Ka\a)<;. 
roi<i St) iraihioi^ ro hifkwpa wv epa Kal piael 
KXavpoval Kal ^oai, arjpeia ovSap,(o<; evrv^V- 
can. Be 6 ^poi^o? ovro<; rpiMV ovk eXdrrcov eroiv, 
p,6piov ov apiKpov rov ^iov hiayayelv ')(^elpov rj pi] 
X^'t'pov. , ^ , 

KA. 'OpO(ii)<; Xeyei<i. 



14 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

CLIN. Of course. 

ATH. What way can we find, then, for implanting 
at once in the new-born child whichever of these 
qualities we desire ? We must endeavour to indicate 
how and to what extent we have them at our 
command. 

CLIN. By all means. 

ATH. The doctrine held amongst us, I may ex- 
plain, is this, — that whereas luxurious living renders 
the disposition of the young morose and irascible 
and too easily moved by trifles, its opposite (which 
is uttermost and cruel enslavement) makes them 
lowly and mean-spirited and misanthropic, and thus 
unfit to associate with others. 

CLIN. In what way, then, should the State at 
large rear up infants that are still incapable of under- 
standing speech or receiving other kinds of education.? 

ATH. In this way : it is usual for every creature | 
that is born — and the human child as much as any — ■ 
to utter at once a loud outcry ; and, what is more, 
the child is the most liable of them all to be afflicted 
with tears as well as outcries. 

CLIN. Quite true. 

ATH. When nurses are trying to discover wliat a 
baby wants, they judge by these very same signs in 
offering it things. If it remains silent when the 
thing is offered, they conclude that it is the right 
thing, but the wrong thing if it Meeps and cries out. 
Thus infants indicate what they like by means of 
weepings and outcries— truly no happy signals I — and 
this period of infancy lasts not less than three years, 
which is no small fraction of one's time to spend ill 
or well. 

CLIN. You are right. 

15 



PLATO 

A0. 'O Br) BvaKoXo<i ov8afi(o<; re T\.€(t}<; ap ov 
B hoKel (T(f>a)v dprjvcoBrjf; re elvai koI oZvpixSiv co? 
eVt TO TToXv irkrjpri'i fiaXXov rj %peft)i^ ian rov 
dyaOov ; 

KA. 'E/iol 701)1/ BoK€l. 

A@. Tt ovv ; et Ti9 TO, rpi errj TreipSro irdaav 
jMTj^avrjv- 7rpo(T(f)€pa)P otto)? to rpe(f)6/jLepov rj/MV a)9 
oXiyiCTTr) irpoaxprjaeTai, dX'yr]B6vi Kal <f)6^oi<i Kol 
XvTTT) Trday Kara Bvvafiiv, dp* ovk olofieOa evdv/xov 
fidXXov T€ Kal XXewv <dv> ^ drrrepyd^eadai rrjvi- 
Kavra rijv "^vxr^v rov Tp€(f)Ofj,evov ; 

KA. ArjXov Bt], Kot fidXio-rd 7' dv, w ^eve, ei Tt 9 
C iroXXd^i r)Bovd<i avrw TrapacKevd^oi. 

A0. Tout' ovkW dv iyo) KXeivia ^ ^vvukoXov- 
Orjo-aijjL dv, o) Oavfxdcrie. eari yap ovv tj/jllv 1) 
roiavrrj Trpd^if BiacpOopd fxeyta-TT) iraa-oiv ev 
^PXV y^P 'y^'yveraL eKaaroTe Tpo(pi]<;. opSipiev Be 
eX Ti Xeyofjiev. 

KA. Aiye ri <^rj<i, 

A0. Ov a-piKpov Tripi vvv elvai vwv rov Xoyov. 
opa Be. Kal av, ^vveTTiKpcve re r)p,d<;. Si Me7tA,X.6. o 
pi,ev yap epo<i Br] X.0709 ovd' r]Bovd<; (f)7]ai Belv 
BiQ)K€iv rov opOov ^iov ovr av to rrapdirav (fievyeiv 
D Ta9 Xv7ra<i, dXX' avro davd^eadai to p^eaov, vvv 
Br] TrpoaeiTTOV o)? iXecov 6vopdaa<;, rjv Br] Biddeaiv 
Kal Oeov Kara riva pavreia<i cp'^/xrjv euo-T0%&)9 
irdvre'i irpoaayopevopuev. ravrr]v rr]V e^iv Bicokciv 
(f>r]p,l Beiv r]pS)V Kal rov p.e\Xovra eaecrdat, delov 
fxrjr ovv avrov irpoirert] irpo'i rd<; 'rjBovdf; yiyvofie- 
vov oX&)9, ft)9 ouS' e/CT09 Xvrroiv ecropevov, p,rjr€ 



1 <&!/> added by H. Richards, England. 
" KMivia MSS. : YiXavla, Ast, Zur. 



16 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

ATH. When a man is peevish and not cheerful at 
all, do you not regard him as a doleful person and 
more full, as a rule, of complaints than a good man 
ought to be ? 

CLIN. 1 certainly regard him as such. 

ATH. Well then, suppose one should try to secure 
by every available means that our nursling should 
experience the least possible amount of grief or fear or 
pain of any kind, may we not believe that by this 
means the soul of the nursling would be rendered 
more bright and cheerful ? 

CLIN. Plainly it would. Stranger ; and most of all 
if one should provide him with many pleasures. 

ATH. There, my good sir, I must part company 
with Clinias. For in our eyes such a proceeding is 
the worst possible fonu of corruption, for it occurs in 
every instance at the very beginning of the child's 
nurture."^ But let us consider whether I am right. 

CLIN. Explain your view. 

ATH. I believe that the issue before us is one of 
extreme importance. You also, Megillus, consider 
the matter, I pray, and lend us the aid of your 
judgment. What I maintain is this : that the right 
life ought neither to pursue pleasures nor to shun 
pains entirely ; but it ought to embrace that middle 
state of cheerfulness (as I termed it a moment ago), 
which — as we all rightly suppose, on the strength 
of an inspired utterance — is the very condition of 
God himself And I maintain that whosoever of us 
would be godlike must pursue this state of soul, 
neither becoming himself prone at all to pleasures, 
even as he will not be devoid of pain, not allowing 

1 Cp. Rep. 377 B. 

VOL. 11. C 



PLATO 

aWov, yepovra rj viov, edv Trda-^eiv ravrov 
rovO' r'jfuv, appeva rj OrfKvv, airdvTwv Se ^Kiara 
E €i9 hvvajxLv TOP dpTLQx; veoyevi]' Kvpicorarov jap 
ovv €fj,(f)veTai iraai rore to ttov tjOo^ hia edo<i. en 
8' eytoy, el firj /xeXkoLfit Bo^eiv irai^eiv, (paitjv av 
Beiv Kal Ta<i (pepov(7a<i iv jaarpl Traacov roiv 
yvvaiKoov fidXiaTa Oepaireveiv eKelvov top iviavrov, 
OTTCi)? /J.7]T€ r)Bopai<i Tial TroWat^ a/u.a Kal fidpyoi<; 
•Trpoa-^pjja-eTai r) Kvouaa fiijTe av Xvirai^, to Be 
iXecov Kal evfievh irpdov re rifitocra Bca^i](T€t rov 
Tore 'xpovov. 

KA. OvBev Bet ere, a) ^eve, MeyiXXov dveptorav 

793 TTorepo^ rjfiwv opdorepov eiprjKev iyo) yap auTO? 

crot avyy^wpSi rov \v7rr]<i re Kal TjBovr]<; aKpdrov 

^iov (pevyeiv Becv irdvra';, fxecrov Be riva re/xveip 

dei. KaXco<i rolvvv eiprjKd^ re Kal dKr]Koa<; dfia. 

A©. Ma\a fiev ovv 6p6dc^, Si KXeivia. roBe 
roLvvv errl rovroi<i rpel<i 6vre<i BiavorjOfapLev. 

KA. To TTolov ; 

A0. "Ort, ravr earl irdvra, oaa vvv Bie^ep- 
Xo/J-eOa, rd KaXovfieva vtto roiv ttoXXmv dypac^a 
vofxi/xa' Kal ov<; irarpiovi v6pov<; eiTovofid^ovaiv, 
B ovK dXXa earlv rj rd roiavra ^v/xTravra. koI en 
ye 6 vvv Br} Xoya rjulv e'jn')(y6ei^, w? ovre vofiov^ 
Bet irpoaayopeveiv avrd ovre apprjra edv, elprjrai 
KaXco^' Beap,ol yap ourot Trdarj^; elal 7roXireta<i, 
fiera^v irdvroov 6vre<i rcov iv ypdfipaai redevrwv 
re Kal Keifjtevoov Kal roiv en redrjcrofievoiv, dre-)(yo)<i 



» Cp. Ar. Elh. N. 1103^17: ^ Se Tjflj/ci? (dperl)) i^ fdovs irtpi- 
yiperai, idtv Kal roHvo/xa (axv^ fUKphv 7rapfyK\iyov airh rov 

i8 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

any other person — old or young, man or woman — 
to be in this condition and least of all, so far as 
possible, the new-born babe. For because of the 
force of habit, it is in infancy that the whole 
character is most effectually determined.^ I should 
assert further — were it not that it would be taken as 
a jest — that women with child, above all others, 
should be cared for during their years of pregnancy, 
lest any of them should indulge in repeated and 
intense pleasures or pains, instead of cultivating, .j^ 
during the whole of that period, a cheerful, bright / 
and calm demeanour. 

cLix. There is no need for you. Stranger, to ask 
Megillus which of us two has made the truer state- 
ment. For I myself grant you that all men ought 
to shun the life of unmixed pain and pleasure, and 
follow always a middle path. So all is well both 
with your statement and with my reply. 

ATH. You are perfectly right, Clinias. So then 
let the three of us together consider this next point. 

CLIX. What is that ? 

ATH. That all the regulations which we are now 
expounding are what are commonly termed *• un- 
written laws." And these as a whole are just the 
same as what men call " ancestral customs," More- 
over, the view which was recently ^ impressed upon 
us, that one should neither speak of these as "laws " 
nor yet leave them without mention, was a right 
view. For it is these that act as bonds in every 
constitution, forming a link between all its laws (both 
those already enacted in writing and those still to be 

ffloui ("ethical virtue is the result of habit, and its name 
'ethical' is also derived from 'ethos' (habit)"). 
« 788 B f. 



c2 



19 



PLATO 

olov irdrpia Koi iravTairaaiv ap^ala vofxifia, a 
Ka\'j)<i fxei/ Tedevra kuI idiaOevra irdar) acoTrjpia 
TrepiKaXvyjravTa e^ec tov<; t6t€ <ypa(f)ivTa<i v6pbov<;, 
C av S' eKTo<i ToO KoXov ^aivrj 'ir\rj/xp,€\(0';, olov 
reKTovayv ev oiKoBofi^fiacriv ipeia-ixara €k pecrov 
VTToppeovra, avpirLTrreiv eh tuvtov -rroiel to, 
^vfiTravra Keiadai re ciXka vcp'' krepav, avrci 
re Kal rd KaXco<; varepov irroLKohopiidevTa, jwv 
ap'^aidiv VTTOTreaovTcov. a Sr] Scavoovpevovi 
i)pd<i, 0) KXeivia, (xoc Set rtjv ttoXiv Kaivrjv 
ovaav irdvT)] ^vvSelv, pijre p,e'ya pyjre (Tp,iK- 
D pov 7rapaXnr6vTa<; et? hvvap,iv oaa v6p,ov<i rj 
eOrj ri'i rj eVfTi/Seu/xara KaXel' irdaL yap roi<i 
ToiovTOi<i 7roX,f9 ^vvSeiTai, dvev 8e dWijXayv 
exdrepa tovtcov ov/c can povipa, <wo"T6 ov ^(^prj 
davpd^eiv idv i)fj,iv iroXXd dp,a Kal aptKpd 80- 
Kovvra eJvat v6pip,a 7) koX edlapara iirippeovja 
fxaKpOTepovi Tvoij] Toi/f vopov^. 

KA. 'AW' 6pdod<i Gv T6 Xeyei^ T)pei<i re ovrco 
BiavorjaopeOa. 

A0. Et9 pev roLvvv rrjv tov rpi errj jeyovoro'i 
E rfXiKiav, Kopov koI Koprj^, raura €i Tf? dKpi^Si<; 
diTO'TeXol Kal p,T] 7rapepyoo<i rot? elpiipevoi.'i 
j^puiTO, ov (Tp,iKpd et'9 dx^eXeiav ylyvoiT av roi? 
vewaTl rp€(pop,evot<;' t pier el Se 6j; Kal rerpaerel 
Kal irevraerel Kal en e^erel rjOei i/^fX^? iratBitov 
Beov dv eh], rpv(f)r]({ S' ■^Srj rrapaXvreov KoXd- 
^ovra pr) dripai<i, dXX! oirep inl rcov BovXcov 
y iXeyopev, ro p,r] p,e6' vj3pea)<i KoXd^ovra<i opyrjv 
epiroielv Belv roi<i KoXaadelai, pTjS* aKoXdarov; 
794 eoivra<i rpv(f)i)v, ravrov Bpaareov rovro ye Kal 

1 Cp. 777 A flf. 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

enacted), exactly like ancestral customs of great 
antiquity, which, if well established and practised, 
serve to wrap up securely the laws already written, 
whereas if they perversely go aside from the right 
way. like builders' props that collapse under the 
middle of a house, they bring everything else 
tumbling down along with them, one thing buried 
under another, first the props themselves and then 
the fair superstructure, once the ancient supports 
have fallen down. Bearing this in mind, Clinias, we 
must clamp together this State of yours, which is a 
new one, by every possible means, omitting nothing 
great or small in the way of laws, customs and 
institutions ; for it is by all such means that a State 
is clamped together, and neither kind of law is 
permanent without the other. Consequently, we 
need not be surprised if the influx of a number of 
apparently trivial customs or usages should make our 
laws rather long. 

CLIN. What you say is quite true, and we will 
bear it in mind. 

ATH. If one could carry out these regulations 
methodically, and not merely apply them casually, in 
the case of girls and boys up to the age of three, 
they would conduce greatly to the benefit of our 
infant nurslings. To form the character of the child 
over three and up to six years old there will be need 
of games : by then punishment must be used to 
prevent their getting pampered. — not, however, 
punishment of a degrading kind, but just as we said 
before,'^ in the case of slaves, that one should avoid 
enraging the persons punished by using degrading 
punishments, or pampering them by leaving them 
unpunished, so in the case of the free-bom the 



PLATO 

ctt' iXevOepotai. iraiSial 8' elal rot? rrj\iK0VT0i<; 
avTO(f>v€l<i Tiv€<i, a? iireihav ^vve\da>cnv avroX 
(T^eSov dvevpiCTKOvcn. ^uvieuac Be et? to- kutu 
Kcofxa'i lepa hel iravja rjSrj ra ri^XiKavra iraihla, 
airo rpierov'i p-^XP'' '^^^ ^^ ircov, Koivfj ra rwv 
Kcop^TjTMV et9 ravTOV eKacrra' Ta<; 8e rpo^ov^ eVt 
TWP T7}\cKovTcov KocT pLOTiiT 6<; r€ KoX uKoXaaia'^ 
iTripeXeladai, rcov Be rpocficov avrcov /cal rrj^ 
B dyeXr]<; ^vp7rdarj<;, rStv BdoBeKU <yvvaiK(iov plav 
e<^' eKOLcnr) TeTd^dai Koap,ovaav Kar^ eviavrov 
TMV '7rpor]pr)p,ev(ov^ a? dv rd^waiv ol vopo^v- 
Xa/c€9. ravTa<i Be alpeicrdwaav pev ai rwv 
ydp^cov Kvpiai Ti]<; eVf/ieXeia?, e^ e/caar?;? t»}9 
<f)v\rjf: piav, rfXiKa^i avral<i' r) Be KaTaardaa 
dpx^TO) ^oiTwcra et? to lepov e/tacTTT;? t)pepa<i 
Koi Kokd^ovaa del top dBiKOvvra, BovXov p,ev 
Koi BovXrjv Kal ^evov koX ^evrjv avrrj Bid Ttvcav 
T^9 TToXeo)? olKCTOiv, TToXiTrjv Be dp,(f)C(T^y]TovvTa 

C pev rfj KoXdcrei tt/jo? Tov<i dcrrvvopovi eVl Blktjv 
dyovaa, dvap(f)t,cr/3rjTrirov Be ovja koi rbv tto- 
Xirrjv avrrj KoXa^ero). perd Be rov e^errj Kai 
rrjv e^eriv BiaKpiveadco pev ijBi] ro yevo^ eKarepwv 
Kopot pev p,erd Kopcov, rrapdevov Be (oaavrcof 
p,€r' dXXrjXwv rrjv Biarpt^rjv iroieiaduiaav' rrpoq 
Be rd paOrjpara rpeireadac %pecoy eKurepov;, 
Toy<? p,ev dppeva^ icf)' ittttcov BiBa(TKdXov<i kui 
ro^cov Kal dKovriwv Kal acpevBov^crecos, idv Be 
TTT) ^vyx'^P^^^ H'^XP^ y^ p,a6j]aeco<; Ka\ rd difXea, 

D Kal 8t) rd ye pdXiara 7rpb<; rrjv rdv ottXwv 
XP^iav. ro yap Brj vvv KaOear6<; irepl ra roiavra 
dyvoelrai irapd rol<; irdcnv oXiyov. 

^ irpoTjprififvwv Badham : npoeiprjixfyan' MSS. 
22 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

same rule holds good. Children of this age have 
games which come by natural instinct ; and they 
generally invent them of themselves whenever they 
nieet together. As soon as'they liave reached the 
age of three, all the children from three to six must 
meet together at the village temples, those belong- 
ing to each village assembling at the same place. 
Moreover, the nurses of these children must watch 
over their behaviour, whether it be orderly or dis- 
orderly ; and over the nurses themselves and the 
whole band of children one of the twelve women 
already elected must be appointed annually to take 
charge of each band, the appointment resting with 
the Law- wardens. These women shall be elected by 
the women who have charge of the supervision of 
marriage,^ one out of each tribe and all of a like age. 
The woman thus appointed shall pay an official visit 
to the temple every day, and she shall employ a 
State servant and deal summarily with male or 
female slaves and strangers ; but in the case of 
citizens, if the person protests against the punish- 
ment, she shall bring him for trial before the city- 
stewards ; but if no protest is made, she shall inflict 
summary justice equally on citizens. After the age of 
six, each sex shall be kept separate, boys spending 
their time with boys, and likewise girls with girls ; 
and when it is necessary for them to begin lessons, 
the boys must go to teachers of riding, archery, 
javelin-throwing and slinging, and the girls also, if 
they agree to it, must share in the lessons, and 
especially such as relate to the use of arms. For, as 
regards the view now prevalent regarding these 
matters, it is based on almost universal ignorance. 

1 Cp. 784 A. 

*3 



PLATO 

KA. To TTOIOV ; 

A0. 'n? apa ra Be^ia koI ra apiarrepa 
Bia(f)epovTd iaO^ rjpioiv ^vaei Trpof ra^ %peta9 
et? eKCLCTTa^ twv irpdPeoov ra irepl ra<; yetoa?" 
eirei ra <y€ nrepi 7rooa<i re kul ra kutco twv 
fieXoov ovSev hia^epovra el<i rom it6vov<; (^aiverai, 

E ra Be Kara ')(^€ipa<; dvoia rpo<f)(bv Kal fxrjrepwv 
olov %(i)Xot 'ye'yovap.ev eKaaroi. rrj^ (pvcrecof <ydp 
CKarepcov rcbv fxeXwv ax^Bov laoppo7rovar]<; avrol 
Bid rd €07) Bi,d(f)opa avrd TT€7roi7]Ka/jL€v ov/c 
6pd(t)<i ')(^p(o/jb€Voi. iv oaoi<i fiev <ydp rcov epycov 
/XT) /xeya Bta(f)ipei, Xvpa fxev iv dpicrrepd ')(^pcofie- 
vo)V,^ irXrjKrpoi Be ev Be^id, vpayfjia ovBev, Kal 
baa roiavra' rovroi^ Be TrapaBeiyfiacrt '^pco/xevov 
Kav ei9 dWa /ht] Beov ovrco y^prjcrOaL (T')(eBov 
795 dvoia. eBei^e Be ravra 6 rS)v XkvOmv vo/jlo^;, 
ovK iv dptcrrepd jxev ro^ov aTrdyoyv, iv Be^id Be 
olcrrov 7rpoa-ay6fi€vo<; /xovov, dXX^ 6/jloi,q)<; eKare- 
paL<i 67r' dfi(f)6repa %/0ft)yu,ero9. Trd/xiroXXa B' 
erepa roiavra irapaBeiyfiara iv T]vio')(^eiai<i r 
iarl Kal iv erepoi<i, iv oicri [xadelv Bvvarov on 
irapa (f)vaiv KaraaKevd^ovcriv ol dpicrrepd Be^iwv 
d<T0evearepa KaraaKevd^ovres. ravra B\ oirep 
etrro/uiev, iv ixev Keparivoi^ TrXyKrpoi^ Kal iv 

B 6pydvoi<i roiovroi<; ovBev /xeya' aiB'qpolf; 8' ei? 
rov TToXefiov orav Berj 'X^prjcrdai,, fieya Biacfyepei, 
Kai TO^oi<i Kal dKOvrloif Kal eKaaroi^ rovrmv 
TToXif Be fieyiarov orav OTrXot? Ber] Trpo'i oTrXa 
')(pr]aOat,. Biacpepei Be irdp-iroXv paOcov fir] 
fia66vro<i Kal 6 yv/xvacrd/nevo'i rov /xt] ye- 
yvfivaafievov. Kaddirep yap 6 TeXew? irayKpariov 

^ Xpcofxtfoiv Apelt : xP'^f-^*'"^ MSS. 
24 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

CLIN. What view ? 

ATH. The view that, in the case of hands, right 
and left are by nature different in respect of their 
utiUty for special acts ; but, as a matter of fact, in ' 
the case of the feet and the lower limbs there is 
plainly no difference in working capacity ; and it is 
due to the folly of nurses and mothers that we have 
all become limping, so to say, in our hands. For in 
natural ability the two limbs are almost equally 
balanced ; but we ourselves by habitually using them 
in a wrong way have made them different. In actions 
of trifling importance this does not matter — as for 
example, whether a man uses the left hand for the 
fiddle and the right hand for the bow, and things of 
that sort ; but to follow these precedents and to use 
the hands in this way on other occasions, when there 
is no necessity, is very like foolishness. This is 
shown by the Scythian custom not only of using 
the left hand to draw the bow and the right to fit 
the arrow to it, but also of using both hands alike 
for both actions. And there are countless other ( 
instances of a similar kind, in connexion with driving i 
horses and other occupations, which teach us that i 
those who treat the left hand as weaker than the right 
are confuted by nature. But this, as we have 
said, matters little in the case of fiddle-bows of horn 
and similar implements ; but when it is a case of '■ 
using iron instruments of war — bows, darts and the 
like — it matters a great deal, and most of all when 
weapon is to be used against weapon at close quarters. 
There is a vast difference here between the taught 
and the untaught, the trained and the untwined 
warrior. For just as the athlete who is thoroughly 

25 



PLATO 

r)(TKriKw^ rj Trvjfiijv 77 ttuXtji/ ovk cnrb fxev tcov 
apiarepwv dBvvar6<i icm fid')(ea9ai, )(^co\aivec 8e 
C fcat e(f)eXKeTai TrXrj/jLfxeXwv, oirorav avrov rt? 
fiera^i/3d^o)v eirl ddrepa dvayKd^rj Biairovelv, 
TavTov Bt] rovT, olfiai, Kal iv OTrXoit Kal ev 
Tol<i dXXoi'i Trdai XPV TrpoaBoKav opOov, OTi 
rov Bltto, Bel KeKT7]fj,€vov o?9 dfivvocTo r dp Kal 
iiTLridelro dXXoi<i firjBev dpyov toutcov firjBe 
dveTriarrjpov iav elvai Kara Bvpafiiv Trjpvovov 
B€<y€ ei Tf? (f)vacv exoov rj koI rrjv Bpidpeco (pvocTO, 
Tat<; eKarov ')(epcr\v eKarov Bel fieXrj piirreLv 
Bvvarov elvai. tovtcov Brj irdvTwv rrjp iTrifxeXecav 

D dp-)(^ovcrai<; re Kal dpxovai Bel yCyveadai, ralf fiev 
iv TratBtal'i re Kal rpo(fial<i eiriaK6Troi<i yiyvop,eva(,^, 
rol<i Be irepl fiadt^pbara, 07r(W9 dprL7roBe<; re Kal dpri- 
')(^eipe<; ■ndvre'i re Kal irdaai, yiyvop^evoi fiijBev rot? 
eOecriv dTro^Xdirrcoai ra? (^vcrei^ eh ro Bvvarov. 

Ta Be p^adrjpard ttov Birrd, &<; 7' elirelv, 
'Xpi]<Taa6ai ^vjx^aivoi dv, rd p,ev oaa irepl ro 
aroofjba <yv/j,vaariK7j<;, rd 6' evyj/vxi'CL'i xdpiv fjLov- 
criKTj^. ra Be yvfivaariKrj'i av Bvo, ro fiev 

E opxv^'''i> '''o ^^ TrdXrj. rfj<; opx^aeat'i Be dXXrj 
fxev Moy(T779 Xe^iv fiifiov/xevcov, ro re /xeyaXo- 
•jrpeTre<i (pvXdrrovaa ^ dp,a Kal eXevdepov dXXy] 
Be eve^ia^ eXa<pp6rr}r6<; re eveKa Kal KdXXou^ 
ro)v rod adofxaro^ avrov fieXcov Kal /nepwv ro 
nrpoariKOV Ka/ii7rrj<; re Kal eKrdaeco<i, Kal diroBi- 
Bofxevr]^ eKdaroi<; avroh avrwv evpvdpLOV KiV7]aeco<;, 
BiaaireipopLevrj'i dfia Kal ^vvaKoXovdovai]<i et? 
796 irdaav rrjv op^^aiv iKava)<i. Kal Brj rd <ye Kara 

^ (pvXdrTovffa : (pvAdrTovras MSS. (&Wo . . , <j>v\aTTov 
Badham). 
26 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

practised in the pancratium or in boxing or wrestling 
is capable of fighting on his left side, and does not 
move that side as if it were numb or lame, whenever 
he is compelled to bring it into action through his 
opponent shifting to the other side, — in precisely the 
same way, I take it, in regard to the use of weapons 
of war and everything else, it ought to be considered 
the correct thing that the man Avho possesses two 
sets of limbs, fit both for offensive and defensive 
action, should, so far as possible, suffer neither of 
these to go unpractised or untaught. Indeed, if a 
man were gifted by nature with the frame of a 
Geryon or a Briareus. with his hundred hands he 
ought to be able to throw a hundred darts. So all 
these matters must be the care of the male and 
female officers, the women overseeing the games 
and the feeding of the children, and the men their 
lessons, to the intent that all the boys and girls 
may be sound of hand and foot, and maj- in no 
wise, if possible, get their natures warped by their 
habits. 

The lessons may, for practical convenience, be 
divided under two heads — the gymnastical, which 
concern the body, and the musical, which aim at 
goodness of soul. Of gymnastic there are two kinds, 
dancing and wrestling. Of dancing there is one 
branch in which the style of the Muse is imitated, 
preserving both freedom and nobility, and another 
which aims at physical soundness, agility and beauty by 
securing for the various parts and members of the body 
the proper degree of flexibility and extension and be- 
stowing also the rhythmical motion which belongs 
to each, and which accompanies the whole of dancing 
and is diffused throughout it completely. As to the 

27 



PLATO 

7rdXr]v a fiev ^AvTaio<i r) YiepKvwv iv Texvai<; 
eavTcov ^vv€crT7]aavT0 ^i\oveiKia<i ayp-qarov 
')^dpiv, r) Trv'yfirj'i 'ETreto? 7; "AfiVKO^, ovoev XPV' 
aifj,a eVt iroXefiov Koivcovlav ovra, ov/c d^ia 
Xoyw Koafieiv ra 8e att' 6pdi]<; 7raA,7;9, an 
avx^vwv KoX 'x^eipwv koI TrXevpwv i^ei\i'](T€a><;, 
jxerd <j)t\oveiKLa'i re /cal Karaardcreo}^ hiairovov- 
fj,€va /ier' evcr^ij/JLOvo'?, ^cw/at;? t€ koI vyieia^; 
eveKa, ravr eh Trdvra ovja '^prjaifia ov Trapereov, 
dWd irpoaraKTeov fxaOrjral'i re dfia koX toI<; 

B BiSd^ovatv, orav ivravd^ co/xev tmv vofioov, roi^ 
fjL€V TrdvTU TO, ToiavTa evix6vSi<i Bo)peia6ai, rot? 
Be irapaXafx^dveiv iv -^dpicriv. ovS^ oaa iv TOi'i 
'y^opoL'i iarlv av /iifXTj/xara vpocr^KOVTa /xiixelaOai 
irapereov, Kara fiev tov tottov rovSe KovpT]T(i)v 
ivoTrXia Traiyvia, Kara Be AaKeBai/iiova Aioctko- 
pcov. rj Be av irou irap' rjfiiv Koprj Kal Becnroiva, 
ev^pavdeiaa rfj rrj<i Yopeia<i TraiBia, Keval<i ^(epcrlv 

C ovK (prjOrj Betv ddvpeiv, TravoirXia Be vavTcXel 
/co(Tfir]Oei(Ta ovtco Trjv op'yrjaiv Biarrepaiveiv a 
Br) 7rdvT0)<; /Jbtfielcrdai "Trpeirov av eit] Kopovi re 
dfia Kal Kopa^i, rrjv Trj<; deov xdpLV Tiiioivra^, 
TToXepov t' iv %/3eta Kal eoprcov eveKa. toi? Be 
TTOV Traialv €vdv<; re Kal ocrov [av ^^pwop pbtjirw 
el<i TToXe/xov taxri, irdai 6eol<i 7rpo(T6Bov<; re Kat, 
TTOfiTrd^ 7roiovp,evov<i fieO' oirXcov re Kal Ittttcov 
del KocTfielcrdac Beov av etrj, ddrTOV^ re Kal 
^paBvrepa^ iv opx/jaeai Kal iv Tropeta Ta9 
iKereia'; Troiov/jbivov} 'irpo<i 6eov^ re Kal Oecbv 

^ Mythical giants and wrestlers, to whom were ascribed 
such devices as the use of the legs in wrestling. Epeius 

28 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

devices introduced by Antaeus or Cercyon^ in the art 
of wrestling for the sake of empty glory, or in boxing 
by Epeius or Amycus, since they are useless in the 
business of war, they merit no eulogy. But the 
exercises of stand-up wrestling, with the twisting 
free of neck, hands and sides, when practised with 
ardour and with a firm and graceful pose, and 
directed towards strength and health, — these must 
not be omitted, since they are useful for all pur- 
poses ; but we must charge both the pupils and 
their teachers — when we reach this point in our 
legislation — that the latter should impart these 
lessons gently, and the former receive them grate- 
fully. Nor should we omit such mimic dances as 
are fitting for use by our choirs, — for instance, the 
sword-dance of the Curetes ^ here in Crete, and that 
of the Dioscori ^ in Lacedaemon ; and at Athens, 
too, our \'irgin-Lady^ gladdened by the pastime of 
the dance deemed it not seemly to sport with 
empty hands, but rather to tread the measure vested 
in full panoply. These examples it would well 
become the boys and girls to copy, and so cultivate 
the favour of the goddess, alike for service in war 
and for use at festivals. It shall be the rule for 
the children, from the age of six until they reach 
military age, whenever they approach any god and 
form processions, to be always equipped with arms 
and horses, and with dance and march, now quick, 
now slow, to make their supplications to the gods 

is mentioned as a boxer in Homer, 11. 23. 668 ; and the 
mj'thical Amycus is said to have invented the use of ifidvTts 
(boxing-gloves). 

* Priests of the Idaean Zeus. 
^ Castor and PoUux. 

* Athene. 

29 



PLATO 

D TraiSa?. Kal aycovwi Srj koI rrpowyMi'a^;, et rivwv, 
ovK aWcov Tj TovTcov evexa TrpoaytovKneov ovtoi 
yap Ka\ ev elpj'pr} Kal Kara iroXepMV ')(^p7]cn/ji.oi 
61? re TToXiTCLav Kal lBiov<; 0iK0v<i, ol he aXkot 
TTovoL re Kal TratScal Kal airovBal Kara crcofiara 
OVK iXevOepwv. 

'n MeyiWi re koI KXeivia, rjv cIttov yvfi- 

vaariKijV iv roi'i 7rp(t}T0i<; Xoyoi^; on Sioi 

Sie^eXdelv, ayehov Srj 8i€\r]\v9a ra vvv Kal 

eaB' avTT) 7ravTe\i]<i' el Si riva Taxnrj'i v/j,el<; 

E e^ere ^eXrico, 6evT€<; eh kolvov Xeyere. 

KA. Ov pdSiov, 0) ^ive, 7rapevTa<i -ravra aXKa 
ex'^Lv ^eXrlo) tovtcop Trepl yv/xva<XTiKr]<; afia Kal 
dycovla^i elirelv. 

A0. To Toivvv rovroL<; e^?}<? Trepl ra rcov 
yiovcTMV T€ Kal ^AttoWcovo^ Scopa, Tore fxev, to? 
uTravra elpyjKorei;, Mo/xeda KaraXecTreiv /nova ra 
Trepl yvfjbvaaTiKtjf;' vvv 6' earl Br]\a a t ecrrl 
Kal OTi TTp&ra Trdai prjrea. Xeyco/j,€v tolvvv 
e^r]<i avrd. 

KA. Udvv fiev ovv XeKriov. 
797 A0. ^AKOvaare Srj ^ fxov, TrpoaKr]Ko6Te<; fiev 
Kal iv T0L<i Trpoadev 6fi(o<i he to ye a(f)6hpa 
aTOTTOv Kal drjOa hievXa^elaOai hel Xeyovra 
Kal uKovovTa, Kal hrj Kal vvv. epoi fiev yap iyoo 
Xoyov OVK d(f)o^ov eiTreiv, o/u.co'i he irrj 6appi/(ra<i 
OVK d-nocTr/aoixai. 

KA, TtVa hr) Tovrov, c5 ^eve, Xeyei^ ; 

A0. ^rjfxl Kara Tracra? Tr6Xei<; to twi' TraihiSiV 

1 S^ H. Richards : U MSS. 



1 672 D, 673 A ff. ; cp. also 813 D ft 



3° 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

and the children of gods. Contests, too, and pre- 
Uminary trials must be carried out with a view to 
the objects stated, if at all ; for these objects are 
useful both in peace and war, alike for the State 
and for private families ; but all other kinds of work 
and play and bodily exercise are not worthy of 
a gentleman. 

And now, O Megillus and Clinias, I have pretty 
fully described that gymnastic training which — as 
I said ^ early in our discourse — requires description : 
here it is in its full completeness. So if you know 
of a better gymnastic than this, disclose it. 

CLIN. It is no easy thing. Stranger, to reject your 
account of gymnastic training and competition, and 
produce a better one. 

ATH. The subject which comes next to this, and 
deals with the gifts of Apollo and the Muses, is 
one which we previously ^ thought we had done 
with, and that the only subject left was gymnastic ; 
but I plainly see now, not only what still remains to 
be said to everybody, but also that it ought to come 
first. Let us, then, state these points in order. 

CLIN. By all means let us do so. 

ATH. Give ear to me now, albeit ye have already 
done so in the" past. None the less, one must take 
great heed, now as before, both in the telling and 
in the hearing of a thing that is supremely strange 
and novel. To make the statement that I am going 
to make is an alarming task ; yet I will summon up 
my courage, and not shrink from it. 

CLIN. What is the statement you refer to. 
Stranger ? 

ATH. I assert that there exists in every State 

2 673 B. 

31 



PLATO 

yevo^ '^yvorjcrOai ^v/j,7raatv on /cvpicoTaTov iari 
TrepX deaeu)^ v6/u.(op, rj fiovl/iovf; elvat, tov<; reOevra^ 
B rj fijj. rax^^v fiev yap avro koX fieTa(T')(ov rov 
ra avra Kara ra avra koI Q)aavT(o<; del Tov<i 
avToif<i irai^eiv re kuI evdufj,€ca6ai To2<i avrol'i 
iraiyvLoi^ id Kal ra aTrovSfj KCifxeva vo/xifia 
jieveLV 'i)crv)(ri, Kivovfieva Se ravra ^ Kal Kaivoro- 
fiovfieva yu,eTa/3oXat9 re dWai^ uel 'x^pcofxeva, Kal 
firjhe-nore ravra <^lXa irpocrayopevovroov rwv veoov 
fxijr iv ayrjfiaaL rol^ rcop avrcop acofidrcov fiijre 
iv rol<i aWoL<; crKeveaiv 6/jio\oyovfiiva}<i avrolf 
del Keladai to t' eva^^^rj/xov Kal aa-^jjfjbov, dXka 
rov ri veov del Kaivoropbovvra Kal elacf^epovra 
C r(ov elcoOorcov erepov Kara re cr)(^7]fMara kuI 
'^(^pco/jLara Kal rrdvra oaa rotavra, rovrov ri- 
fidadai BiacpepovrMf, rovrov rroXet \(o^r]v ovk 
elvai /xeL^o) <f)alfx,ev dv opdorara \eyovre<i' \avdd- 
veLV yap roiv vecov rd yjdi] fiedicrravra Kal rroielv 
ro fiev dp)(^acov irap avroc<; drifiov, ro Be veov 
evrifiov. rovrov 8e rrdXiv av Xeyco rov re 
prjixaro<i Kal rov Soyfiaro^ ovk elvat ^rj/xiav 
fxei^co wdaai^ iroXeaiv dKovaare Be oaov (pjjfil 
avr eJvai KaKov. 
D KA. 'H ro yjreyeaOai rrjv dp^aiorrjra Xeyea iv 
rat? TToXeaiv ; 

A0. Yidvv fiev ovv. 

KA. Ov ^avXov<i rolvvv r)/J,d<; dv dKpoard^ 
7rpo<; avrov rov Xoyov e;^ot? dv rovrov, dXX^ co? 
Bvvarov ev/j,eveardrov<i. 

A0. Et«o9 yovv. 

KA. A676 flOVOV. 

^ Tavra England : ra avra MSS. 
32 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

a complete ignorance about children's games — how 
that they are of decisive importance for legislation, 
as determining whether the laws enacted are to be 
permanent or not. For when the programme of 
games is prescribed and secures that the same 
children always play the same games and delight 
in the same toys in the same way and under the 
same conditions, it allows the real and serious laws 
also to remain undisturbed ; but when these games 
vary and suffer innovations, amongst other constant 
alterations the children are always shifting their 
fancy from one game to another, so that neither 
in respect of their own bodily gestures nor in re- 
spect of their equipment have they any fixed and 
acknowledged standard of propriety and impro- 
priety ; but the man they hold in special honour 
is he who is always innovating or introducing some 
novel device in the matter of form or colour or 
something of the sort ; whereas it would be per- 
fectly true to say that a State can have no worse 
pest than a man of that description, since he privily 
alters the characters of the young, and causes them 
to contemn what is old and esteem what is new. 
And I repeat again that there is no greater mischief 
a State can suffer than such a dictum and doctrine : 
just listen while I tell you how great an evil it is. 

CLIN. Do you mean the way people rail at 
antiquity in States ? 

ATH. Precisely. 

CLIN. That is a theme on which you will find 
us no grudging listeners, but the most sympathetic 
possible. 

ATH. I should certainly expect it to be so. 

CLIN. Only say on. 

33 



PLATO 

A0. "Itc St], /jb€L^6vQ)<; avrov aKovacofiiv re 
rjjJiSyv avrwv koI irpo'i aWrfKovi oi/T&>9 eliTOiixev. 
/xera^okrjv yap Brj iravraiv 7r\r]V kukwv ttoXv 
tx<f)a\ep(OTaT0v evprjaopLev iv wpai^ irdaai'i, iv 
TTvevfjLacnv, iv 8iaiTai<i acofidrajv, ev rpoiroif 
'y}rv)(^(i!)v, iv ft)9 CTTO? eltrelv <Tra(nv>,^ ov rot? /xiv, 
roi<i S ov, irXrjV, 6 ri nep elirov vvv St], kukoI^' 
E axrre, et ti<; diro^Xiy^eLe iTpo<i crMpara, to? jraat 
fiev (TiTLOii;, rrdai B" av Trorot? Kal irovoi'i ^vvrjdrj 
yLyvofxeva, koX to rrpoirov Tapa')(devTa utt' avrwv, 
eireir' i^ avroiv tovtcov vtto ^(^povov adpKa<; 
(pva-avra olKetai; rovTOL<;, (f)i\a re Kal avvrjOrj 
798 KoX yvcopifxa yevofieva dirdcry ravrrj rrj SiaiTT) 
TTyoo? TjSovrjv Kal vyieiav apcara Sidyei' Kal civ 
TTOT dpa dvayKaaOfj /xera^dWeiv av Ti9 ^ rjvriv- 
ovv roiv evBoKLficov SiaiTCJv, ro ye kut dp')(^a<; 
avvrapa'xOel'i vtto vocrtov p,6yi<i irore Karearrj 
T7)V crvvijdeiav rrj Tpo(f)fj irdXiv diroka^dov 
ravTov Sr) Sel vopl^eiv rovro yiyvecrdai Kal nrepl 
rd<i rcov dvOpcoTrcov hLavoia<; re djxa Kal rd<i tS)v 
-ylrv^MV (pvcrei';. 0I9 yap av ivTpa(f)(t)(Ti v6/xoi<; Kal 
Kard rtva Oeiav evTV')(^iav aKivyjrot yevcovrai 
B fiaKpcov Kal ttoWmv ')(p6vo)v, 0)9 firjSeia e^eiv 
fxveiav /xrjBe aKorjv rov irore aXX&)9 avra crx^tv 
rj KaOdirep vvv e%et, ae^erai Kal (po^etTai irdaa 
77 '^V'yrj TO ri Kivelv rcov Tore KadeaTOOTcov. 
firj^avTjV 8r) Set rov vofioBerrjv ivvoelv dfioOev 
ye TTodev ovriva rpoirov rovr earai ttj iroXei. 
rfjS^ ovv eycoye evpicTKco. Ta9 TraiBia^ 7TdvTe<i 
Ziavoovvrai KLV0V[xeva<; rcov vecov, oTrep efnrpoaOev 



^ <iro(ni'>, added by H. Richards. 
" a5 T(j Badham : avOts MSS., edd. 



34 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

ATH. Come now, let us listen to one another 
and address one another on this subject with 
greater care than ever. Nothing, as we shall find, 
is more perilous than change in respect of every- 
thing, save only what is bad, — in respect of seasons, 
winds, bodily diet, mental disposition, everything 
in short with the solitary exception, as I said just 
now, of the bad. Accordingly, if one considers the 
human body, and sees how it grows used to all 
kinds of meats and drinks and exercises, even though 
at first upset by them, and how presently out of 
these very materials it grows flesh that is akin to 
them, and acquiring thus a familiar acquaintance 
with, and fondness for, all this diet, lives a most 
healthy and pleasant life ; and further, should a man 
be forced again to change back to one of the highly- 
reputed diets, how he is upset and ill at first, and 
recovers with difficulty as he gets used again to the 
food, — it is precisely the same, we must suppose, with 
the intellects of men and the nature of their souls. 
For if there exist laws under which men have been 
reared up and which (by the blessing of Heaven) 
have remained unaltered for many centuries, so that 
there exists no recollection or report of their ever 
having been different from what they now are, — 
then the whole soul is forbidden by reverenc« 
and fear to alter any of the things established of old. 
By hook or by crook, then, the lawgiver must devise 
a means whereby this shall be true of his State. 
Now here is where I discover the means desired : — 
Alterations in children's games are regarded by all 
lawgivers (as we said above ^) as being mere matters 

1 797 B, C. 

d2 



PLATO 

iXeyofiev, 7rai8ia<; 6i>t(o<; elvai koX ov ttjv 
fieyl(XTr]v i^ avrcov cnrovSrjv koX ^Xd^rjv ^vfx^ai- 
C veiv, ware ovk uiroTpeTrovaLV aWa ^vveirovTai 
v7reiK0VTe<i' kul ov Xoiyl^ovTai roBe, on Tovrov<; 
avdyKT] Toy? 7rai8a<i tov^ iv Tai<; iraihial^ 
V€(iir€pi^ovTa<; iripov^ avhpa<i rail' e/XTrpoaOev 
yevecrdai [TraiScov^} <yevofievov<i Be dWov^ dWov 
^iov ^rjTetv, ^T)Ti](Tapra^ Be erepoiv iTriTqBev [xaTaiv 
Kol vojJMV €7rL6vp,r]crat, koI jnera tovto <t)9 
^^OVTO? Tov vvv Brj Xeyofievov peylarov kukov 
D TToXeaiv ouSet? avTwv (^o^elrai. ra fiev ovv 
dXXa iXdrro) fi€Ta^aXX6/xeva kuku Bie^epyd^on^ 
dv, oaa irepl axH/^ciT^i Tratr^et to toiovtov' oaa 
Be Trepl ret twv tjOoov eiraivov re xal yfroyov nrepi 
irvKva ixeTaTriirrei, TrdvTcov, otofiai, fiiyiard re 
Kol TrXeia-rrj^ evXa^eia^ Btofieva dv etr]. 

KA. IT<W9 yap ov ; 

A0. Tt ovv ; Tolf efiTTpoaOev X6yoi<; nKxrevofiev, 
ol<i iXeyofiev w? rd Trepl tou? pvd/jLov<; koI irdaav 
IxovGiKrjv icTTL rpoTTcov p,i/x7]fiaTa ^eXriovcov kul 
E yeipovwv dvOpcoTTCov : rj ttw? ; 

KA. Ovoa/jLco<; aXX(o<; tto)? to ye trap ijptv 
B6y/J.a exov dv etrj. 

A0. OvKOVv, (pa/xev, aTraaav /j.i])(^av7]Teov fir)- 
yavrjv otto)? dv rjpXv ol TratSe? fiijTe e7ri6v/jL(oaiv 
aXXcov fiifiTj/xdTcov dineadai Kara 6pxvcret<; t) 
Kara p.eXa)Bia<;, jxi^re rt<; avTOv<} iretar) TTpoadywv 
iravTola'i i]Bovd<i ; 

KA. ^OpOorara Xeyei<i. 
799 A0. "Ei)(^ei Tt9 ovv rjpSiv eirl rd rotavra ^eXria> 

Tivd Te^VVV T^? T(OV AlyVTTTLtOV ; 

1 xo(5a'i/] bracketed by Badham, England. 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

of play, and not as the causes of serious mischief; 
hence, instead of forbidding them, they give in 
to them and adopt them. They fail to reflect that 
those children who innovate in their games grow 
up into men different from their fathers ; and being 
thus different themselves, they seek a different 
mode of life, and having sought this, they come 
to desire other institutions and laws ; and none 
of them dreads the consequent approach of that 
result which we described just now as the greatest 
of all banes to a State. The evil wrought by 
changes in outward forms would be of less im- 
portance ; but frequent changes in matters involving 
moral approval and disapproval are, as I maintain, 
of extreme importance, and require the utmost 
caution. 

CLIN. Most certainly. 

ATH. Well, then, do we still put our trust in 
those former statements of ours,^ in which we said 
that matters of rhythm and music generally are 
imitations of the manners of good or bad men ? Or 
how do we stand ? 

CLIN. Our view at least remains unaltered. 

ATH. We assert, then, that every means must be 
employed, not only to prevent our children from 
desiring to copy different models in dancing or 
singing, but also to prevent anyone from tempting 
them by the inducement of pleasures of all sorts. 

CLIN. Quite right. 

ATH. To attain this end, can any one of us 
suggest a better device than that of the Egyptians P^ 



» 654 Eft, 668 A. 
* Cp. 656 D S. 



37 



PLATO 

KA. Iloia? 8r} Xiyea ; 

A0. ToO KaSiepcoaai iraaav jxev op')(r}(Xiv, navra 
Be fieXr), rd^avra<i TTpMTov fiev ra'i koprd<i, crvWo- 
yiaafievov; eh jov iviavrbv dcTTivwi ev oU ')(^p6voi<i 
Koi olariaiv eKd(TTOL<; rcov OeS>v kuI iraial 
Toirrav Kal Saifiocn <yi'yve(x6at ^pecwi/, pbera he 
TOVTO, eVt T069 Twi/ dewv dv/xacnv eKaaTOi^ jjv 
(hBT]V Bei i(f>vju,vel(rdai, Kal ■)(^opeLai<; iroiaiai 
B yepaipeiv rrjv Tore Ovaiav, rd^at fiev rrpoiTov 
Tiva<;, a S' av raxOjj, ^ioLpai<i Kal Tot9 dXKoL<i 
TrdcTi deoh OvaavTWi KOivrj irdprwi tov<; iroXiTa^ 
aTTevSovra<i KaOiepovv €Kdcyra<i rag mSa<; eKdcr- 
Tot9 TMV Oecov Kal Tcov dXkcov' dv he irap avid 
Tt? Tft) Oewv dWov; v/j,vov<; rj '^opeia^ Trpoadyrj, 
Tou? iepea<i re Kal ra? lepeia^ fxerd vofxo(^v\dKa)V 
e^eipyovTWi ocrt&)9 i^etpyeiv Kal Kara vofiov, rbv 
he e^eipyofxevov, dv fxr] eKoov e^etpyrjrai, hiKa<; 
d(Te^et,a<i hid ^iov iravro'; ra> edeX-qaavri irape-)(^eiv. 

KA. 'Opdm. 
C A0. 11/309 jovrw hrj vvv yevofievoL rw Xoya 
irddoofjiev to Trpeirov rjpuv avToh. 

KA. Tov irepi Xeyea ; 

A0. Yld<i TTOV veo<;, fir] oti Trpea^VTrji;, Ihoov dv 
7j Kal dKovaa^ oriovv tmv iKToircov Kal firjhafi'p 
TTO) ^ ^vvr)d(ov, ovK dv TTore irov to diropr^dev irepl 
avTOiv cri'7;^&)/3>;cretey iTnhpaficov ovTa)<i ev6v<;, 
(TTd<; 6' dv, Kaddirep ev Tpioho) yevofxevo^ Kai /nrj 
<T(f)6hpa KaT€iha)<i ohov, etre fi6vo<i etVe yuer' dXXcov 
D Tv%oi •nopevQiieva, dvepoiT dv avTov Kal tou<; 

^ iro) Bekker : voos MSS. 

* i.e. with the caution proper to old men. 

38 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

ciJN. What device is that ? 

ATH. The device of consecrating all dancing and 
all music. First, they should ordain the sacred feasts, 
by drawing up an annual list of what feasts are 
to be held, and on what dates, and in honour of 
what special gods and children of gods and daemons ; 
and they should ordain next what hjTnn is to be sung 
at each of the religious sacrifices, and with what 
dances each such sacrifice is to be graced ; these 
ordinances should be first made by certain persons, 
and then the whole body of citizens, after making a 
public sacrifice to the Fates and all the other deities, 
should consecrate with a libation these ordinances — 
dedicating each of the hymns to their respective gods 
and divinities. And if any man proposes other hymns 
or dances besides these for any god, the priests 
and priestesses will be acting in accordance with both 
religion and law when, with the help of the Law- 
wardens, they expel him from the feast ; and if 
the man resists expulsion, he shall be liable, so long 
as he lives, to be prosecuted for impiety by anyone 
who chooses. 

cus. That is right. 

ATH. Since we find ourselves now dealing with 
this theme, let us behave as befits ourselves.^ 

CLIN. In what respect ? 

ATH. Every young man — not to speak of old 
men — on hearing or seeing anything unusual and 
strange, is likely to avoid jumping to a hasty and 
impulsive solution of his doubts about it, and to 
stand still ; just as a man who has come to a 
crossroads and is not quite sure of his way, if he 
be travelling alone, will question himself, or if 
travelling with others, will question them too about 

39 



PLATO 

aWov<; TO airopovfievov, koI ovk av irporepov 
opfn](T€i€, irplv irr) ^e^aiuxrano ttjv aKeyp'iv rr}? 
TTO/oeta?, OTTTj irore (f)€p€L. koX h-q koI to irapov 
■f)fuv waavrco'i TTOirjreov' cltottov fyap ra vvv 
ifji7r67rT(OK6ro<; \6yov irepl vopbwv avd'^Ki) ttov 
(TKey^LV iraaav iroirjaaadai koX fxr) pahi,a><; ovto) 
Trepi ToaovTcov t7]Xikovtov<; ovTa<; (j)dpai Sc- 
i(T')(ypi^opivov'i iv rat TrapaxpVH'<^ '''* (Ta<^e<i av 
elirelv ex^iv. 

KA. ^AXrjdecrrara Xeyei'i. 
E A0. OvKovv rovrw jxev "xpovov Satcrofiev, ^e^ai- 
(otTOfiev Se Tore aino OTTorav aKeyjrcofieda iKuvco'i' 
iva Se fiT) Tr]v €7rofi€vr]v rd^iv to2^ v6fioi<i rot? vvv 
rj/jLiv irapovcrt, ^lairepdvaadai KwXvdoifxev fxdTrjv, 
tcofiev 7rpo9 to T6X09 avroiv. Td-)(^a <yap t'aw?, el 
0€o<i iOeXoi, Kav r] Sie^oSo^ avrr) 6\rj crxovcra 
TeA,09 iKavM^ av firjvvaeie kuI to vvv SiaTropov- 
fxevov. 

KA. ^AptaT, oi ^eve, \eyei<;, xal Troiwfiev oi5t&)9 
Q)<; €lpr]Ka<i. 

A0. AeBox^o) fiev Bj], <pa/j,ev, to aToirov tovto, 
vofxov<i Ta? dha^ rjfx,?v yeyovevai, kuI Kaddirep ol 
TraXaiol to ye ^ irepX Ki6apaiSlav ovTto 7ra><;, o)? 
800 eoiKev, oovofxaaav, cocrTe fd')^ dv ov^ iKelvoi 
iravTaTraarL y av a^eaTCOTd elev tov vvv Xeyo- 
fievov, KaO^ VTTVov he olov ttov Tf<? y) koX inrap 
eypriyopoo^ oiveipco^e p.avTev6p.evo<i avTo. to 8' 
ovv hoyfia Trepl avTov tovt €(ttco' irapb, to. 
Brjfioa-ta fieXr} re Kal lepa Ka\ tyjv tcov vecov 
^v/jLiracrav ^opeiav /xrjBel^; p,dXXov rj rrap^ ovtlvovv 

^ t6 ye Apelt, England : T<^Te MSS. 
40 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

the matter in doubt, and refuse to proceed until 
he has made sure by investigation of the direction 
of his f)ath. We must now do likewise. In our 
discourse about laws, the point which has now 
occurred to us being strange, we are bound to 
investigate it closely ; and in a matter so weighty 
we, at our age, must not lightly assume or assert 
that we can make any reliable statement about it on 
the spur of the moment. 

CLIN. That is very true. 

ATH. We shall, therefore, devote some time to 
this subject, and only when we have investigated it 
thoroughly shall we regard our conclusions as certain. 
But lest we be uselessly hindered from completing 
the ordinance which accompanies the laws with 
which we are now concerned, let us proceed to 
their conclusion. For very probably (if Heaven so 
will) this exposition, when completely brought to 
its conclusion, may also clear up the problem now 
before us. 

CLIN. Well said, Stranger : let us do just as vou 
say. 

ATH. Let the strange fact be granted, we say, 
that our hymns are now made into " nomes " 
(laws),^ just as the men of old, it would seem, gave 
this name to harp-tunes, — so that they, too, perhaps, 
would not wholly disagree with our present sug- 
gestion, but one of them may have divined it 
vaguely, as in a dream by night or a waking vision : 
anyhow, let this be the decree on the matter: — 
In violation of public tunes and sacred songs and 
the whole choristry of the young, just as in \iolation 

1 A play on the double sense of vinos, — ♦' law " and 
" chant" or " tune " : cp. TOO B, 722 D, 734 E. 

41 



PLATO 

aXkov TOiv vofjbwv (^Oeyyeadw fjb7]8^ iv 6p)(^7Jcrei 
KLveiaOo). kol 6 fiev ToiovTO<i d^i]/jito<; aTraX- 
Xarreadu), tov he firj ireiOofxevov, KuOdirep epprjdr) 
vvv Si], vo/jLO(puXaK€'i re koX lepeiai koX i€peL<; 

B KoKa^ovTcov. KeiaOco Be vvv r]pA,v ravra tm 
Xoyrp ; 

KA. KetV^ft). 

A0. Tiva 8)] rpoTTOV avra vop-oOercov rt? fxr) 
TravTairaai KarayeXacrTO'? •yiyvoir dv ; iha)p>ev hrj 
TO TOLOvh' en irepl avTa. dacfioXiararov Kuddirep 
e/cpayeV dzj avrolai irpSiTOV TrXdcraadai, rw 
X6y(p, X,e7(u he ev p,ev rwv eKpayeloyv elvai 
roiovhe Tf 6vaLa<i yevofievi]<; /cal lepcov KavOevTcov 
Kara vop^ov, ei ra rt?, (f)ap,ev, Ihia 7rapaard<; roi<; 

C /3ft)/i,ot9 re Kal iepoi<;, m o? 17 Kal dheX(fi6<i, ^Xaacprj- 
pol irdcrav ^Xaa(f)r]p,Lav, dp* ovk civ (f)a'ip,ev, 
dOvpblav Kal KaKrjv orrav Kal p,avreiav irarpl kol 
Tot? dXXoi^ dv olKeioi<i (pdeyyocro evri6ei<i ; 

KA. Tt pLrjV ; 

A0. 'Ei^ To'ivvv rot? Trap ■qpbiv roTrot? rovr 
eart Tai<i iToXecn yiyv6p,evov d)<; eVo? eiirelv a^ehov 
oXiyov irdaai'i' hrjpoaia yap riva dvaiav orav dp^^ 
Ti9 dvcrrj, perd ravra %o/909 ovx f^9 dXXd TrXi]do<i 
'^(opoiv TfKei, Kal (Trdvre<i ov iroppco rcov ^a)p.Siv 
D dXXd Trap avroix; eviore Trdaav ^Xaac^Tjpiav rwv 
lepwv Kara)(^€ovai, pijpacrl re Kal pvOpoh Kal 
yoo)Secrrdrai<; dpp,ovlai<i avvrelvovre^ rd<i rcov 
dKpocopii'cov 'yjrvxd'i, Kal 09 dv haKpvaat pidXiara 
rrjv dvaaaav irapa'X^pripa iroirjarj iroXiV, ovro^ ra 
42 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

of any other " rtome " (law), no person shall utter 
a note or move a limb in the dance. He that obeys 
shall be free of all penalty; but he that disobeys 
shall (as we said just now) be punished by the La>v- 
wardens, the priestesses and the priests. Shall we 
now lay down these enactments in our statement ? 

CLIN. Yes, lay them down, 

ATH. How shall we enact these rules by law 
in such a way as to escape ridicule ? Let us 
consider yet another point concerning them. The 
safest plan is to begin by framing in our discourse 
some typical cases/ so to call them ; one such case I 
may describe in this way. Suppose that, when a 
sacrifice is being performed and the offerings duly 
burned, some private worshipper — a son or a brother 
— when standing beside the altar and the offering, 
should blaspheme most blasphemously, would not his 
voice bring upon his father and the rest of the family 
a feeling of despair and evil forebodings ? 

CLIN. It would. 

ATH. Well, in our part of the world this is what 
happens, one may almost say, in nearly every one of 
the States. Whenever a magistrate holds a public 
sacrifice, the next thing is for a crowd of choirs — 
not merely one — to advance and take their stand, 
not at a distance from the altars, but often quite close 
to them ; and then they let out a flood of blasphemy 
over the sacred offerings, racking the souls of their 
audience with words, rhythms and tunes most 
dolorous, and the man that succeeds at once in 
drawing most tears from the sacrificing city carries 

1 (Ktxafflov (" mould " or " impression ") is here used, much 
like «?5oj, of a class or "type" of cases needing legal 
regulation. 

43 



PLATO 

viKTjT^pia (f)ep€t' TOVTOV By] rov vofiov ap' ovk 
a7roylrr](f)i^6fi€0a ; Kol ei ttot dpa Sel tolovtcov 
oiKTCov yiyveadai tou? TroXtra? iirr^Koov^, oirorav 
r)fiepat p,r) Kadapai rive<i aWa diro^pdSe^ coat, 
E rod^ 7]K€iv Biov av etr] puaXXov 'xppov'i Ttva<; e^coOev 
fjL€p,iaOco/J,evov<; o)Bov<;, olov ol irepl rov^; TeKevrrj- 
cravTa<; fiiaOovfievoi K.apiKfj rivl Mover?; Trpoire/jb- 
TTOvaL [tou? Te\evrr)aavTa<i\ ; ^ toiovtov irov 
irpeirov dv etr) koX Trepl ra<i roiavTa^ aiSd<; ycjvo- 
fxevov KoX Br] Kol cTToXi] ye ttov ral^ eTTiKr]- 
Beioi'i foBal^ ov are^avot TrpeiroLev dv ovB^ eVt- 
y^pvaoi Koa-fioi, irdv Be rovvavriov, Xv ore Ta^icrTa 
Trepl avTMvXiycov dTraXXaTTCO/jiai. to Be Toaov- 
Tov r]/jid<; avTOv<i iiTavepairS) irakiv, tmv eKfiayetcov 
rat? (oBaL<; el nrpSirov ev roud^ tj/xlv dpecrKov Keiada), 

KA. To TTolov ; 

Ae. Ev(f)7]p,ia, KoX Br] KoX TO T779 ft)S^9 yevo<i 
801 €V(f)rjp.ov rjfiiv TrdvTT] 7rdvTQ)<i VTrapx^TO) ; rj p.rjBev 
eTravepcoTcb, Ti6(b Be tovto ovTai<; ; 

KA. TlavTdTraa-t /xev ovv TiOei,' viko, yap 
Trda-atai tuU ■\}r^(f>OL<i ovTO<; 6 vopo^. 

A0. Tt? Br] p,€T ev(f>r]p,Lav BevT€po<; dv etr] v6p.o^ 
liovaiKrj<; ; dp ovk €vxd<; elvat Tol<i deol<; oU Ovo/xev 
eKuaTOTe ; 

KA. n<M9 yap 01) ; 

A0. TpiTo<; B\ olfiaij v6pL0<;, oti yv6vTa<i Bel 
T0v<i 7roir}Td<i ft)9 evx^u Trapd Oecov aLTr]crei<; eicn, 
Bel Br] Tov vovv avToi)^ (T(f)6Bpa irpoae-xeiv /j,t] ttotc 

^ [tovs reKfvTiiaavTas] bracketed by Surges, England. 
44 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

off the palm of victory. Must we not reject ^ such a 
custom as this ? For if it is ever really necessary that 
the citizens should listen to such doleful strains, 
it would be more fitting that the choirs that attend 
should be hired from abroad, and that not on holy 
days but only on fast- days — ^just as a corpse is escorted 
with Carian music by hired mourners. Such music 
would also form the fitting accompaniment for 
hymns of this kind ; and the garb befitting these 
funeral hymns would not be any crowns nor gilded 
ornaments, but just the opposite, — for I want to get 
done with this subject as soon as I can. Only I 
would have us ask ourselves again ^ this single 
question, — are we satisfied to lay this down as our 
first typical rule for hymns r 

CLix. What rule ? 

ATH. That of auspicious speech ; and must we 
have a kind of hymn that is altogether in all respects 
auspicious ? Or shall I ordain that it shall be so, 
without further questioning ? 

CLIN. By all means ordain it so ; for that is a law 
carried by a unanimous vote. v 

ATH. What then, next to auspicious speech, 
should be the second law of music ? Is it not that 
prayers should be made on each occasion to those 
gods to whom offering is made ? 

CLIN. Certainly. 

ATH. The third law, I suppose, will be this, — 
that the poets, knowing that prayers are requests 
addressed to gods, must take the utmost care lest 

^ Music should be used as an ennobling educational 
instrument, promoting self-control, not as a means of 
exciting A-ulgar sentiment and passion. 

« Cp. 800 B. 

45 



PLATO 

B Xddcoai KUKov cl)? dyaOov alrov/xevoi' yeXoiov yap 
8r) TO 7rd6o<;, olfiat, Tovr dv yijvocro eu^/}? 
TOiavTi]<; <yevo[xevri<i. 

KA. Tt ixi^v ; 

A0, Ov/covv r)ixel<i efiTrpocrdev afiiKpov tw Xoyco 
iirelaOrjixev &>? ovre dpyvpovv Set UXovtop ovre 
')(^pvo-ovv iv TToXei l8pv/j,€vov ivoLKelv ; 

KA. Tldvv fiev ovv, 

A0. Tti'09 ovv TTore irapdheiy p.a elpijadac 
(f)a)p,ev TOVTOV top \6yov ; dp ov rovBe, otl to twp 
irocrjTMV y€vo<; ov irdv iKavov icm yiyvcaaKCLV 
C a-(f)68pa rd re dyad a Koi firj ; Trocrjcrwi ovv Srj ttov 
Tt? TToirjTT)^ py'jfiacTiv rj koI Kara /ieX,o? tovto 
r)/jLaprr]/jL€VO<i ^ [ev)(d<i ovk O/O^a?] ^ r^pHv Tovf 
TToXtVa? Trepl rtov fxeyiarav €V)(^€a9ai rdvavria 
TTOirjcrer Kai TOt tovtov, Kaddirep iXeyo/xev, ov 
iroXXd dpaprtj/jLara dv€vp^crop,€P pel^co. Omixcv Brj 
Kol rovrov tcov irepl M^ovaav vofioiv Kal tvttcov 
€va ; 

KA. Tii^a / aa^iarepov etVe rjfuv. 

A0. Tov TTOiTjTTjv irapd rd t% 7ro\e<w9 vofii/xa 
Kal hiKaia rj KaXd rj dyadd p,r]Bev Troieiv dXXo, rd 
D he TTOCijdePTa pr) i^elvat, rcov IBcfOTuyp p^rjhepl 
Trpojepop Bei/cvvvai, irplp dp avjol<i Tot9 irepl ravTa 
dTToSeSeiypepoi^ KpiTai<; Kal rol<{ vop,o(f)vXa^c 
heL')(d^ Kal dpecrrj, a')(^ehop he dirohtheiypevoi 
elalp rjplv ov<i elXopeda vopodera<i Trepl ra p,ov- 
aiKa Kal rov t^? TTai,heia<i eTripeXijr'^v. Tt ovv ; o 
TToXXuKi'i epwrd), Keiadoo v6p,o<i rjplv Kal tvtto^ 
eK/xayei6v re rpirov tovto, tj ttco? hoKel ; 

^ T]fiapT7if*.(vos : TifxapTrifievov MSS., edd. 
* [eux^s OVK opdas] bracketed by Badham. 
46 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

unwittingly they request a bad thing as though it 
were a good thing ; for if such a prayer were made, 
it would prove, I fancy, a ludicrous blunder. 

CLIN. Of course. 

ATH. Did not our argument convince us, a little 
while ago,^ that no Plutus either in gold or in silver 
should dwell enshrined within the State ? 

CLIN. It did. 

ATH. What then shall we say that this statement 
serves to illustrate ? Is it not this, — that the tribe 
of poets is not wholly capable of discerning very 
well what is good and what not .'' For surely when 
a poet, suffering from this error, composes prayers 
either in speech or in song, he will be making our 
citizens contradict ourselves in their prayers for 
things of the greatest moment ; yet this, as we have 
said, 2 is an error than which few are greater. So 
shall we also lay down this as one of our laws and 
typical cases regarding music ? 

CLIN. What law ? Explain it to us more clearly. 

ATH. The law that the poet shall compose nothing 
which goes beyond the limits of what the State holds 
to be legal and right, fair and good ; nor shall he 
show his compositions to any private person until 
they have first been shown to the judges appointed 
to deal with these matters, and to the Law-wardens, 
and have been approved by them. And in fact we 
have judges appointed in those whom we selected to 
be the legislators of music and in the supervisor of 
education. Well then, I repeat my question, — is 
this to be laid down as our third law, tjrpical case, 
and example ? What think you ? 



'■ 74-2 D ff. Plutus is the god of wealth. 
2 801 B. 



4? 



PLATO 

KA. Keta^o)' Tt firjv ; 

Ae. Mera <ye /jltjv ravra vfivoi deoiv koX 
iyKcofiia K€Koi,vu)vr]/jieva €v)(^ai<; ahoLT av opdorara, 
Kal jxera 6€ov<; a)aavT(o<i Trepl Sal/xovd<; re kuI 
ripaia<i fier eyKcofUfov €y;^al yiyvoivT^ av tovtoi^; 
irdai TrpeTTOvaai. 

KA. Xlw? yap ov ; 
E A0. Mera ye firjv ravr 7]8r} v6/j,o<i avev (pOovcov 
€vOv<i yiyvocT av oSe* tmv ttoXitcov oirocrot TeXo<; 
e^oiev Tov ^lov Kara crcoiiara rj Kaja '^v)(^a<i 
epya e^eipyaap-evot KoXa Kal eTTiTTova koI rot? 
vofMoi^ evireidel'i yeyov6re<i, eyKco/xicov avTOV<i 
Tvyxdveiv Trpeirov av eir], 

KA. lift)? 8' ov ; 
802 Ae. Toi;9 ye /xrjv en ^Mvra<i €yKO)fi[oi<; re kol 
Vfivoi<; ri/xav ovk acr^aXes", irplv av aTravrd Tf? 
rov ^iov SiaSpafioiv TeX.09 eTTicmfja-qraL KaXov. 
ravra Be Trdvra tj/jlIv ecrTO) Koiva dvBpdai re Kal 
yvvai^lv dyadot<i Kal dya6al<i Biacpavo)^ yevo- 
lxevoL<;. rd<i Be dBd<; re Kal Qp)(^r)aei<i ovrcocrl ^(pr} 
KadiaraaOar iroWd eart rraXaiojv rraXaid Trepl 
/xovaiKTjv Kal KoXd Troirjfiara, Kal Brj Kal rot<; 
crd>/j,aaiv 6p)^i)cyeL<i wcrauro)?, div oi)Bel<i <f)$6vo<; 
€KXe^aa6ai rfj Kadiara/xevj] iroXiTeia to Trperrov 
B Kal dpfiorrov BoKi^aard<; Be rovrcov eXo[xevov<; 
rrjv eKXoyrjv Troieladac firj vetorepov^; irevrrjKovra 
ircjv, Kal 6 re p,ev av Ikivov elvai Bo^rj rwv 
iraXaiMV Tronj/xdrtov, eyKplveiv, 6 ri S' du evBee^; rj 
TO irapdirav dveirirrjBeiov, to fiev d-nro^dXXecrdat 
TTavrdrracn, to 8' eiravaipop-evov ^ eTrippvO/xl^ecv, 
Troir)riKOv<i dfia Kal fiov(TiKov<; dvBpa<i irapaXa- 

48 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

cuN. Be it laid down by all means. 
ATH, Next to these, it will be most proper to 
sing hymns and praise to the gods, coupled with 
prayers ; and after the gods will come prayers com- 
bined with praise to daemons and heroes, as is 
befitting to each. 
CLIN. To be sure. 

ATH. Tliis done, we may proceed at once without 
scruple to formulate this law : — all citizens who have 
attained the goal of life and have wrought with body 
or soul noble works and toilsome, and have been 
obedient to the laws, shall be regarded as fitting 
objects for praise. 
CUN. Certainly. 

ATH. But truly it is not safe to honour with 
hymns and praises those still living, before they have 
traversed the whole of life and reached a noble end. 
All such honours shall be equally shared by women 
as well as men who have been conspicuous for their 
excellence. As to the songs and the dances, this is 
the fashion in which the}' should be arranged. 
Among the compositions of the ancients there exist 
many fine old pieces of music, and likewise dances, 
from which we may select without scruple for the 
constitution we are founding such as are fitting and 
proper. To examine these and make the selection, 
we shall choose out men not under fifty years of age ; 
and whichever of the ancient songs are approved we 
shall adopt, but whichever fail to reach our standard, 
or are altogether unsuitable, we shall either reject 
entirely or revise and remodel. For this purpose 
we shall call in the advice of poets and musicians, 

* i-wayaip&fievov Hermann : i'wavep6fi(vov MSS. ; i-wavepo- 
fievovs Stephens, Zur. 

49 

VOL. II. B 



PLATO 

l3ovTa^, '^p(afi€vov<i avrcov Tat<i Bvpd/xeac rr]<; 
7roir)cy€a)<i, ral'i he T}8ovaL<; kuI eTriOvfiiaa jxrj 
C iimpe'TTOVTa'i aX>C rj riacv 6\iyoi<i, i^Tjjovfxevov^i 
8^ TO, rov vo/jLoderov ^ovXy'jfxara otc /jLokiara 
6p-)(r)(Tiv T€ Ka\ (ubrjv fcal irdaav ^opelav crvari]- 
aaaOai Kara rov avrov ^ vovv. 'rrdaa B araKTo^ 
ye rd^iv Xa^ovaa irepl Moucrai/ Biarpi^j] koI p,)j 
TrapaTi0e/jievr}<; t^9 <y\vKeia<i Moycr?;? d/xelvcov 
fivpioi' TO 8' TjBv KOLVov TTacTat?. iv fi rydp dv i/c 
TTaiBcov Tf9 H^XP^ '^V'^ earriKvia^ re koI efi(f)povo<i 
rfKLKia^ Bia^Ltp, autc^povL /xev Movcrr} KacTeray- 
fievTj, aKOvcov del ^ t?}? evavTLa<; /xiael koX 
D dveXevOepov avrrjv irpoaayopevei, rpa^ei? 6' ev 
TTJ Koivfi KoX yXvfceta ■yjrvxpdv koX drjBrj rrjv ravrr) 
evavTLav elvai (prja-iv, axTTe, oirep epptjOrf vvv Brj, 
TO 76 rrj<i 7]Sovr]^ rj drjBia^ irepX eKarepa<; ovBev 
7re7r\eoveKTTjK€v, ex rrepiTrov Be r) /xev /^eXTioi/?, »; 
Be yeipov'i TOv<i iv avrp rpa(f)€VTa<; eKdarore 
irapex^Tai. 

KA. KaXw? etprjKa'i. 

A&, "En Be 6rj\eLai'i re irpeiroixra'i (pBd<i appeal 
re ^topiVaf rrov Beov dv eirj tvttw rivl Biopi- 
ad/iievov, koI dp/jboviaiai Bij koI pud/jLOL<i npocrap- 
E fiOTreiv dvayKoiov Becvov yap oXrj ye dpfiovia 
dTTaBeiv rj pvOfiM dppu6fxelv, firjBev Trpocry^KOvra 
TOVTcov e/cdaroc^ diroBiBovTa T0i9 fxeXecriv. dv- 
ayKalov Br) koX rovrayv rd axv/^ciTd ye vo/xode- 
reiv. ecrri Be dfi(jior€poi<} fiev dfM(^6repa dvdyKTf 
Karexofieva diroBiBovai, \jd Be tmv drjXeiMv] ^ 

^ avTov : avTuv MSS. ; avTwv Zur. 

« &A W. R. Paton, England : 5^ MSS. 

* TO . . . OrjKeiaiv I transpose, after W.-Mollendorflf. 

5° 



I 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

and make use of their poetical ability, without, how- 
ever, trusting to their tastes or their wishes, except 
in rare instances ; and by thus expounding the in- 
tentions of the lawgiver, we shall organise to his 
satisfaction dancing, singing, and the whole of 
choristry. In truth, every unregulated musical 
pursuit becomes, when brought under regulation, 
a thousand times better, even when no honeyed 
strains are served up : all alike provide pleasure.^ 
For if a man has been reared from childhood up to 
the age of steadiness and sense in the use of music 
that is sober and regulated, then he detests the oppo- 
site kind whenever he hears it, and calls it " vulgar " ; 
whereas if he has been reared in the common 
honeyed kind of music, he declares the opposite of 
this to be cold and unpleasing. Hence, as we said just 
now, in respect of the pleasure or displeasure they 
cause neither kind excels the other ; where the 
superiority lies is in the fact that the one kind always 
makes those whoare reared in it better, the other worse. 

CLix. Finely spoken ! 

ATH. Further, it will be right for the lawgiver to 
set apart suitable songs for males and females by 
making a rough division of them ; and he must 
necessarily adapt them to harmonies and rhythms, 
for it would be a horrible thing for discord to exist 
between theme and tune, metre and rhythm, as a 
result of providing the songs with unsuitable accom- 
paniments. So the lawgiver must of necessity ordain 
at least the outline of these. And while it is neces- 
sary for him to assign both words and music for both 

* i.e. a, "regulated" style of music pleases the educated 
just as much as the other sort pleases the uneducated. Cp. 
658 Eff. 



PLATO 

avT& Ta> T^9 <l)vaea}<; eKaripov Biaipepovri, <Ta 
Be TOiv 07)Xei(ov> tovtm Bel koI Biacra(f)elv. to 
Br] jueyaXoTrpeTrh ovv kuI to tt^oo? Ttjv avBplav 
peTTOv appevfOTTov (paTeov elvai, to Be tt/jo? to 
Koa/jLiov Kal aoxppop fiaWov airoKklvov drjXvye- 
veoTspov 0)9 ov TvapaBoTeov ev re tw vofxcp xal 
803 X07&). Ta^i9 p^ev B^ Ti? avTrj' tovtcov Be avTcov 
BtBacrKoXia Koi irapdBoai'i Xeyeadco to peTU 

TOVTO, TLVa TpOTTOV Xpr) Kul olcrTKTl KOl TTOTe 

TrpciTTeiv eKacTTa avTcov olov Bn] rt? vavTrrjyo^ 
Trjv T^<? vavirrjyia'i ap-^rjv KaTa^aW6pevo<i to. 
TpoTTiBeia vTroypd(f)eTac tmv ttXoIwv (T-)(r)paTa, 
TavTov Bj] pot Kayo) (palvopai epavTw Bpav to, 
TMv ^Icov 7r€ipQ)p,€V0<i (T')(7]p.aTa BiaaTr)aaadai 

KUTO. TpoTTOVi TOV<i TCOV ■^V')(0)l>, 6vT03<i aVTMV TO. 

B TpoTTiBela KaTa^dXXeaOai, irola p-t])(^avy Kal Tiai 

TTOTe TpOTTOl^ ^Vv6vT€<i TOP jSioV CtpiaTU BlO, TOU 

ttXov tovtov tP}<; f&>'/9 BiaKopiadjjaopeOa, tovto 
(TKOirwv ^ opdoi<^. e(TTi Bi] tolvvv to, tmv dvOpd)- 
TTcov TrpdypuTa p€ydXr)<; pev a7rovB7]<; ovk d^ia, 
dvayKoiov ye p,rjv crTrovBd^etV tovto Be ovk 
evTV')(e<i. eTreiBr) Be evTavOd icrpiev, e'i 7ra)9 Bia 
TrpoaijKOVTO'; tU'0<; uuto 7rpdTT0ip.ev, i(Ta)<i av r^puv 
(TvpipeTpov av elrj. Xeyco Be Bt] tI iroTe ; i(rco<i pevT 

C av tU pOL TOVT aVTO VTToXa^MV 6pdS)<i VTToXd^OL. 

KA. Yidvv p,ev ovv. 

A&. ^i]p,\ '^rjvai TO pev cnrovBalov aTTovBd^eiv, 
TO Be pLT} fTTTOvBalov p.rj' <f)vaei Be elvai Oeov pev 
Trd(Trj<; pbaKaplov (nrovBi]<; d^cov, dvOpcoTTov Be, 
oirep eiTTOpiev epTrpoadev, Oeov tl Traiyviov elvai 
p.ep.rf'^avTj pevov , Kal 6W&)9 tovto avTov to ^eXTia- 
^ ffKoiriv Peipers : aKoicuv MSS. 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

types of song as defined by the natural difference of 
the two sexes, he must also clearly declare wherein 
the feminine type consists. Now we may affirm that 
what is noble and of a manly tendency is masculine, 
while that which inclines rather to decorum and 
sedateness is to be regarded rather as feminine both 
in law and in discourse. Such then is our regulation 
of the matter. We have next to discuss the question 
of the teaching and imparting of these subjects — 
how, by whom, and when each of them should be 
practised. Just as a shipwright at the commence- 
ment of his building outlines the shape of his vessel 
by laying down her keel, so I appear to myself to be 
doing just the same — trying to frame, that is, the 
shapes of lives according to the modes of their souls, 
and thus literally laying down their keels, by rightly 
considering by what means and by what modes of 
living we shall best navigate our barque of life 
through this voyage of existence. And notwith- 
standing that human affairs are unworthy of earnest 
effort, necessity counsels us to be in earnest ; and 
that is our misfortune. Yet, since we are where we 
are, it is no doubt becoming that we should show 
this earnestness in a suitable direction. But no 
doubt I may be faced — and rightly faced — with the 
question, " What do I mean by this ? " 

CLIN. Certainl}'. 

ATH. What I assert is this, — that a man ought to 
be in serious earnest about serious things, and not 
about trifles ; and that the object really worthy of 
all serious and blessed effort is God, while man is 
contrived, as we said above,^ to be a plaything of 
God, and the best part of him is really just that; and 
1^644 p. 

53 



PLATO 

Tov yeyovevai' rovrw Stj Selv tm Tpoiro) ^vveiro- 
fievov Koi Tral^ovra ore KoSXicrra^ 7rai8ia<; iravr 
avhpa Kal yvvalxa ovrco hia^iwvai, Tovvavjiov rj 
vvv hiavor)9evra<i, 

D KA. nco9 ; 

A0. NOt' fxev irov ra? (nTovBa<; ol'ovrai Beiv 
ev€Ka Twv iraihioiv ylypeaOai' ra 'yap irepl tov 
TToXefxov rjyovvTai (nrovBala ovra rrj^ eipi]vri<; 
€V€Ka Selv ev rldecrOai. to S' r^v iv TroXifio) fxlv 
dpa our' ovv TraiSia ire^vKvla ovt au TraiSeia 
TTore rjfjLiv d^t6\oyo<;, out€ ovaa ovt iao/xivr), o ^ 
B7j (f}a/j.€P rjfxlv <ye elvai aTTOvSaioTarov Bel Br] top 
KUT elpi]prip fiiop eKacTTOP TrXelaTOP t€ kgI apia- 
Top Bie^eXOelp. rt? ovp opdoTTj^ ; irac^oPTa ^ ivTi 

E Bia/3ici)Teop Tipa<i Brj 7raiBia<i dvovra, koI aBovTU 
Kal op'^ovfiepov, ware tov<; /xep O€ov<i i\€ci}<; avTw 
irapacrKeud^eip BvpaTOP elpai, Tom 3' i-)(6pov<i 
dfivpeadai Kal pikup /jba')(^6/jt,€P0P. oirola Be aBcop 
dp Tf9 Kal 6p-)(pvp.evo<i dp,(f)6Tepa ravTa TrpdrToc, 
TO fiep tS)p TViToyp etprjTat Kal KaOdirep oBol 
TeT/iirjPTai, KaB* a<i Weop TrpoaBoKMpra Kal top 
•noLTjTrjp ev Xeyeip to 

804 HtfKefxa')^ , dXXa fiep avTo<i epl (f)peal afjai 
P07]aei<;, 
dXXa Be Kal Baifxcov virodrjaeTai' ov <ydp otca 
ou ae deoop deKTjTi yepeadai re Tpa(f)e/jiep re. 

TavTOP Br} Kal rou? rjff,eTepov<i Tpo(f>lfxov<; Bel Bia- 
poovfiepovi TO, fiep elprjfxepa dTTO'^^pcopTOx; vofii^eip 
elprjadai, to, Be Kal top Balfiopd re Kat, deop 

1 h Hermann : rh MSS. 

■ iral^ovTa MSS. : ri irai^ovrd . . . StafiiwTfov ; rivas 5)j Zur. 

54 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

thus I say that every man and woman ought to pass 
through life in accordance with this character, playing 
at the noblest of pastimes, being otherwise minded 
than they now are. 

CLIN. How so ? 

ATH. Now they imagine that serious work should 
be done for the sake of play ; for they think that it is 
for the sake of peace that the serious work of war 
needs to be well conducted. But as a matter of 
fact we, it would seem, do not find in war, either as 
existing or likely to exist, either real play or educa- 
tion worthy of the name, which is what we assert 
to be in our eyes the most serious thing. It is the 
life of peace that everyone should live as much and 
as well as he can. What then is the right way ? We 
should live out our lives playing at certain pastimes 
— sacrificing, singing and dancing — so as to be able 
to win Heaven's favour and to repel our foes and 
vanquish them in fight. By means of what kinds of 
song and dance both these aims may be effected, — 
this has been, in part, stated in outline, and the 
paths of procedure have been marked out, in the 
belief that the poet is right when he says ^ — 

" Telemachus, thine own wit will in part 
Instruct thee, and the rest will Heaven supply ; 
For to the will of Heaven thou owest birth 
And all thy nurture, I would fain believe." 

It behoves our nurslings also to be of this same mind, 
and to believe that what we have said is sufficient, 
and that the heavenly powers will suggest to them all 

1 Odyss. III. 26 S. 

ss 



PLATO 

avTolaiv vTToOrjaeaOai dvaiwv re irepi kcu ')(^op€ia)V, 
B olcTTLcn T€ Kal OTTore eKacrra eKdaroi<i irpoaTrai- 
^ovr€<i re kul iXeov/ievoi Kara rov rponov rrj<; 
(pvaeco^ Sia^idocrovrai, Oavp-ara ovre^ to ttoXv, 
(Tp,iKpa Be d\r]Oela<i drra p,eTi^ovT€<;. 

ME. UavTairacn to tmv dvOpcoircov <yivo<i r^plv, 
0) ^€V€, Bia(f>av\L^ei<;. 

A0. M^ davp,daT]<;, w MeyiWe, dWd ^vyyvcodi 
fioi' 7rpo<i yap top Oeov dniBcbv Kal ttuOcov elwov 
oirep €ipi]Ka vvv. eaTco 8' ovv to yevo<i rjpayv firj 
C (f)av\ov, el aoi (piXov, (nrovSi]<i Be tlvo^ d^iov. 

To B efr;? T0VT0i<i, oLKoBop-iai p,ev eipy]VTai 
yvp,vaai.(ov dfia Kal BiBaaKaXeiwv KOt,vo)v Tpixfl 
KaTa /JLearjv Trjv irokiv, e^wdev Be ittttoov av Tpixfi 
irepi TO acTV yv/ivda-id re Kal evpv^topia, To^tKr]<i 
re Afai Tcav dXXcov aKpo^oXtcrficov eveKa BiaKeKoa- 
p,T]p,eva, p.a6rjaed)<i re djia Kal p.eXeTT]<; twv vewv. 
el S' dpa jiir] T0T6 iKav(o<; epprjQ-qaav, vvv elp-^aOo) 
Tft) Xoyu) p^cTa v6p,wv. iv Be tovtol<; irdcn BiBaa- 
D KdXov<; eKdcTTwv TreTreia-jxevovj pLiaOoh olKovvra<i 
t€Vov<i BiBdcKeii' re iravra oaa rrpo<i rov iroXepov 
'iaTi pa6t]p,aTa TOv<i 0ofTwi'Ta? ocra re 7rpo<i 
p,ovaiKr]V, ov')(^ ov fxev dv 6 iraTrjp ^ovXrjTai 
^OLTOiVTa, ov S' dv pLTj eoiVTa ra? 7raiBe[a<i, dXXd 
TO Xeyop^evov ndvT dvBpa Kal TralBa Kara to 
BvvaTov, (o? T^? 7r6X,€ft)? p,dXXov rj tmv yevvrjTopoyv 
6vTa<i, iraiBevTeov e^ dvdyKtj';. ra avTU Be Bt] 
Kai irepl OrjXeicov 6 p.ev ip,6<; v6pbO<; dv etirov vdvTa 
oaairep kul irepc tojv dppevwv, laa Kal Ta<i 6r]X€ia<i 
E dcTKetv Belv Kal ovBev <li0^r]del<i etiroipi dv tovtov 

1 Cp. 644 D, E. 2 764 q^ 779 p 

56 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

else that concerns sacrifice and the dance, — in honour 
of what gods and at what seasons respectively they are 
to play and win their favour, and thus mould their 
lives according to the shape of their nature, inasmuch 
as they are puppets ^ for the most part, yet share 
occasionally in truth. 

MEG. You have a very mean opinion. Stranger, of 
the human race. 

ATH. Marvel not, Megillus, but forgive me. For 
when I spoke thus, I had my mind set on God, and was 
feeling the emotion to which I gave utterance. Let 
us grant, however, if you wish, that the human race is 
not a mean thing, but worthy of serious attention. 

To pursue our subject, — we have described ^ 
buildings for public gymnasia as well as schools in 
three divisions within the city, and also in three 
divisions round about the city training-grounds and 
race-courses for horses, arranged for archery and 
other long-distance shooting, and for the teaching and 
practising of the youth : if, however, our previous 
description of these was inadequate, let them now 
be described and legally regulated. In all these 
establishments there should reside teachers attracted 
by pay from abroad for each several subject, to 
instruct the pupils in all matters relating to war and 
to music ; and no father shall either send his son as 
a pupil or keep him away from the training-school 
at his own sweet will, but every " man jack " of 
them all (as the saying goes) must, so far as possible, 
be compelled to be educated, inasmuch as they are 
children of the State even more than children of their 
parents. For females, too, my law will lay down 
the same regulations as for men, and training of an 
identical kind, I will unhesitatingly affirm that 

57 



PLATO 

TOP \oyov ovTe nnnnKrj<; ovre 'yvfivaariKrj'i, o)^ 
avhpdcn fiev irpeirov av eii], yvvat^l 8e ovk av 
TTpiirov. aKovcov jxev yap 8r} fivdovi TraXatoi"? 
TreTreicr/jbai, ra Be vvv oi<i ctto? ecTreiv olSa oTi 
fivpidhe^i dvapi9p.rjT0L yvvaiKwv elcrl tmv irepl top 
YlovTOv, a<i XavpofidriBa<; KoKovaiv, ai? ou;^ 

ITTTTtiiV ybOVOV uXKcL KCLl TO^COV Kul t6)V dWwV 

805 ottXcov KOLVWVia koI Tol<i dvhpdcnv larj irpoare- 
TajfiepT] io"&)9 d(TK€iTai. Xoyiarfiop 8e irpo'i rovToif 
irepl TOVTcop roLOpBe Tivd e%<W (f)r)/jLi,, ecirep tuvtu 
ovrco ^vp,/3aip€i.p iarl Bvvard, irdpTcop dporjToraTa 
rd vvp ep Tot9 irap rifilp T07roi9 yiyveadai to fiy 
TrdcxT} pdifiT) irdpTa^ ofiodv/jLaBop eniTijBeveiP dpBpa<i 
yvpai^l TavTa. a-)(eBov yap oXiyov ndaa r}p,Laeia 
TToXf? dpTt BiTrXaalwi ovTQ)<i €(ttl re Kal yiyverai 
eK TOiP avTcop reXcop Kal ttopcop' Kai rot, davfxaa- 
B Tov dp dfxdprrjfia pofMoOeTt] rovr avTO ylypoiro. 

KA. "EoiA:e 7e" eari p-eproi 7Tdp,7roXXa rjixlp, 
M ^eP€, irapd Ta9 el(t)6vLa<i •noXireia<i tcop pvp 
Xeyofiepcop. 

A0. ^AXXd yap elTTOP ^ top fiep Xoyop idaai 
Bie^eXOelp, ev BieX06pTO<i Be ovrto to Bokovp 
aipeladat Beip. 

KA. MdXa elne^ re ififieXtO'i ireTroirjKd'i t e/ie 
Ta PVP avTop ifiauTU) eTnTrXrjTTeip otl raOra 
elprjKa. Xeye ovp to fieTu tuvtu o tl aoi 
C Ke)(apiafiepop iaTiP. 

A0. ToSe e/xotye, w K-Xeivia, b Kal irpoadep 
elirop, £09, el fiep TavTa rjp firj iKapco'i epyoi<; 
eXrjXeyfxepa otl BvpuTd eVxi ylypeaOai, Ta%a rjp 
dp Ti Kal dpTecTreiP tA X6ya>, pvp Be aXXo tl ttov 

1 eliroj' Cornaiius : elirdii' MSS., and some edd. (assigning 
oXAi . . . Suv also to Clin.). 

58 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

neither riding nor gymnastics, which are proper for 
men, are improper for women. I believe the old 
tales I have heard, and I know now of my own 
observation, that there are practically countless 
myriads of women called Sauromatides, in the dis- 
trict of Pontus, upon whom equally with men is 
imposed the duty of handling bows and other 
weapons, as well as horses, and who practise it 
equally. In addition to this I allege the following 
argument. Since this state of things can exist, I 
affirm that the practice which at present prevails in 
our districts is a most irrational one — namely, that 
men and women should not all follow the same 
pursuits with one accord and Avith all their might. . 
For thus from the same taxation and trouble there 
arises and exists half a State only instead of a 
whole one, in nearly every instance ; yet surely 
this would be a surprising blunder for a lawgiver to 
commit. 

CLIN. So it would seem ; yet truly a vast number 
of the things now mentioned, Stranger, are in con- 
flict with our ordinary polities. 

ATH. Well, but I said^ that we should allow 
the argument to run its full course, and when 
this is done we should adopt the conclusion we 
approve. 

CLIN. In this you spoke most reasonably ; and 
you have made me now chide myself for what I said. 
So say on now what seems good to vou. 

ATH. What seems good to me, Clinias, as I said 
before,- is this, — that if the possibility of such a 
state of things taking place had not been sufficiently 
proved by facts, then it might have been possible to 
gainsay our statement; but as it is, the man who 

1 Cp. 746 C, 799 E. ^ 805 A. 

59 



PLATO 

^rjTTjreov eKeivto tw tovtov tov vofiov fMrjBa/jbr] 
he')(pfjiev(p, TO 8' rjfi€T€pov hiaKekevfia iv tovtoi<; 
ovK arroa^ycreTai, ro firj ov Xeyeiv a)9 Set irai- 
heia'i T€ Koi Toiiv aWatv otl fiaXiaja KOivwveiv to 

D OrjXv yevof y)fj,iv tm tmv appivcov yevei. kuI yap 
ovv ovToxTi TTfo? Bel irepl avTOiv Biavorjdijvai. 
(f>epe, fiT) fieTS^ovaoiv avBpdcri, jvvaiKcov kolvtj t?}? 
^o}rj<; nrd(Tr]<i fiSyv ovk dvdyKr\ y^vkaOai yk Tiva 
Ta^cv eTf.pav avTai<i ; 
KA. ^ KvayKt) fiev ovi'. 

A0. Tiva ovv cfMrrpoadev t&v vvv dTToBeBeiy- 
fievcov delfxev dv 7779 Kotvcovia^ Tavrt]^ f)v vvv 
avTai<i 7//u.et9 TrpoaTdTTOfiev ; iroTepov rjv 0pa«e9 
Tat<; yvvai^l ')(pQ)VTai koX iroWd cTepa yevrj, 

E yecopyeiv re Kal ^ovKoXelv koX iroipaiveLV kuI 
BiaKOvelv /jiTjBev 8ia<f>€p6vTQ)<i twv hovXcov ; rj 
Kaddirep ^fielf aT^avTh t€ 01 irepl tov tottov 
eKelvov ; vvv yap hrj to ye Trap rjp^lv twSe iaTi 
irepl TovTmv yiyvop,evov' el<i Tiva p^iav o'cKfjaiv 
^vp.(f}opi](TavT€^, TO Xeyopevov, irdvTa '^pj]p,aTa 
irape.Bop.ev Tal<; yvvai^l hiaTap,ieveiv re Kal 
KcpKcScov dp^eiv Kal 7rdaj]<i Ta\acria<i. rj to 
TOVTcov Br) Bid p,eaov 6(ap,€v^ w MeY^We, to 
806 t^aKwviKov ; K6pa<i fiev yv/xvaaicov p.eToxov'i ovaa'S 
dp,a Kal p,ovaiKrj<; ^jjv Belv, yvvaiKa<; Be dpyov<i 
pev Ta\aaia<;, dcrKTjTiKov Be Tiva ^iov koI ovB- 
ap,6i<; (pavXov ovS" evTeXi] BiairXeKeiv, Oepa7Teia<; 
Be Kal Tapiela<i av Kal '7raiBoTpo(f)ia<i eh ti p,e(TOv 
dcjjiKveicrdai, tmv Be et? tov TT6\ep,ov prj koivco- 
vov(Ta<;, axTT ovS' el Tt9 iroTe Biap,d')(eadai irepl 
7r6\e(t)<i re Kal iraiBcov dvayKaia TV')(ri yiyvoiTo, 

^ eHfifv H. Richards : fw/jLtv MSS. 
60 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

rejects our law must try some other method, nor 
shall we be hereby precluded from asserting in our 
doctrine that the female sex must share with the 
male, to the greatest extent f)Ossible, both in educa- 
tion and in all else. For in truth we ought to 
conceive of the matter in this light. Suppose that 
women do not share with men in the whole of their 
mode of life, must they not have a different system 
of their own .' 

CLIN. They must. 

.\TH. Then which of the systems now in vogue 
shall we prescribe in preference to that fellowship 
which we are now imposing upon them ? Shall it be ' 
that of the Thracians, and many other tribes, who \ 
employ their women in tilling the ground and minding 
oxen and sheep and toiling just like slaves } Or that 
which obtains with us and all the people of our district.' 
The way women are treated with us at present is 
this — we huddle all our goods together, as the saying 
goes, within four walls, and then hand over the dis- 
pensing of them to the women, together with the 
control of the shuttles and all kinds of wool-work. 
Or again, shall we prescribe for them, Megillus, that 
midway system, the Laconian ? Must the girls 
share in gymnastics and music, and the women 
abstain from wool-work, but weave themselves 
instead a life that is not trivial at all nor useless, 
but arduous, advancing as it were halfway in the , 
path of domestic tendance and management and 
child-nurture, but taking no share in military 
service ; so that, even if it should chance to be 
necessary for them to fight in defence of their city 
and their children, they will be unable to handle 

6i 



PLATO 

B ovt' av To^cov, w9 rive<i 'A/ia^ot'e?, out* aXXr)'; 
KOivoovrjaai TTore ^6\rj<i fiera t€%i^779 Svvdfievai, 
ovSe aairiha Kol 86pv Xa^ovaat /jLtfirjaacrdai 
rr}v 6e6v, (i}<; TropOovfxevrjf; avTal<; t?}? '7raTpl8o<; 
yevvaLco<i avTicyrdaa<; (f)6^ov ye, ei /xrjBev fxel^ov, 
7ro\e/j,LOi<Ti Bvvaadat irapaa-yelv iv Ta^ei rivl 
KaTO(f)0eicra<; ; "Xavpo/xdriSat; oe ovS' av to irapd- 
irav ToXfitjaeiav fii/xrjaaaOai tovtov rov rpoirov 
Sia^tovaai, Trapd yvvatica^ Se avra^ avBp€<; av ai 
eK€LVcov <yvvalKe<; (pavetev. ravr ovv vjxmv rouf 
vo/jLo6era<; 6 /xev 0ov\6fjievo<i irraivelv eTraiveiTio' 
C TO 8' €/jlov ovk dWco'i av \e')(j9elri' reXeov yap kuX 
ov SirjfiKTVV ^ Selv rov vo/J.odeTrjv elvai, to difkv /nev 
d(jiievTa Tpv(pav Kal dvaXlaKeiv hiavTaL^ aTa«T&)9 
•^pcofievov, Tov Be dppevo<; eTn/xeXtjdevTa, reXeo)? 
a')(^e8bv €vBai/j,ovo'i T^fiiav ^iov KaraXeiireiv dvrl 
SnrXaaiov rfj iroXei. 

ME. Tt Spdaofiev, to KXeivia ; rov ^evov 
idaofiev ttjv ZTrdprrjv rjfilv ovtco Karahpajxetv ; 
D KA. Nar BeSo/j.evr)<i yap avrSt Trapprjaia^ 
iareov, eco^; av Sie^iXOco/xev Trdvrrj iKavco^: TOV<i 
vo/xov^. 

ME. '0/3^0)9 XiyeL<i. 

A0. OvKOvv TO, fiCTa Tavja i]8r} (tx^Bov ifiov 
•neLpaadai (ppd^eiv ; 

KA. na)9 yap ov ; 

A0. Tt9 Br] TpoTTO'i dvdp(07roi<i yiyvoir av tov 
^Lov, olai ra fiev dvayKala dn] Karea-Kevaafieva 
fierpia, ra Be rcov Te')(ySiV dXXoi<; irapaBeBofxeva, 
E yewpyiai Be eKBeBo[ievaL BovXoi<; diTapxhv tmv ck 
T^9 7^9 d7roT€Xov<riv Ixavrfv dvdpwTrofi ^axri 
1 ov Si'fifj.tffvp Schneider : ov 5i Tftixiavy MSS. : ov5' i/ifiiavv Zur. 
62 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

with skill either a bow (like the Amazons) or any 
other missile, nor could they take spear and shield, 
after the fashion of the Goddess,^ so as to be able 
nobly to resist the wasting of their native land, and 
to strike terror — if nothing more — into the enemy 
at the sight of them marshalled in battle-array ? If 
they lived in this manner, they certainly would not 
dare to adopt the fashion of the Sauromatides, whose 
women would seem like men beside them. So in 
regard to this matter, let who will commend your 
Laconian lawgivers : as to my view, it must stand as 
it is. The lawgiver ought to be whole-hearted, not 
half-hearted, — letting the female sex indulge in 
luxury and expense and disorderly ways of life,^ 
while supervising the male sex ; for thus he is actu- 
ally bequeathing to the State the half only, instead 
of the whole, of a life of complete prosperity. 

MEG. What are we to do, Clinias ? Shall we 
allow the Stranger to run down our Sparta in this 
fashion ? 

CLIN. Yes : now that we have granted him free 
speech we must let him be, until we have discussed 
the laws fully. 

MEG. You are right. 

ATH. May I, then, endeavour without more delay 
to proceed with my exposition ? 

CLIN. By all means. 

ATH. What manner of life would men live, sup- 
posing that they possessed a moderate supply of all 
the necessaries, and that they had entrusted all the 
crafts to other hands, and that their farms were 
hired out to slaves, and yielded them produce 

1 For Athene as a warrior, cp. 796 B. 
* Cp. At. Pol. 1269b 12 flF. 

63 



PLATO 

KO(T/j,Lai<i' ^vaairia he KaTsaKeuaa/juiva etrj %&)/Jt9 
fiep Ta tS)v dvSpcbv, iyyvf S' i')(^oiieva ra rwv 
avTol<; ocKCicov, Traihwv re afia drfKeiwv koI twv 
firjTepayv avTal<i' ap^ovcri Be koX ap'yovaai'i etrj 
•rrpo(TT€ray/jLeva \veiv ravra eKdcrTOL<i to, ^vaa'nia 
irdvra KaO^ eKaarriv rjfMepav Oeaaa/xepovi koI 
i8ovTa<; Tr]V Siaycoyrjv rrjv roiv ^vcrcrirav, fiera 
Se ravra (nreiaavra<i rov re dp^ovra Kal Toy? 
807 dX\ov<i, ol<i av rvy)(^dvrj 6eol<i rj rore vv^ re Kal 
rjfiepa Kadiepcofxep)], Kara ravra ovrco<i ocKaSe 
iropeveadai ; roU 8r} ravrrj KeKoaptjfxevoi'i dpa 
ovBev XeiTTOfiepov icrriv dvayKalov re epyov Ka\ 
iravraTraai, TrpoarjKov, clX-V ev rpoirw ^oaKrjparo<; 
eKciarov Triaivofievov avrwv Set ^fjv ; ovkovv to 
ye SUaiov (f)a/i€v ovSe Ka\6v, ovB^ olov re rov 
^Mvra ovrco<; drvxfjcfai rov 7rpoa>'jKovro^, irpoa- 
I'jKec Be dpySi Kal pa6vp,o)<i Karaireinaa ixeva ^dxp 
B a)(eBov utt' dWov BiapTraaOP]vai, ^(oov ra)v a<p6Bpa 
rerpv^ci}p,ev(i)v fxera dvBpia<i re dfxa Kal rSiv 
rrovcov. ravra ovv Brj Bi* dKpi/3eLa<i p,ev iKavrj^ 
[a)<? Kal vvv\ el ^rjrolpev [dv],^ i(tq)<; ovk dv irore 
yevoiro, p,expi'Trep dv yvvatKe^ re Kal TraiSe? 
0iKr)(TeL<i re iBiai Kal tStw? diravr 17 rd rotavra 
€Kd(Troi<; rjpoiv KareaKevaapeva' rd Be p,er eKelv 
av Bevrepa rd viiv \ey6peva el yiyvoiro r^puv, 
C yiyvoiro dv Kal p,d\a /xeTyoteo?. epyov Be Br] roU 
ovrco ^(oai (j)apev ov ro apuKporarov ovBe ro 
<f)av\6rarov XetTreadai,, peyicrrov Be rrdvrcov eivai 
rr poareray pevov viro BiKaiov vopoV rov yap 
rrdaav roiv dXXcov rrdvrcnv epycov ^lov aa')(o\Lav 

^ [ois Kal vvv'\ and [Sf] I bracket {vvv\ for vvv tl Badham, 
England : ov for el Apelt). 
64 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

enough for their modest needs ? Let us further 
suppose that they had public mess-rooms — separate 
rooms for men^ and others close by for their house- 
holds, including the girls and their mothers — and 
that each of these rooms was in charge of a master 
or mistress, to dismiss the company and to watch over 
their behaviour daily ; and, at the close of the meal, 
that the master and all the company poured a liba- 
tion in honour of those gods to whom that night and 
day were dedicated, and so finally retired home. 
Supposing them to be thus organised, is there no 
necessary work, of a really appropriate kind, left for 
them, but must every one of them continue fatten- 
ing himself like a beast ? ^ That, we assert, is 
neither right nor good ; nor is it possible for one 
who lives thus to miss his due reward ; and the due 
reward of an idle beast, fattened in sloth, is, as a 
rule, to fall a prey to another beast — one of those 
which are worn to skin and bone through toil 
hardily endured. Now it is probable that if we 
look to find this state of leisure fully realised exactly 
as described, we shall be disappointed, so long as 
women and children and houses remain private, and 
all these things are established as the private property 
of individuals ; but if the second-best State,- as now 
described, could exist, we might be well content 
with it. And, we assert, there does remain for men 
living this life a task that is by no means small or 
trivial, but rather one that a just law imposes upon 
them as the weightiest task of all. For as com- 
pared with the life that aims at a Pythian or 

1 Cp. Ar. Pol. 1334* 13 ff. 

* i.e. the (Magnesian) State described in the Laws, in con- 
trast to the Ideal (communistic) State of the Republic. 

65 

VOL. II. F 



PLATO 

irapaaKivd^ovTO<i, rov Xlu^mSo? re Kol 'OXu/i7rt- 
aSo9 VLKr)<; opeyof^evov, StTrXacria? re «ai ert 
TToXXo) 7r\eovo<i aa')(o\ia^ earl 7€/i&)r 6 irepl rr/i/ 
ToO a-cofxaro'i irdvjw'i koI '«|^fX^9 6t9 dperrjp^ 

D i-TTifieXeiav fiLO<i elpr)/jievo<i opOorara. Trdpepyov 
yap ovhkv Bet rwv aWoov epywv BiaKcoXvfia 
yiyveaOai rcov rat cw^aTi TTpoarjKovTcov eh diro- 
Boaiv TTovcov Kcu Tpo(^i)<i, ovS" av "^v^fj /xadrj- 
fiaTcov re /cal eOoiv Trdaa Be vv^ re koI rjfiipa 
a')(eBov ovK eariv iKavt] tout' avrb Trpdrrovri, ro 
rekeov re koX iKavov avrtov eKkajx^dveiv. 

Ovro) Bt] rovreov 7r€(f>VK6ra>v rd^iv Bel yiyveadat 
rrdai, roL<i e\ev6epoi<i rrj<i Biarpi^fj<i irepX rov xpovov 

E diravra, cr')(eBov dp^djxevov e^ ecu p^XP'' "^V^ erepaf 
del ^vve^oi^ €(o re /cal rfKiov dvaro\r]<;. •rroWd 
fiev ovv Kal irvKvd Kal crpuKpa Xeytov dv Tt? 
vofxo0er7)<; da^^jp-fov (f^aivocro rrepl roiv Kar olKiav 
BioiKijaecov, rd re dXXa Kal oaa vvKrcop dinrvia'i 
irepi irperrei rot<; fieWovac Bid reXov<; (fivXd^eiv 
irdaav iroXiv d«/3//3w9. to yap oXrjv BiareXeiP 
rjvrtvovv vvKra evBovra Kal ovrivovv rdv rroXirSyv, 
Kal /jlt] (pavepov elvai irdai Tot9 olKerai<; iyec- 
808 p6p.ev6v re Kal i^avLcrrdfievov del irpdorov, rovro 
alcrxpov Bet BeBox^aL irdai Kal ovk iXevOepov, ecr 
ovv vofiov eir err irrjBev p.a ro roiovrov KaXelv earl 
XP^tov. Kal Bt) Kal BicTTTOivav iv olklo. vtto depa- 
rraLvlBtov eyeipeadai rivcov Kal jxrj rrpatniv avr-qv 
iyeCpeiv rd<; dXXa<;, alcrxpov Xeyeiv XPV '^po'i 
avrov<; BovXov re Kal BovXtjv Kal "jralBa, Kal ei 
•7r(o<; rjv olov re, oXtjv Kal irdaav rrjv oiKiav. 
eyeipofievov<i Be vvKrwp Bel rrdvra^ rrpdrreiv rwv 

^ aper^iv Ast, England: apfTrjs MSS, 

66 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

Olympian victory and is wholly lacking in leisure 
for other tasks, that life we speak of — which most 
truly deserves the name of ''life" — is doubly (nay, 
far more than doubly) lacking in leisure, seeing that 
it is occupied with the care of bodily and spiritual 
excellence in general. For there ought to be no 
other secondary task to hinder the work of supplying 
the body with its proper exercise and nourishment, 
or the soul with learning and moral training : nay, 
every night and day is not sufficient for the man who 
is occupied therein to win from them their fruit in 
full and ample measure. 

So this being nature's law, a programme must be 
framed for all the freeborn men, prescribing how 
they shall pass their time continuously, from dawn 
to dawn and sunrise on each successive day. It 
would be undignified for a lawgiver to mention a 
host of petty matters connected with the domestic 
arrangements — such as, in particular, the rules about 
that wakefulness at night which is proper for men 
who propose to guard a whole State adequately and 
continuously. That any citizen, indeed, should spend 
the whole of any night in sleep, instead of setting an 
example to his household by being himself always 
the first to awaken and rise — such a practice must be 
counted by all a shameful one, unworthy of a free 
man, whether it be called a custom or a law. More- 
over, that the mistress of a house should be awakened 
by maids, instead of being herself the first to wake up 
all the others — this is a shameful practice ; and that 
it is so all the servants must declare to one another 
— bondman and bondmaid and boy, yea, even (were 
it possible) every stone in the house. And, when 
awake by night, they must certainly transact a large 

67 
r2 



PLATO 

B re TTOXlTLICOiV flipr) TToWo, KoX TMV OLKOVOfllKCOV, 

apxovra^; fiev Kara ttoXiv, Seairolva^ 8e koX 
hecnrora^ iv Ihiai^ olKiai^. v7rpo<; yap Srj ttoXu? 
ovT€ T0i9 crcofiaa-iv ovre jal'i •\frv)(^al<; TjfXMv ovS" 
av Tal<i Trpd^ecri Tat'i Trepl ravra iravra apporrwv 
i(Tr\ Kara ^vacv. KadevBcov yap ouSei? ovBevo^ 
a^to^, ovBev jxaWov tov fir] ^(ovro^' aW ocrrf? 
Tov ^fjv r]p.wv Kal tov ^povelv fidXicrrd iari 
Kr]8e/j,cop, eypj]yope ^(povov ft)9 "TrXecarov, to tt/jo? 

C vyieiav auTov p,6vov (f>v\dTTcov %prj(XLp,ov' eaTL 
S' ov TToXv, KaXco'i eh e6o<i lov. iyprjyopoTe^ Be 
dp^ovTe<i iv TToXeci vvKTcop (po^epol f^ev KUKoh 
TToXeploa Te dfxa Kal 7ro\iTaL<i, dyaaTol Be Kal 
TLfMiot TOL<i BiKaioL^ TC Kal crdx^poaiv, aocfjeXcfioi 
Be avTol<i re Kal ^v/Mirdaij T-rj ttoXci. 

Ni/^ fiev Br) BtayofJi,iv7] ToiavTr) rt? Trpo? nda-i 
Tot? elprip,evoL<i dvBpiav av Tiva it poairape^oiTO 
Tat9 i^u^at? eKd(TTO)v tmv iv rat? voXecriv' 
ri/j,epa<; Be opdpov Te iiTavLovTwv 7raiBa<; fxev tt/jo? 

D BiBa(TKdXov<; ttov Tpkizeadai '^pedov dvev ■7Toifievo(; 
Be ovTe irpo^aTa ovt oKXo <dvovv> ^ ovBev ttw 
^icoTeov, ovBe Br) TraiSa? dvev tivwv TraiBaycoywv 
oiiBe BovXov<; dvev BecnroTMv. o Be 7rai<i ttuvtcov 
6t)plq)v icnl Bva-fieTa^eipLaTOTaTOV' oacp yap 
fidXiaTa e-)(eL 7rr)yr)v tov ^povelv p^rjiro) KaTr)pTV- 
/j,€vr)v, eiTi^ovXov Kal Bpi/xv Kal v^piaTOTaTOV 
dr)pi(i)v ylyveTai. Bio Br) iroXXol'i avTO oiov 

E ■)^aXivoL<i Tial Bel Bea-fieveiv, TrpwTov fiev, Tpo<\>S)v 

Kal ixrjTepwv oTav djraXXdTTrjTai, TraiBaycoyoh 

7raiSta9 Kal vr)7n6Ti)T0<; ydptv, eVi S' av Tolf 

BiBdaKOVcn Kal otiovv Kai fjLad}]fiaaiv, 009 iXev- 

* <liyovy> I add (ir«Dt; for iru England). 

68 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

share of business, both political and economical, the 
magistrates in the city, and the masters and mis- 
tresses in their own houses. For much sleep is not 
naturally suitable either to our bodies or souls, nor 
yet to employment on any such matters. For when 
asleep no man is worth anything, any more than if 
he were dead : on the contrary, every one of us 
who cares most greatly for life and thought keeps 
awake as long as possible, only reserving so much 
time for sleep as his health requires — and that is but 
little, once the habit is well formed. And rulers 
that are watchful by night in cities are a terror to 
evil-doers, be they citizens or enemies, but objects 
of respect and admiration to the just and temperate ; 
and they confer benefit alike on themselves and on 
the whole State. 

The night, if spent in this way, will — in addition 
to all the other benefits described — lend greater 
fortitude to the souls of all who reside in these 
States. With the return of daylight the children 
should go to their teachers ; for just as no sheep or 
other witless creature ought to exist without a 
herdsman, so children cannot live without a tutor, 
nor slaves without a master. And, of all wild 
creatures, the child is the most intractable ; for in | 
so far as it, above all others, possesses a fount of 
reason that is as yet uncurbed, it is a treacherous, 
sly and most insolent creature. Wherefore the child 
must be strapped up, as it were, with many bridles 
■ — first, when he leaves the care of nurse and mother, 
with tutors, to guide his childish ignorance, and 
after that with teachers of all sorts of subjects and 
lessons, treating him as becomes a freeborn child. 

69 



PLATO 

Oepov ft)9 8' av BovXov, Tra? o '7rpoaTvy)(^dvcov r&v 
iXevOepcov dvSpcov KoXa^erco rov re TralSa avrov 
Kai. Tov TraiSaywyov kuI tov SiBda-fcaXov, idu 
i^a/xapTcivrjTi,^ TiTOVTcov. dv h av 7rpoaTvy)(^dvcou 
Tf? fiT) KoXd^r] rfi hiKT], ovelhei fJ,€V ive^^^ecrdai 
irpwrov t5> fieyLcrrfp, 6 8e t&v vofxo(pv\dKa>v eVl 
809 Tt]V Tti)v TraiScov dp)(r}V ijprjfxevo^ eTricrKOTreLTa) 
rovTov TOV ivTvyx,dvovra oh Xiyofiev Kal firj 
KoXd^ovTu Zeov KoXd^eiv, rj KoXd^ovra fit] Kara 
rpoTTov ^XeTTcov Be rj/jitv o^v koI 8ca(f)ep6vTco<; 
iinpLeXovfievo'i rrj<; tcop TralBoyv Tpo^fj<; xarev- 
Ovvero) rd<; (f>vaei^ avrwv, del Tpeirav irpb^ 
rdyaOov Kara vofiov^. 

TovTov Be avTov av ttw? dv rifilv 6 v6fio<: avTO<s 
iraiBevcreiev 'iKavw^; ; vvv fiev yap Brj eiprjKev ovBev 

B TTO) cra(f)€<i ovBe l/cavov, dX\d rd fiev, rd B' ov' Bel 
Be eh Bvvafiiv firjBep irapaXelireiv avTw, irdvTa Be 
\6yov d<f)€pfj,rjveveiv, iva ovto^ roh dXXoi<; /xtjvvtij^; 
re dfxa Kal rpo(f}eu<; ylyvr^rai. rd fiev ovv Br/ ')(ppeia<; 
Trepi fieXcov re /cal 6px'^<^^<o<i epprjOrj, riva rvirov 
e)(^ovra eKXexrea re icrri Kal erravopdwrea Kal 
Kadiepcorew rd Be ev ypdfxfxaai [xev ovra, dvev Be 
jjierpoyv, jrola Kal riva p.erax^ipll^eadai XPV ^o'' 
rpoTTOv, w dpicrre rwv iraiBwv einfMeXrjra, rov<i vtto 

C (xov rpe^ofievovi, ovk elpr]Kap.ev. Kai rot ra fiev 
rrepl rov iroXe/xov, d Bet fiavOdveiv re avrov^ Kai 

^ The child is of two-fold nature, — semi-rational ; as such 
he needs a double "bridle," that of instruction (proper to 
free men), and that of chastisement (proper to slaves). 

70 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

On the other hand, he must be treated as a slave ; * 
and any free man that meets him shall punish both 
the child himself and his tutor or teacher, if any of 
them does wrong. And if anyone thus meets them 
and fails to punish them duly, he shall, in the first 
place, be liable to the deepest degradation ; and the 
Law-warden who is chosen as president over the 
children shall keep his eye on the man who has met 
with the wrong-doings mentioned and has failed 
either to inflict the needed punishment at all, or 
else to inflict it rightly. Moreover, this Law-warden 
shall exercise special supervision, with a keen eye, 
over the rearing of the children, to keep their grow- 
ing natures in the straight way, by turning them 
always towards goodness, as the laws direct. 

But how is the law itself to give an adequate 
education to this Law-warden of ours .- For, up to the 
present, the law has not as yet made any clear or 
adequate statement : it has mentioned some things, 
but omitted others. But in dealing with this warden 
it must omit nothing, but fully expound every ordi- 
nance that he may be both expositor and nurturer to 
the rest. Matters of choristry of tunes and dancing, 
and what types are to be selected, remodelled, and 
consecrated — all this has already been dealt with ; * 
but with regard to the kind of literature that is 
written but without metre we have never put the 
question — O excellent supervisor of children, of 
what sort ought this prose to be, and in what fashion 
are your charges to deal with it } You know from 
our discourse ^ what are the military exercises they 
ought to learn and to practise, but the matters that 

'- 799 A flF., 802 A S. 
» C^. 796 A S. 

71 



PLATO 

fieXerav, e'%e«9 ra> Xoycp, ra Be irepi ra ^pafifiara 
irpSiTov KoX Bevrepov \vpa<i irepi koI Xo^Lcrpbwv, S)v 
€(f)afj,€v Betv oaa re 7rpo<; TroXefiov koX olKovofxlav 
KoX TTjV Kara ttoXiv BioiKrjaiv '^prjvai, eKaaTOv; 
Xa^elv, Koi 7rpo<; ra avra ravra €Ti ra ■)(^prjaLp.a 
TOiv iv rat? TrepioBoif; tcop Oeiwv, aarpuiv re irepi 
Koi rjXtov Kal ae\rivri<;, oaa BioiKelv ava'yKalov icni 
D irepX ravra irdar] noXei. rivwv Brj irepL Xiyofiev ; 
rjixepSiv Ta^ect)? et? fnjvcov 7r€pi6Bou<; Kal fir^vwv el<i 
efcaarov rov iviavrov, iva oipat Kal Ovalai Kal 
eopral ra mrpocrrjKovr airoXa^^dvovaai iavrat<; 
€Kacrrai rat Kara (})vaiv dyecrdai, ^(oaav rrjv rroXiv 
Kal eyp-qyopvlav irapexop-evai, Oeot<; fxev rd<i rt/jba<; 
aTToBiBcocn, rov<; Be dvdpconov^ irepl avrd fidWov 
€fi(f)pova<i direpyd^covrai. ravra ovtra> aoL rrdvra 
iKavw'i, Si (fiiXe, irapd rov vofioderov Bteiprjrai. 
E 'irp6(J6)(e Brj rov vovv rot? fxerd ravra [leXXovcn 
prjdijaeaOai. ypa/jLp,drcov ecTTOfxev 009 ov)(^ lKava)<i 
e')(eL<i irepi ro npcorov, eiriKaXovvre.'i re rfj Xe^ei ; 
roBe, ft)!? ovTTO) Bielpr]Ke aoi irorepov eU aKpC^eiav 
rov p,a6i]fxaro<i Ireov rov fieXXovra TroXirrjv 
eaeadai fierpiov rj ro irapdiray ovBe irpoaoiareov' 
ft)9 S' avrco'i Kal rrrepl Xvpav. rrpoaoLtrriov /xivroc 
vvv (pafiev. eh fiev ypd/ifiara rraiBl BeKcrei 
810 ax^Bov iviavrol rpei<;, Xvpa<} Be d-^acrOaL rpia 
fxev err] Kal BeKa yeyovoacv dp^GcrdaL /j,erpio<i o 
Xpovo'i, eiMfielvai Be erepa rpia. Kal fiijre TrXelco 
rovrcov fxtjr eXdrrco rrarpl firjB avra), ^iXofia- 
Oovvri fitjBe fiLo-ovvri,, irepl ravra e^earco /iet^to 
72 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

have not as yet, my friend, been fully declared to 
you by the lawgiver are these — first, literature, next, 
lyre-playing ; also arithmetic, of which I said that 
there ought to be as much as everyone needs to 
learn for purposes of war, house-management and 
civic administration ; together with what it is useful 
for these same purposes to learn about the courses 
of the heavenly bodies — stars and sun and moon — 
in so far as every State is obliged to take them into 
account. What I allude to is this — the arranging of 
days into monthly periods, and of months into a 
year, in each instance, so that the seasons, with 
their respective sacrifices and feasts, may each be 
assigned its due position by being held as nature 
dictates, and that thus they may create fresh liveli- 
ness and alertness in the State, and may pay their 
due honours to the gods, and may render the citizens 
more intelligent about these matters. These points, 
my friend, have not all as yet been explained to you 
sufficiently by the lawgiver. Now attend carefully 
to what is next to be said. In the first place, 
you are, as we said, insufficiently instructed as 
yet concerning letters. The point we complain of 
is this — that the law has not yet told you clearly 
whether the man who is to be a good citizen must 
pursue this study with precision, or neglect it alto- 
gether ; and so likewise with regard to the lyre. 
That he must not neglect them we now affirm. For 
the study of letters, about three years is a reasonable 
period for a child of ten years old ; and for lyre- 
playing, he should begin at thirteen and continue at 
it for three years. And whether he likes or dislikes 
the study, neither the child nor his father shall be 
permitted either to cut short or to prolong the years 

73 



PLATO 

firjh^ iXaTTco SiUTpi^rjv iroLelaOai irapdvofiov 6 
Se firj 7r€id6fjL€VO<i drifio'; rcov TraiBeicov earco 
TLfioJv, a? oXljov varepov prjriov. fiai>6dveiv Be 
iv TovTOi<i T0t9 XP^^^^'^ ^V "^^ TTOre Bel rov<i veov<; 
Kal BiBdcTKeiv av toi'9 BiBaaKdXov;, tovto avT6<i ^ 

B trpSiTov fidvdave. ypdfifiaTU fiev tolvvv XPV '''o 
p-e^pi Tov ypdyfrai re Kal dvayvcavai Bvvarov 
elvat BiaiTovelv 7rpo<; ra^o? Be rj KdWo<i dinjKpt- 
^(baOai, Tiaiv ol<i fir) <pvcn<; eireaireuaev ev rot? 
T€T ay fiivoi<i ereac X'^ipeiv eav. tt/jo? Be Br) 
fia6i)/j.aTa dXvpa TcoirjTwv Keifxeva ev ypdp,p.aai, 
Tolf fiev fxerd fierpwv, rot? 5' dvev pvdficov 
r/jLij/jidrcov, a Br) crvyypd/j,/jLaTa Kara \oyov elpr]- 
fjLeva jjbovov, TijTcofieva pvOfiov re Kal dpp,ovLa<i, 

C a(f)a\€pd ypdp,fiad^ rjfilu earl irapd rivcov tmv 
ttoWmv ToiovTcov dvOpdiiTcov KaTaXeXeLfifjieva' 
ol<i, Si TrdvTfov ^e\Ti(TTOi vop.O(pv\aKe<i, tl XPV' 
aeade ; rj ri irod^ vfuv o vofioderrj^; XPV^^^'' 
TTpocnd^a^ opdSi<i av rd^eie ; Kal jxaka diropi^a-eiv 

aVTOV TTpOaBoKO). 

KA. Tt TTore TOVT, M ^eve, (^aivei vpo'; aavrov 
ovT(o<; r)Tropr]KQ)<i \eyeiv ; 

A0. '0/j^w9 vTreXa^a, Si KXeivla. Trpo? Be 
Br) KOivoiivov^ vfid<; 6vTa<; irepl voficov dvdjKT) to 
T€ ^aiv6p,evov ev-rropov Kal to fir) (ppa^eiv. 
D KA. Tt ovv ; TV rrepl rovTfov vvv xal irolov rt 
ire'KovdSi'i Xey€i<; ; 

A0. 'Eyow Brj' (TTOfiacTi yap iroKXaK}^ jj/vpioi'i 
evavrla Xeyetv ovBafioi<; eviropov. 

KA. Tt Bai ; afiiKpa Kal oXlya BoKel aoi ra 

1 ahrU Ritter ; abTh MSS. 
74 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

of study contrary to the law ; and anyone who dis- 
obeys shall be disqualified for the school honours 
which we shall mention presently.^ And, during 
these periods, what are the subjects which the 
children must learn and the teachers teach — this 
you yourself must learn first. They must work at 
letters sufficiently to be able to read and write. But 
superior speed or beauty of handwriting need not be 
required in the case of those whose progress within 
the appointed period is too slow. With regard to 
lessons in reading, there are written compositions not 
set to music, whether in metre or without rhythmical 
divisions — compositions merely uttered in prose, void 
of rhythm and harmony ; and some of the many 
composers of this sort have bequeathed to us 
writings of a dangerous character. How will you 
deal with these, O my most excellent Law-wardens ? 
Or what method of dealing with them will the law- 
giver rightly ordain ? He will be vastly perplexed, 
I verily believe. 

CLIN. What does this mean. Stranger ? Evi- 
dently you are addressing jourself, and are really 
perplexed. 

ATM. You are right in your supposition, Clinias. 
As you are my partners in this investigation of laws, 
I am bound to explain to you both what seems easy 
and what hard. 

CLix. Well, what is it about them that you are 
now alluding to, and what has come over you } 

ATH. I will tell you : it is no easy matter to 
gainsay tens of thousands of tongues. 

CLIN. Come now, — do you believe that the points 

1 Cp. 832 E flf. 

75 



PLATO 

efiTTpoaOev rj/xlv elprj/xeva irepi vofiwv Kcicrdai Tol<i 
7roXXot9 vm-vavTia ; 

A0. Kai/taX.a aX?7^e9 toOto 76 Xe7et?' /teXeuet? 
fyap Si] fi€, ft)? ifiol (})aiv€rai, t^9 avrrj'i oBov 
ex^ohoirov yeyovvia^ Tro/VXot?, tcrw^; 8' ovk eXdr- 
E Toaiv erepoi^ 7rpocr(f)t,Xov<i, el Be ekdrjoaiv, oijKovv 
')(eipo(Tl ye, jxeO^ (ov BiaKeXevei, fxe irapaKivhv- 
vevovrd re koI Oappovvra rrjv vvv etc roiv 
TTapovTcav \6yo)V rer/jirifievrjv oBbv rrj'i vo/xoOecrla'i 
TTOpevecrdai /XTjBev dviivra. 

KA. Tt ixrjv ; 

A0. Ov TOivvv dvirjfii, \eyoi firjv on TToirjrai 
re ■^fuv etVfc ripe<i eirwv e^af^erpcov TrdfnroWoi 
Kol rpi/xerpcov Kal irdvrcov Brj ro)v Xeyo/xevoyv 
fierpcov, ol fiev iirl aTrovBrjv, ol 8' eVt yeXcora 
mpfxrjKore^, ev ol<; (paal Beiv ol 7roWdKi<; /xvploi 
Toi"? 6p6(a<i TTaiBevofievov^ rcov vecov rpe^eiv koX 
BiuKopeU iroietv, iroXvrjKoovi t' ev ral<i dvayvdiaeai 
811 7roiovvra<; Kal 7ro\vfMa6ei<i, oXov<; iroirira^ eK/xav- 
Odvovra^' ol Be Ik itdvrwv Ke<pd\aia eK\e^avre<i 
Kal rcva<i o\a<i prjaei<; eh ravro ^vvayay6vre<; 
eKfiavddveiv (paal Belv ei<? fiv^firjv rcdefjLevov;, el 
fieWei ri<; dya66<; ri/xlv kol ao(^os €k TroXvireipla^; 
Kal irdXvfxadla^ yeveaOai. rovroi^ Brj av /ceXeuei? 
e'/ie ra vvv irapprjaia^ofievov dirocpaLveadai n re 
/caXa)9 Xeyovcn Kal ri fiij ; 

KA. nG>9 yap ov ; 

A®. Tt Brj ttot' av ovv irepl dirdwoiv rovrcov 
B evl \6yw (f)pd^cov eiTroifi av iKavov ; ol/xai fiev 

^ Cp. Heraclitus's saying {Frag. 16) : iroKvuaOiri v6ov oh 
SiSaer/cej ; and the contempt shown for the rersatile smatterer 

7^ 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

in which our previous conclusions about laws con- 
tradicted ordinary opinion were few and trifling ? 

ATH. Your observation is most just. I take it 
that you are bidding me, now that the path which 
is abhorrent to many is attractive to others possibly 
not less numerous (or if less numerous, certainly not 
less competent), — you are, I say, bidding me adven- 
ture myself with the latter company and proceed 
boldly along the path of legislation marked out in 
our present discourse, without flinching. 

CUN. Certainly. 

ATH. Then I will not flinch. I verily affirm that 
we have composers of verses innumerable — hexa- 
meters, trimeters, and every metre you could men- 
tion, — some of whom aim at the serious, others at the 
comic ; on whose writings, as we are told by our tens 
of thousands of people, we ought to rear and soak the 
young, if we are to give them a correct education, 
making them, by means of recitations, lengthy 
listeners and large learners, who learn off" whole 
poets by heart. Others there are who compile select 
summaries of all the poets, and piece together whole 
passages, telling us that a boy must commit these 
to memory and learn them off" if we are to have him 
turn out good and wise as a result of a wide and 
varied range of instruction.^ Would you have me 
now state frankly to these p)oets what is wrong about 
their declarations and what right .'' 

CLIN. Of course. 

ATH. What single statement can I make about 
all these people that will be adequate? This, 

in Phaedr. 275 A (toAv^kooi . . . So^6<To(poi ytyoySrfS ami 
ao^Hi ). 

17 



PLATO 

TO roiovSe a^^Bop, o Kal ttcl'^ civ fiot avy^ooptjaeie, 
TToWa jxev e/cacrrop tovtoop elprjKevai KoXoi^jiroWa 
he Kol TOvpaPTLOP. el S' ovrw tout e^ei, klpBvvov 
(prj/jLi elpai (jiipova-ap toI<; Traicrl rrjp TroXv/jbadLav. 

KA. nft)9 ovp Kal TL TTapaLPolrj^ ap tu> po/jlo- 
(f)v\aKi ; 

A0. ToO irepi Xiyei^: ; 

KA. ToO 77/309 Tt TrapaBeiy/xd TTore diro^Xeyjra'; 
av TO /xep ecpr) irdpra^i fiavOdpeiP rov<i pe6v<i, to 
C S' diroKcoXvoi, Xeye koX fnjBev diroKpei Xeyoyp. 

A0. 'n ^yaOe KXeipta, KipSvpevo) Kard ye rtpa 
Tpoirop evTV')(r}Kepai. 

KA. ToO 8rj irepi ; 

A®. ToD fir) TrapTdiracn 7rapaZeiyp.aT0<i diTo- 
pecp. vvp yap diro^Xeylra^ rrpo'i TOV<i X6yov<; ov<i 
e^ eco fiexpi' Bevpo 8r) ZieXrjXvdaixep '^fiel'i, ft)9 /lev 
e/xol (paivop-eda ovk ctpev ripo^ eTrnrpoia^ decop, 
eSo^ap 8' OVP fioi iravrdiraaL iroirjaei tlpI irpoao- 
/iOtct)9 elprjadai. Kal fiot "a-co<; ovSep Oavfiaarop 
D ■nddo<i €7rr]X0e, X6yov<i olKelov; olop d6p6ov<i iin- 
^Xeyjrapri fxdXa rjadrjpaL' rwp yap Brj irXelartop 
Xoyoop, 0&9 ip TTOirj/xacrtp tj X^^W ovtox; elprjfiepov; 
jjie/xddrjKa Kal ciKrjKoa, ndpTcop fioi fxerpicoraTol 
ye elvai Karecftdprjaap Kal irpoa-riKOpre^i rd fjidXiara 
aKoveiP peoi<;. ra> 8r) pofio(pvXaKl re Kal iTatSevrfj 
TTapdheiyfia ovk dp exot/ii, ft)9 olfiai, tovtov 
^eXriop (ppd^etv, rj ravrd re BiSdaKeip irapaKe- 
Xeveadai rolcri Bi,8acrKdXoi<i rov<; '7rai8a<;, rd re 
E TovT(i)v exofiepa Kal ofioia, dp apa ttov Trepi- 
Tvyxdprj 7roir]rc!)p re TToii]fiaTa Bie^iobp Kal yeypa/j,- 



78 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

perhaps, — in which everyone will agree with me, — 
that every poet has uttered much that is well, and 
much also that is ill ; and this being so, I affirm that 
a wide range of learning involves danger to children. 

CLIN. What advice then would you give the 
Law-warden ? 

ATH. About what ? 

CLIN. About the pattern by which he should be 
guided in respect of the particular subjects which he 
permits or forbids all the children to learn. Tell us, 
and without scruple. 

ATH. My good Clinias, I have had, it would seem, 
a stroke of luck. 

CLIN. How so ? 

ATH. In the fact that I am not wholly at a loss 
for a pattern. For in looking back now at the dis- 
cussions which we have been pursuing from dawn 
up to this present hour — and that, as I fancy, not 
without some guidance from Heaven — it appeared to 
me that they were framed exactly like a poem. 
And it was not surprising, perhaps, that there came 
over me a feeling of intense delight when I gazed 
thus on our discourses all marshalled, as it were, in 
close array ; for of all the many discourses which I 
have listened to or learnt about, whether in poems 
or in a loose flood of speech like ours, they struck 
me as being not only the most adequate, but also 
the most suitable for the ears of the young. No- 
where, I think, could I find a better pattern than 
this to put before the Law-warden who is educator, 
that he may charge the teachers to teach the 
children these discourses of ours, and such as 
resemble and accord with these ; and if it should 
be that in his search he should light on poebas of 

79 



PLATO 

fi^va KardXoydBrjv rj koX y{n\(o<i ovtco<; avev rov 
'y€<ypd(f>Oat Xeyoficva, dSeXffid irov tovtcov twv 
Xoycov, fxrj fieOievat rpoirui [xrjhevi, ypdcpeaOai 8i' 
KoX TrpSiTov fiev tov<; StSacKdXovii avroix; avayKd- 
^etv fiavOdveiv koI eTraivetv, ov<; 5' av firj dpe<TKr) 
ro)v BiSatrKdXcov, jirj '^pijaOaL tovtoi<; avvepyol<i, 
ov<i 8' av Tw iiraLvw aviJiy\n]<pov<i e%j7, TOVTOi<i 
Xp(*>fi€vov Toi"? v€OV<i avTot<; TTapaSiSovai SiSdaKetv 
812 T€ KOL TraiSeveiv ovro'i fioi /Ji,v0o<i ivravda koI 
ovTco reXevrdro), irepl ypafjufiartaTcov re elprjfievo'i 
dfia KoX ypafifidroov, 

KA. Kara fiev rrjv viroOeaiv, w ^ive, ejioiye ov 
^aivofieda e«TO<? iropeveadai to)v vTroreOivrav 
Xoycov el Se to oXou KaTopdovfiev rj /jltj, '^aXeirov 
fcO"G)9 8ucr')(vpL^€(T0at. 

A0. Tore ydp, w KXetvCa, tovto y* avro ecrrai 
fcara(f)ave<TT€pov, &><? cIko^, orav, o 7roXXdKi<i 
eiprjKafxev, i-nl reXo'i d<f>iK(o/j,eOa Trdcrr}^ t?}? Bi- 
e^oBov irepl vopcov, 
B KA. 'Opdax;. 

A©. 'A/3* ovp OV fxera rov ypaiifiariarrjv 6 
fci6apiarT}<; rjpXv 7rpocrpr}Teo^ ; 

KA. Tt /i7/i/ ; 

A0. Tot9 Kidapiarai'i p,ev Toivvv r]pid'i BokS> 
Twv €p.irpoadev Xoycov dvap,vrja6ivTa<i to npoarJKOv 
velfiat Trj<i re BiBaaKaXia<; dfia koX irdar]'; t^9 
irepl rd TOiavra 7raiB€va€0)<;. 

KA. TioLoov Br) Trepi Xeyei<i ; 

A0. "Eicfiafiev, ol/xai, to 1)9 toO Aiovvcov tov<; 

€^r)K0VT0VTa<; w8ol'9 BLa^ep6vra><; evataOt'jrov^i Beiv 

C yeyovivai Trepi re to 1)9 pvdp.ov'^ koI rd<; rav dp- 

fioviwv crvard<Tei<i, Xva tt]v twv fxeXcov fiifirja-iv rrjv 

80 



1 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

composers, or prose-writings, or merely verbal and 
unwritten discourses, akin to these of ours, he 
must in no wise let them go, but get them written 
down. In the first place, he must compel the 
teachers themselves to learn these discourses, and 
to praise them, and if any of the teachers fail to 
approve of them, he must not employ them as 
colleagues ; only those who agree with his praise 
of the discourses should he employ, and entrust to 
them the teaching and training of the youth. Here 
and herewith let me end my homily concerning 
writing-masters and writings. 

cLix. Judged by our original intention. Stranger, 
I certainly do not think that we have diverged from 
the line of argument we intended ; but about the 
matter as a whole it is hard, no doubt, to be sure 
whether or not we are right. 

ATM. That, Clinias, (as we have often said) will 
probably become clearer of itself/ when we arrive at 
the end of our whole exposition concerning laws. 

CLIN. Very true. 

ATH. After the writing-master, must we not 
address the lyre-master next ? 

CLIN. Certainly. 

ATH. When assigning to the lyre-masters their 
proper duties in regard to the teaching and general 
training in these subjects, we must, as I think, bear 
in mind our previous declarations.^ 

CLIN. Declarations about what ? 

ATH. We said, I fancy, that the sixty-year-old 
singers of hymns to Dionysus ought to be excep- 
tionally keen of perception regarding rhythms and 
harmonic compositions, in order that when dealing 

^ Cp. 799 D. * 664 E S., 670 A f. 

8i 

VOL. II. O 



PLATO 

ev KoX rrjv KaKW'i fiefMifirjfxevrjv, iv rol'i iraOi^pbaaiv 
orav "^vx/i 'yi'^/vrjrai, rd re r/}? dyaOi]<i of^oico/xara 
Kol TO. Tij^i eVavTi'a? eKXe^acrOai Suvarb^; mv Ti^ra 
fi€v aTTO^dWr], rd 8e 7rpo(f>6pa)v et? /leaov vfivfj 
Kol iirdhrj ral<i rwv vicov '^v')(^al<;, irpoKaXovfiepo'i 
CKatrrovi et? dp€rrj<i CTreaOat kttjctiv avvaKoXov- 
dovvTa<; Sid tmv pbLfirjcrewv. 
KA. ^A\r]0e(7Tara \ey€i<;. 

D A0. TovTcov Toivvv Set X^P^^ '^^*? (f)06yyoL<; r^? 
Xvpa<; irpoaxp^l^^dai, aa(f)rjv€la<; evcKa t(ov x^phoiv, 
TOP re Ki0apiaTT]V koX top TraiBevofievov, diroSiBov- 
xa? TTpocrxppSa jd ^deypLura toi<; (^deyp^acrr rrjV 
S' iT€po(f>(ovlap KoX TTOLKiXiav rr]<; \vpa<;, dXX,a jikv 
/jLeXr} TMv x^pBcov leicrcov, dXXa 8e tov ttjv fie- 
Xa>8[av ^vvdevro^ TroirjTOV, kol Sr) koX TrvKvorrjTa 
p.dvorrjji koX Td'^o'i ^paSvrrjTi kol o^vTqra ^apv- 
TTjTL ^vfi(f)Q)Vov [kuI dvTi(f)U)vov] ^ TTa/je^^o/ie^of s, 

E Kal T&v pudp-Siv Q)cravT(o<; TravroSaTrd iroiKLXpara 
7rpoaapp6TTOVTa<i toIgi ^6dyyoL<i t?}? Xvpa<i, 
Trdvra ovv rd roiavra p,7) irpoac^epeiv rot^ /niXXov- 
aiv iv rpialv ereat to t/;? fu,ouaiKri<; ^PV^i^/^ov 
eKXtj-ylrecrdai Sid rd)(^ov'i. rd ydp ivavria dXXrjXa 
rapdrrovra Bva/ia9iav 7rapex£i> Bei Be on fidXicrra 
€vpa6ei<i elvai rov<i veov<;' rd ydp dvayKoia ov 
(TfiiKpd ovB^ oXlya avroi<; icrrl irpoareray/xeva 
fia6?]para, Bei^ei Be avrd TrpoiMV 6 X0709 ci/j,a tc3 
Xpovcp. dXXd ravra p,ep ovrco irepl rr)<; p,ovcnK7]^ 
rffiip 6 7raiBevrr)<i eTTi/jLeXeiaOa)' rd Be peXwv avrcov 

^ [koI avrlfovov] bracketed by England. 

^ i.e. the notes of the instrument must be in accord with 
those of the singer's voice. " The time, as composed by the 

82 



k 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

with musical representations of a good kind or a 
bad, by which the soul is emotionally affected, they 
may be able to pick out the reproductions of the good 
kind and of the bad, and having rejected the latter, 
may produce the other in public, and charm the souls 
of the children by singing them, and so challenge 
them all to accomjiany them in acquiring virtue by 
means of these representations. 

CLIN. Very true. 

ATH. So, to attain this object, both the lyre- 
master and his pupil must use the notes of the lyre, 
because of the distinctness of its strings, assigning 
to the notes of the song notes in tune with them ; ^ 
but as to divergence of sound and variety in the 
notes of the harp, when the strings sound one tune 
and the comjX)ser of the melody another, or when 
there results a combination of low and high notes, 
of slow and quick time, of sharp and grave, and all 
sorts of rhythmical variations are adapted to the 
notes of the lyre, — no such complications should be 
employed in dealing with pupils who have to absorb 
quickly, within three years, the useful elements of 
music. For the jarring of opposites with one another 
impedes easy learning ; and the young should above 
all things learn easily, since the necessary lessons 
imposed upon them are neither few nor small, — 
which lessons our discourse will indicate in time as 
it proceeds. So let our educator regulate these 
matters in the manner stated. As regards the 

poet, is supposed to have comparatively few notes, to be in 
sic wish time, and low down in the register ; whereas the 
complicated variation, which he is condemning, has many 
notes, is in quick time, and high up in the register." 
(England. ) 

83 
o2 



PLATO 

av Kol prj/jbdrMv, ola tou? ■^opoStBaaKoXov: Koi a 
813 Bel BiBdaKCiv, koI ravra r]iM,v ev Tol<i irpoaOev 
BieiprjTac irdvra, a Brj KuOiepcoOipra €<f)a/x€v Beiv, 
raL<i eopral<i cKacrra dpfiorTOVTa, rjBovrjv evTV^V 
Tat9 TToXecrt irapaBiBovTU ux^eXelv. 

KA. ^A\r)9rj Kol ravra BielprjKai;. 

A0. ^AXrjdiarara roivvv. Kal ravB" i)fuv irapa- 
Xa^oDV 6 rrepl rrjv ^\ovaav dpxo>v alpedel<i 
iTTLfxeXeiada) fjuerd rv^V** eup.evov<f, ri/jL€i<i Be 
6p)(i]ae(i)<} re rrept Kal oX?;? t^? irepl rb aoip-a 
ryvp.vaariKr)<i irpo^ rol<i ep,Trpoadev elprjfMepoi'i drro- 
B Bwfiev Kaddrrep /j,ovaiKij<i to BiBacrKaXiKov vtto- 
XoiTTov ov drreBofxev, axravroo'i iroico/xev Kara ^ 
<yvfjLva(Tri.Kri<i. rov<i yap iralBd<i re Kal Ta<? TraiBa^ 
6p')(ei(x6ai Brj Bei Kal yvfxvd^eadai [lavOdveiv. rj 
ydp ; 

KA. Nat. 

A0. Tot? fiev roivvv iraialv 6p')(it]arai, rat<i Be 
opxv^TpiBe^i av elev 7rpb<; rb Bcairovelv ovk dvem- 
ri]Bei6repov. 

KA. "Earco Brj ravrrj. 

A0. UdXiv B>) rbv ra rfXetara e^ovra Trpdy- 
C fiara KaXoifiev, rbv rcov iraiBcov i'mfie'X.'qrrjv, 09 
rSiv re irepl jjLovaLKrjv rtbv re /rrepl yvfxvaariKrjv 
iTnfxeXov/jLevo<; ov ttoXXtjv l^et a')(^oXriv. 

KA. n<w9 ovv Bvvarb<i earai irpea^vrepo^ (av 
roaovraiv einfieXeladai ; 

A0. 'PaSt&)9, Si (j>iXe. v6fio<i yap avra> 
BeBcoKe Kal Booaei 7rpo(rXa/xl3dveiv eh ravrrjv rrjV 
iirifieXeiav r&v rroXirtov dvBpcov Kal yvvaiKcov ot/f 
av ideXy, yvaxrerai Be oy? Bel, Kal ^ovXtja-erai fit) 

^ Kara: koi MSS., edd. 
84 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

character of the actual tunes and words which the 
choir-masters ought to teach, all this we have 
already ^ explained at length. We stated that in 
each case they should be adapted to a suitable festival 
and dedicated, and thus prove a benefit to the States, 
by furnishing them with felicitous enjoyment. 

CUN. This, too, you have explained truly. 

ATH. Yes, most truly. These matters also let 
the man who is appointed our Director of Music 
take over and supervise, with the help of kindly 
fortune ; and let us supplement our former state- 
ments concerning dancing and bodily gymnastics 
in general. Just as, in the case of music, we have 
supplied the regulations about tuition that were 
missing, so also let us now do in the case of gymnastics. 
Shall we not say that both girls and boys must learn 
both dancing and gymnastics .' 

CLIN. Yes. 

ATH. Then for their practices it would be most 
proper that boys should have dancing-masters, and 
girls mistresses. 

CUN. I grant it. 

ATH. Let us once more summon the man who 
will have most of these duties to perform, the 
Director of the Children, — who, in supervising both 
music and gymnastic, will have but little time to 
spare. 

CLIN. How will he be able, at his age, to supervise 
so many affairs ? 

ATH. Quite easily. For the law has granted him, 
and will continue to grant him, such men or women 
as he wishes to take to assist him in this task of 
supervision : he will know himself the right persons 

» 799 A flF., 802 A. 

8S 



PLATO 

D irXri/jL/jteXelv et? ravra alBov/J,€vo<; ifX(l>p6v(o<; koI 
'yi,<yv(ii(jK(iiv T>}9 ^PXV'^ ''"^ /ieye^o?, XoyiafiM re 
^vva>v o)? €v /JL€V rpacpevTcov Kal Tp€(f>ofj,iv(ov tmv 
veo)v TTuvra tj/xlv kut opdov irXet, p.rj 8e, ovr 
eiTTclv d^iov ovd^ j'jp^ei^ Xeyofiev ewl Kaivfj iroXei 
rov<; <T(f)68pa (f)ikop,avT€VTa<; (Tej36fxevoi. iroWa 
fi€v ovv rjpilv Kal Trepl rovrcov eiprjTaL tmv Tvepl 
Ta<; 6p)(}]aei<; koL irepl Traaav rrjv tcov yv/xvacricov 

^ KLVTjaiv yvfivdcrca yap rudep-ev Kal rd Trepl rov 
TToXepiov aTravra rot? awfiacn hiairovrjp.aTa ro^t- 
Krj<i re Kal irdar}'; /St'-v/rew? Kal ireXTaa-TiKrj'i Kal 
E 7rdar)(; 677X0/^0^109 Kal Slg^oSmv raKTiKWV Kal 
aTra'cr?;? iropeia<i ajpaTOirehaiv Kal crrpaTOTre- 
hevcrewv Kal oaa eh iTnriKrjv paSrjfxaTa avvTeivei. 
■ndvraiv yap rovTcov BiSa<TKd\ov<; re elvai Set 
Koivov<i, dpvvp.evov<i pLiaOov rrapd ri]<: iroXeox;, 
Kal TOVTcov pa6r]Td<i Toi'9 iv ry iroXet iralhd^ re 
Kal dvhpa<i, Kal Kopa^; Kal yvvalKa<i irdvrwv 
TovTwv i'maTT]p,ova<;, K6pa<i p,ev ovaa<i ctl Traaav 
rr)v ev OTr\oL<i o/O^J/crii' Kal fidy^rjv pe/xeXeTr}- 
KVia<;, yvvaLKa<; Be Bie^oBcov koI rd^ecov Kal 

814 9eae(o<i Kal dvaip€ae(i)<; ovXcov Tj/xp,eva<;, el prjB- 
evo'i eveKa <dWov>^ aXV et TTore Berjaeie TravBrj- 
pjel [rrdar) rfj Bvpdp,ei] ^ KaraXe[7rovra<; ri]V ttoXlv 
€^(o arpareveadai toi'9 <f)vXd^avTa^ TratBd<i TeKal 
rrjv dXXrjv tt6\iv, iKavom elvat ro ye toctovtov, tj 
Kal Tovvavrlov, 6y ^ ovBev aTrcofioTov, e^wdev 
TroXep,iov<; elaTT€(T6vTa<; pcofir] rivl fieydXr) Kal /3ta, 
^ap$dpous etVe "EXXrjva^;, dvdyKtjv TTapaa')(^elv 

1 (fiWov) I add, 

' [irao-j? rri Swefjuej] bracketed by Burgee, England. 

» gy :'SvMSS., edd. [%v Badham). 

86 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

to choose, and he will be anxious to make no blunder 
in these matters, recognizing the greatness of his 
office and wisely holding it in high respect, and 
holding also the rational conviction that, when the 
young have been, and are being, well brought up, 
all goes "swimmingly," but otherwise — the conse- 
quences are such as it is wrong to speak of, nor will 
we mention them, in dealing with a new State, out 
of consideration for the over-superstitious.^ Con- 
cerning these matters also, which relate to dancing 
and gymnastic movements, we have already spoken 
at length. 2 We are establishing gymnasia and all 
physical exercises connected with military training, — 
the use of the bow and all kinds of missiles, light 
skirmishing and heavy-armed fighting of every 
description, tactical evolutions, company-marching, 
camp-formations, and all the details of cavalry train- 
ing. In all these subjects there should be public 
instructors, paid by the State ; and their pupils 
should be not only the boys and men in the State, 
but also the girls and women who understand all 
these mattei's — being practised in all military drill 
and fighting while still girls and, when grown to 
womanhood, taking part in evolutions and rank- 
forming and the piling and shouldering of arms, — 
and that, if for no other reason, at least for this 
reason, that, if ever the guards of the children and 
of the rest of the city should be obliged to leave the 
city and march out in full force, these women should 
be able at least to take their place ; while if, on the 
other hand — and this is quite a possible contingency 
— an invading army of foreigners, fierce and strong, 

^ i.e. they would regard the mere mention of possible evil 
(esp. in connexion with anything new-born) as of ill-omen. 
» 795DfiF.. 

87 



PLATO 

irepl avTi]<; ri]<; TroXetw? ttjv Bia/Md^V^ <yiyv€aOai, 

B ttoWt] ttov KaKia TroXireia? oi/rtu? ala)(^pSi^ ra^ 

yvvaiKa^ elvai TeOpaixjxeva^, (09 /i^S' Mcnrep opvi- 

6a<i irepl tckvcov fia')(oixeva<i tt/jo? otiovv twv 

ia'xypoTarwv Orjptcov iOiXeiv airoOvrja-Keiv re koX 

7rdvTa<; KivSvvovi KivSvvevecv, dX)C evdv<; 7rpo<; 

lepa <^epoixeva<i 7rdvra<; ^o)p,ov<; t€ kuI vaov'i ifnri- 

7r\dvat Kol Bo^av rov tcov dvOpcairoov jevovi Kara- 

p^eti/ &)9 irdvroyv SecXorarov ^vaei di-jpicov icrriv. 

KA. Ov fia rov Aia, w ^eve, oiihafxw^ €va')(riixov 

C 'yi'yvoiT dv, tov ku/cov ')(a>pi<i, tovto iv TroXei oirov 

yijvoiTo. 

A0. OvKOVV Tl6(t)/X€V TOV VOflOV rOVTOV, fl^Xpi' 

ye TocrovTov firj dfieXeiadai rd irepl tov TroXefiov 
yvvai^l Beiv, iTrifieXeladai Be irdvTa'i tou9 7roXiTa9 
KoX Td<i 7ro\t,TiBa<i ; 

KA. 'E^ft) yovv cruy)(^Q)pa>. 

A0. IId\rj<; Toivvv rd fiev etTTOfiev, S' etrrl 
fieyicrrov, w? ^yoo ^airjv dv, ovk elp-qKa/xev, ovS" 
ecTTi pdBiov dvev rov tw (Tco/jLari BeiKvvvTa dfxa 
D Koi tS> \6y(p (jipd^eiv. tovt ovv totc Kpivoufxev, 
OTav epycp X0709 dKo\ovdi^aa<i fitivvarj tl cra(/)e9 
t5)v t€ aWcov mv etprjKe Trepi koX oti tj} TroXe/jUKfj 
fid^l} iraaSiv Kiv^aecov ovTa)<; iarl ^vyyevrji; iroXv 
fidXiaO ijfiiv r] TotavTr] irdXr], kuI Brj kuI otl Bel 
TauTTjv eKeivr}<i y^dpiv eTTLTr^Beveiv, dXX^ ovk iKecvijv 
TavTr)<i evexa puavOdveiv. 

KA. KaX,ci>9 Tovro ye Xey€i<;. 

A0. Nvv Bt] T7}9 fjLev irepl TraXaiaTpav Bvvd/j,e(o<; 

1 795 D, E. » Cp. 832 E. 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

should force a battle round the city itself, then it 
would be a sore disgrace to the State if its women 
were so ill brought up as not even to be willing to 
do as do the mother-birds, which fight the strongest 
beasts in defence of their broods, but, instead of 
facing all risks, even death itself, to run straight to 
the temples and crowd all the shrines and holy 
places, and drown mankind in the disgrace of being 
the most craven of living creatures. 

CLIN. By Heaven, Stranger, if ever this took 
place in a city, it would be a most unseemly thing, 
apart from the mischief of it. 

ATH. Shall we, then, lay down this law, — that up 
to the point stated women must not neglect military 
training, but all citizens, men and women alike, 
must pay attention to it ? 

CLIN. I, for one, agree. 

ATH. As regards wrestling, some points have 
been explained ; ^ but we have not explained what 
is, in my opinion, the most important point, nor 
is it easy to express it in words without the help 
of a practical illustration. This point, then, we 
shall decide about ^ when word accompanied by 
deed can clearly demonstrate this fact, among the 
others mentioned, — that Avrestling of this kind is 
of all motions by far the most nearly allied to 
military fighting ; and also that it is not the latter 
that should be learned for the sake of the former, 
but, on the contrary, it is the former that should 
be practised for the sake of the latter.^ 

CLIN. There, at any rate, you are right. 

ATH. For the present let this suffice as an 

» Cp. 803 D. 

89 



PLATO 

TO fiexpi Beup' rj/jLiv elprjaOa)- irepl he r)]<i aXXri<; 
E Kipyjaeoj'i 7ravro<; tov (X(t)fiaTo<i, rj<i to irXelarov 
fiepot 6p)(r]€nv Tivd Tt? Trpoaayopevcov 6p6a><i av 
(fideyyoiro, Svo fxev avTrj<i eiBr] •^prj vofil^eiv elvai, 
rrjv fi€V Tcop KaXkiovcov (TcofxaToyv eVi to aefjivov 
fxifiovfievrjv, rijv Be tmv alcrxiovcov eirl to 
(f)av\ov, Kul TToXiv Tou (pavXov re 8vo koI tou 
airovBaiov Bvo erepa. tov Br) airovBalov ttjv 
fiev KUTU TToXe/iiov Kal ev ^ialoi<; e/j,7r\a/cevTcov 
TTOPOi'i acofMUTcov [xev Ka\o)v, '^vj(rj<i 5' avBpiKrj<i, 
TTJV S' €1/ evTT pa<yiaL<i Te ovarj<i '>\rv)(ri<i cr(o^povo<; ev 
7]Boval<i re e/i/ieVpof?* elprjviKrjv av Tt? Xeycov kuto. 
(f)V(Tiv TTjv TOiavTrjv op^rja-iv \eyoi. ttjv iroXe- 
815 fjbiKTjv Bt} tovtcov, aWrjv ovcrav t% elpr]viKrj<;, 
7rvppi')(riv av Ti<i 6p6(a<i Trpocrayopevoi, Ta? re evKa- 
^eia'i iraaoyv irXij'ycov Kal ^oXoiv eKvevcreai Kal 
virei^ei Trdcrr] Kal eKiT'rjBrjaecnv ev ijyp-et Kal ^vv 
Tarreivcoaei fitfiovfjiei'Tjv, Kal Ta? TavTat,<; eVai'Tta?, 
Ta? eirl to, BpacTTiKo, (pepofieva^ av a)^'^fx,aTa ev T€ 
Tat9 rwv To^cov ^o\al<i Kal uKOVTicov Kal iracroiv 
7r\r]ycov fic/xrjfxaTa eTTi,-)(^eipovaav ^ fiip,€tcr6ai. to 
Te opOov ev TOVTOif Kal to euTOvov, twv dyadotv 
(TCOfidToov Kal ■>\rv)(^5iv oiroTav yiyvrjTai fJLifxrjfia, 
B ev0v<l>€pe<i ci)9 TO ttoXv tmv tov aa)/j,aTO<; fieXcov 
yiyvofievov, opOov fiev to toiovtov, to Be TOVTOit 
TOvvavTiov ovK opOov diToBexop-evov. ttjv Be 
elprjvLKTjv 6p-)(r]aiv TtjS' av OecoprjTeov eKaaToov, 
ecTe 6p6(o<i ecTe fir) KUTa (jjvaiv Tf<? tt}? Ka\r]<i 

1 inixfipovffav Badham : ^Tixeipovtras MSS. 
90 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

account of the functions of the wrestling-school. 
Motion of the whole body, other than wrestling, 
has for its main division what may be rightly termed 
dancing ^ ; and we ought to consider it as consisting 
of two kinds, — the one representing the solemn 
movement of beautiful bodies, the other the ignoble 
movement of ugly bodies ; and of these again there 
are two subdivisions. Of the noble kind there 
is, on the one hand, the motion of fighting, and 
that of fair bodies and brave souls engaged in 
violent effort ; and, on the other hand, there is 
the motion of a temperate soul living in a state 
of prosperity and moderate pleasures ; and this 
latter kind of dancing one will call, in accordance 
with its nature, "pacific." The warlike division, 
being distinct from the pacific, one may rightly 
term " pyrrhiche '' ^ ; it represents modes of eluding 
all kinds of blows and shots by swervings and duck- 
ings and side-leaps upward or crouching ; and also 
the opposite kinds of motion, which lead to active 
postures of offence, when it strives to represent the 
movements involved in shooting with bows or darts, 
and blows of every description. In all these cases 
the action and the tension of the sinews are correct 
when there is a representation of fair bodies and souls 
in which most of the limbs of the body are extended 
straight : this kind of representation is right, but 
the opposite kind we pronounce to be wrong. In 
pacific dancing, the point we must consider in every 
case is whether the performer in his dances keeps 

^ Here a wide term, embracing'all kinds of bodily gestures 
and posturiug. » - 

* The technical name for a "war-dance" ("polka") in 
qaick time (possibly connected hyTTyntJUr^^r^tvpfr^. 

91 



PLATO 

6p')(r)a€(o<i avTiXafi,Bav6fievo<i iv y^opeiai'; irpeTTov- 
TO)? evvojxwv avhpMV BiareXel. 

Ttjv Tolvvv afji^LaBriTovfievriv op)(r)cnv Bel -npoi- 
Tov %&)/3t9 T?7<? avafj,(fitaj3r]ri]Tov hiarepelv. Tt9 
ovv avrr], Kal Trfj Set X&)/ct9 je/xveiv cKarepav ; 

C ocrrj p,lv fiaK')(ela r earl Kal twv rauTaa eiro- 
fievoov, al<; •*• \Nv/j,(pa<; re Kal] Hdpa<i koI 'Z^iX.rjuov^ 
Kal XaTvpov^ [i7rovofid^ovT€<;], w? ^aai, fiifMOvv- 
rai Karwv(c^ivov<i, irepiKaBapp.ov'i re Kal TeXeTa9 
Tiva<i aTTOTeXovvToov, ^vfiirav tovto t^9 o/?^7;o"ecy9 
TO <yevo<i ov6' 0)9 elprjviKov ovd* ft>9 TroXefiiKov ovd^ 
o TL TTore ^ovXerai pahiov dcpopiaaadac hiopi- 
craadai jxrjv jjlol ravTj) SokcI a')(ehov opOorarov 

D avTo elvai, %«i)/ot9 p^ev TrokepiKov, %<w/Jt9 Be elprjviKov 
OivTa^ elirelv £09 ovk ecrri ttoXitikop tovto t?}9 
op%^o-6a)9 TO <yevo<;, evravda Be Kelp,evov edaavTa 
KeladaL vvv inl to iroXepiKov dfia Kal elprjviKov, 
0)9 dvap,(pia^r]T'^T(i)<; rjpeTepov 6v, eTravievai. 

To Be T7}9 cLTToXepov Moucrf;9, ev 6p')(rjcre(Ti, Be 
T0U9 Te 6eov<; Kal tov<> tmv 6eo)v 7raiBa<; TipwvTwv, 
ev fiev ^vp,7rav yiyvoiT^ av yevo'i iv Bo^rj tov 
irpdrreLV ev yi'yv6p,evov, tovto- Be Bi^y Biaipolpev 

E dv, TO p.€v eK 'TTovoov Tivoiv avTov Kal KivBvvcov 
BcaTre^evyoTCOv ei9 dyaOd, p,eii^ov<i r]Bovd<i e^ov, 
TO Be TMV epirpoaOev dyadwv (TcoTTjpCa^ ovar]<i koI 
€TTav^rj<;,7rpaoTepa<i Ta9 rjBovd<i KeKT7}p,evov eKelvwv. 
ev Be Br) T0t9 TOiovTOi,<i ttov 7rd<; dvdpwwo'i Ta9 Kivq- 
(rei<i TOV (Tc6/i.aT09 p-et^ovcov pev roiv rjBovoiv ovawv 
p,ei^ov<;, iXaTTOvmv Be eXaTTOv^ KiveiTai, Kal koct- 
92 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

always rightly, or improperly, to the noble kind of 
dancing, in the way that befits law-abiding men. 

So, in the first place, we must draw a line between 
questionable dancing and dancing that is above 
question. All the dancing that is of a Bacchic kind 
and cultivated by those who indulge in drunken 
imitations of Pans, Sileni and Satyrs (as they call 
them), when performing certain rites of expiation 
and initiation, — all this class of dancing cannot easily 
be defined either as pacific or as warlike, or as of any 
one distinct kind. The most correct way of defining 
it seems to me to be this — to separate it off both 
from pacific and from warlike dancing, and to pro- 
nounce that this kind of dancing is unfitted for 
our citizens : and having thus disposed of it and 
dismissed it, we will now return to the warlike 
and pacific kinds which do beyond question belong 
to us. 

That of the unwarlike Muse, in which men 
pay honour to the gods and the children of the 
gods by dances, will consist, broadly speaking, of 
all dancing performed under a sense of prosperity : 
of this we may make two subdivisions — the one 
being of a^ more joyful description, and proper to 
men who have escaped out of toils and perils into 
a state of bliss, — and the other connected rather 
with the preservation and increase of pre-existent 
blessings, and exhibiting, accordingly, joyousness of 
a less ardent kind. Under these conditions every 
man moves his body more violently when his joys 
are greater, less violently when they are smaller ; 
also, he moves it less violently when he is more 

* all England : 4j MSS. [Nu/i^ai re xal] and [iToyo/ia- 
Comes] 1 bracket. 

93 



PLATO 

liL(tiTepo<i fxev uiv rrpo^ re avhpiav fxaWov yeyv/j,- 
816 vaafievo<; eXaxTOu? av, Set\o9 Be Koi u'yvfivaaTO'i 
76701/0)? 77/309 TO aa)(ppov6tv fji€i^ov(; Kal acpoSpore- 
pa<i 7rapex€Tai fiera^6\a<i Tr)<i Kivrjcrewi' 6\(o<i Be 
<f)dey'y6/j,€vo<;, etr ev «Sat9 etr ev Xoyoi'i, rjav)(^Lav 
ov irdvv BvvaTo<i t<w (rcouari irapeyeaOai 7rd<;. 816 
fiifi7jai<i TMV Xeyofievcov a-^r^/xacri yevopevij rrjv 
opy^rjcTTtKTjv i^eipydaaro ri'xyr^v ^v/xTracrav. 6 
fiev ovv e/j,fjL€X(t)<; i)ixmv, 6 Be irXrjfi/xeXw'i ev tovtoi^ 

B tracn Kivetrai. iroWd jxev Br) roivvv dWa rjfilv 
TOiv iraXaitov ovofidrcov 0)9 eu Kal Kara (f>vaip 
Keifieva Bel Biavoovfievov eTraiveiv, tovtcov Be ev 
Kal TO irepl Td<; 6p)(^rj(jeL<i xa? tmv ev irpaTTovroyv, 
ovTcov Be iierpiwv avrwv irpo'^ ra? r]Bovd<i, d><; 
6p9a><i djxa Kal fiov(TtK(o<i utvofiaaev octti^ ttot' rjv, 
Kal Kara \6yov avTai<; Oejxevo'i ovofia ^vfiirdcrai^ 
ifi/ieXeia^ eTTcovo/xaae, Kal Bvo Brj rcov 6p)(rj(Tea>v 
roiv KoXoiv etBrj KarecnriaaTO, to fiev TToXe/jbiKov 

C 7rvppL)(r]v, TO Be elprjvLKov ififxeXeiav, eKaTepw to 
irpeiTov Te Kal dpfiOTTOv e7ndel<; ovona. a Brj Bel 
Tov fiev vofxo9eTr]v e^r^yeladai tiittol^, top Be 
vo/jiO(f>vXaKa ^rjTeiv Te Kal dvepevvTjadfievov, /xcTa 
T/}9 aA,X7;9 fJLOvaLKrj^ ttjv 6p)(ri(7iv (Ti/vdevTa Kai 
veLfiavTa eirl 7rd(Ta<i eopTd<i tcov dvaicov eKdaTrj to 
7rp6a<popoi; ovtco KadcepooaavTa avTa irdvTa ev 
Td^ei TOV XotTTOV fit] Kiveiv firjBev //.r/TC 6p')(r)O'£(0'> 
i')(6/ievov /xj/TC (pBr]'i, ev Tal<i S" avTah i]Boval<i 

D a>aavToo'i ttjv avTtjv iroXiv Kal iroXiTa<i BidyovTa<;, 
ofiolovq et9 Bvvafiiv 6vTa<i, t^fjv ev Te Kal evBaip.ovoj'i. 



^ A decorous, stately dance ("minuet"). 
94 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

sedate and better trained in courage, but when he 
is cowardly and untrained in temperance, he in- 
dulges in greater and more violent clianges of 
motion ; and in general, no one who is using his 
voice, whether in song or in speech, is able to 
keep his body wholly at rest. Hence, when the 
representation of things spoken by means of gestures 
arose, it produced the whole art of dancing. In 
all these instances, one man of us moves in tune 
with his theme, another out of tune. Many of the 
names bestowed in ancient times are deserving of 
notice and of praise for their excellence and de- 
scriptiveness : one such is the name given to the 
dances of men who are in a prosperous state and 
indulge in pleasures of a moderate kind : how true 
and how musical was the name so rationally be- 
stowed on those dances by the man (whoever he 
was) who first called them all " Emnieleiai," ^ and 
established two species of fair dances-^tlie warlike, 
termed " pyrrhiche," and the pacific, termed " em- 
meleia " — bestowing on each its appropriate and 
harmonious name. These dances the lawgiver 
should describe in outline, and the Law-warden 
should search them out and, having investigated 
them, he should combine the dancing with the 
rest of the music, and assign what is proper of it 
to each of the sacrificial feasts, distributing it over 
all the feasts ; and when he has thus consecrated 
all these things in due order, he should thenceforth 
make no change in all that appertains to either 
dancing or singing, but this one and the same city 
and body of citizens should continue in one and 
the same way, enjoying the same pleasures and 
living alike in all ways possible, and so pass their 
lives happily and well. 

95 



PLATO 

Ta fiev ovv roov koKcov (JWjxaTwv koX <y€vvat(i)V 
'^v')(^Siv eh Ta9 'xppeia'i, oXa<i eXprjTai, Becv aura? 
€Lvai, oiaTTeirepavTaL' to, he tcov alcr')(^p(t)v crty/iartwy 
Kal Biavor)/j.drcov Kal twv irrl ra rov yeXQ)ro<i 
KOifKohrjixaTa Ter pa p. fievcov, Kara Xe^iv re xal mBtjv 
Kal Kara 6p')(rj(nv Kal Kara ra tovtcov TTavrcov 
pipn^para KeK(i}p.u>Br]peva, avajKi] /xev dedaaadai 
Kal yvcoph^eiv avev yap jeXoicov ra airovSaia Kal 
E TTavTOiv Twi' evavTLcov TO. ivavTta p,a6elv fiev ov 
Bwarov, el yLteXXet rt? (f)p6vip,o<; eaeadai, iroieZv 
he ovK av ^ hvvajov cipL^orepa, et rt? dpa ^ p,e\Xei 
Kal (TpUKpov dpeTr)<i fiede^eiv, dXXa avrSiv eveKa 
TOVTcov Kal fiavOdveiv avTO, Set, rov p,rj iroTe hi 
dyvoiav Spav rj Xeyeiv oaa yeXoia p,7]h€v Beov, 
hovXo(,<i he ra roiavra Kal ^ei>oi<; ififxiaOofi 
Trpoardrreiv pi/xeiaOac, cnrovhr^v he irepl avrd 
elvai ixrjheiTore firjh^ r}vrivovv firjhe riva fiav- 
Odvovra avrd ylyveaOai <pavepov roiiv eXevOepcov,' 
fi^re yvvaiKa p,i]re dvhpa, Kaivbv he dei ri rrepl 
avra (f)aLvecy6ai rcov pip,r)pdra}v. oaa p,ev ovv 
Trept, yeXoird iari traiyvia, d hrj Kcofiwhlav Trdvret 
817 Xeyofiev, ovtco rut vofio) Kal Xoyay KeiaOoi' ro3V 
he a-irovhalcov, w? (f>aai, rS)v irepl rpaywhiav rjpiv 
iroirjrcov, edv rrore rive<; avrcov r)ixd<i eXd6vre<i 
erravepcorrjCTwa-Lv ovrwal -ttw?, 'H ^evoi, rrorepov 
^oirwfiev vp,iv el<i rr/v iroXiv re Kal ^copav rj p.i], 
Kal rtjv TTolrjcriv (fyepcop-ev re Kal dywfiev, rj ttm^ 
vpuv hehoKrai irepl ra roiavra hpav ; rl ovv dv 
irpo^ ravra opdcoq dTroKpivaipeda rot? Oe(,oi<; 



1 aZ H. Richards : tiv MSS. 

2 &pa: av MSS., edd. 



96 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

What concerns the actions of fair and noble souls 
in the matter of that kind of choristry which we 
have approved as right has now been fully discussed. 
The actions of ugly bodies and ugly ideas and of 
the men engaged in ludicrous comic-acting, in 
regard to both speech and dance, and the repre- 
sentations given by all these comedians — all this 
subject we must necessarily consider and estimate. 
For it is impossible to learn the serious without the 
comic, or any one of a pair of contraries without 
the other, if one is to be a wise man ; but to put 
both into practice is equally impossible, if one is 
to share in even a small measure of virtue ; in 
fact, it is precisely for this reason that one should 
learn them, — in order to avoid ever doing or saying 
anything ludicrous, through ignorance, when one 
ought not ; we will impose such mimicry on slaves 
and foreign hirelings, and no serious attention shall 
ever be paid to it, nor shall any free man or free 
woman be seen learning it, and there must always 
be some novel feature in their mimic shows.^ Let 
such, then, be the regulations for all those laugh- 
able amusements which we all call "comedy," as 
laid down both by law and by argument. Now 
as to what are called our "serious" poets, the 
tragedians, — suppose that some of them were to 
approach us and put some such question as this, — 
" O Strangers, are we, or are we not, to pay visits 
to your city and country, and traffic in poetry ? 
Or what have you decided to do about this ? " 
What would be the right answer to make to these 

* i.e. lest the public taste should be debased by the 
repeated exhibition of any one piece of ^^llga^ity. 

97 



PLATO 

dvBpdcriv ; e/j,ol fiev yap 8o/cel rdSe, *n apia-roi, 

B (fydvai, Twv ^evcov, r]p,el^ icrp,ev rpayaSCaf avrol 
TToiTjTal Kara Svva/xcv on KaWl<nri<i dfia koI 
apiaTri<i' irdaa yovv ^ rjfiiv r) irdXireia ^vvearrjKe 
p.Lfir)cn<; Toy_jca\\iaTqv^Ka\aj)iaTov^iqy, g 5/^ 
(bo. /lev ■>7/i.€t9 <ye ovjws^elycu rpayaSUiv^ ''"9^„4.\?Z" 
uea-rdrTjv. Troirjral fiev ovv vfi€.l<i, iroirjral 8e 
Kai rjfjbet'i i(T/j,ev tmp avTcov, v/xiv dvTire)(yoi re 
Kal dvraycovicrral rov KaWiarov 8pdp,aro<i, b Brj 
v6fjL0<i dXrjOr)^ p,6vo<i drroreXelv 7re(f)VK€v, o)? ?; Trap" 

C r)p,(t)V eariv iXm^. fir) 8i] So^rjre rj/j,d<; pa8ia)<; 
ye ovT(o^ vfj,d<; irore rrap 'qixlv edaeiv aKr]vd<i re 
irrj^avra<; Kar dyopdv Kal Ka\Xi(fi(ovov<i vno- 
Kpird<; elaayayofievovi, fiel^ov (f)deyyofievov'i 
r)fia)v, eiTirpe-^^eiv vfilv Srj/xrjyopetv 7rpb<; TratSa? 
re Kal yvvaiKa^ Kal rov iravra 6)(\ov, rS)v avrSiV 
Xeyovra^ iirirrjSevfidrcov rrepi fir) rd avrd direp 
rjfiel'i dW 609 to ttoXv Kal evavrla rd irXelara' 
a-'x^eSbv yap roi kclv jxatvoifieOa reXeco<; ^fielf re 

J) Kal drraaa rj rroXii;, ■^ri<; ovv vpuv emrpeTroc 8pdv 
rd vvv Xeyofieva, rrplv Kplvai rd<i dp)(d<; eire 
pijrd Kal eTnrrjBeia ireTroirjKare Xeyeiv el^ to 
fxecTov ecre //.?;. vvv ovv, c5 '7rai8e<; p,aXaKcov 
M.ov(Tci)v CKyovoi, e7rL8el^avr€<i roi<i dp^ovat 
rrpcorov rd^ vp,erepa^ irapd rd<i rjp.erepa'i <p8d<i, 
dv jxev rd avrd ye rj Kal ^eXrioo rd -nap vjxoyv 
(f)aivr)rai Xeyo/ieva, 8aiaop,ev vfilv ')(^op6v, el Be 
fxi], 0) (piXoty oiiK dv TTore BvvalfieOa. 

E TauT* ovv earco irepl rrdaav ')(^opeiav Kal fid- 
Oijaiv rovrcov rrepc avvreray/xeva v6fioi.<} edrj, 

^ yovv Bywater, England : olv MSS. 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

inspired persons regarding the matter ? In my 
judgment, this should be the answer,^ — " Most 
excellent of Strangers, we ourselves, to the best 
of our ability, are the authors of a tragedy at once 
superlatively fair and good ; at least, all our polity ^ 
is framed as a representation of the fairest and best I 
life, which is in reality, as we assert, the truest 
tragedy. Thus we are composers of the same 
things as yourselves, rivals of yours as artists and 
actors of the fairest drama, which, as our hope is, 
true law, and it alone, is by nature competent to 
complete. Do not imagine, then, that we will 
ever thus lightly allow you to set up your stage 
beside us in the market-place, and give permission 
to those imported actors of yours, with their dulcet 
tones and their voices louder than ours, to harangue 
women and children and the whole populace, and 
to say not the same things as we say about the 
same institutions, but, on the contrary, things that 
are, for the most part, just the opposite. In truth, 
both we ourselves and the whole State would be 
aljsolutely mad, were it to allow you to do as I have 
said, before the magistrates had decided whether or 
not your compositions are deserving of utterance 
and suited for publication. So now, ye children and 
offspring of Muses mild, do ye first display your 
chants side by side with ours before the rulers ; and 
if your utterances seem to be the same as ours or 
better, then we will grant you a chorus,- but if not, 
my friends, we can never do so." 

Let such, then, be the customs ordained to go 
with the laws regarding all choristry and the learning 

» Cp. Hep. 398 A, B. 

^ i.e. grant you leave to " stage" your play. 

99 
h2 



PLATO 

X^PI-^ /^^^ "^^ '^^'^ 8ouXq)V, %&)y9t9 8e TCI TCOV 

SeanoTcov, el ^vvSoksI. 

KA. nw9 S' ov ^vvBo/cel vvv ye oi/tw? ; 

A0. "Ert Br) TOivvv roi<i iXevdepoi^ iarl 
rpia fiaOi^fxara, Xoyia/xol fiev Kal ra irepl dpcd- 
fiov<; ev [xdOrjfia, /JLerpr^TiKr) Se fiy]/cov<; /cat ini- 
TreSov Kal ^d6ov<i d)<; ev av hevrepov, rpirov Be 
rrj<; rwv daTpwv irepioBov tt/jo? dWyXa &)9 7re(f)VKe 
818 TTopeveaOai. ravra Be ^vfiTravra o^;^ &>? uKpi- 
^€La<i ixofJ^eva Bel BiaTroveiv tov<; ttoXXoix; dXXd 
Tiva<; oXlyovi' ov<; Be, irpolovre'^ iirl tw reXei 
<f)pd(TO/J.€v' 0VT(o yap Trpeirov dv etrj' tco irXijdei 
Be, ocra avrcov dvayKala a)9 ^ opOorara Xeyerat /xtj 
eiriaTaaOai fiev Toi<i ttoXXoi^; ala-^pov, Bi dxpi- 
/3eta9 Be ^7]Teiv irdvTa ovre paBtov ovre to 
Trapdrrav Bvvarov to Be dvayKaiov avTtov ov)(^ 
olov T€ diTo^aXXeiv, dXX! eoi/cev 6 tov Oeov irpwTOv 
B irapoLfJiLaa dp,evo<i eh TavTa dTro^Xey^a<i elirelv ft)9 
ovBe 6eo<; dvdyKrj /xi] ttotc <f>avfj fiaxo/jLevo^i, oaai 
Oelai ye, oXfiai, tcov [re] dvayxcov elcriv, eirel Toyp 
ye dvOpanrivwv, eh a9 ot TroXXoi ^XeirovTe'i Xe- 
yovcn TO toiovtov, ovro<i TrdvTcov tcop Xoycov 
evrjOeaTaTo^ iaTC /xaxpa. 

KA. Tti'e9 ovv, w ^ei>e, al fit} ToiavTUi dvayxai 
TMV /xaOrjfidTcov, Oetai Be ; 

A0. AoKO) jxev, d<; /jl7] Tt9 7rpd^a<i firjBe av 

C fJiadwv TO Trapdirav ovk dv ttotc yevoiTO dv- 

dpdiiTOL'i Oeo'i ovBe BaipLcov ouBe rjpo)<i, olo<; 

[8vvaT0<;^ ^ dvOpcoTTcov eTrifieXeiav avv cirovBri 

1 is: Kal xoj MSS. (Sttcj W.-MolIendorflF). 
* [Ivvmhs] bracketed by Badham. 

loo 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

thereof — keeping distinct those for slaves and those 
for masters, — if you agree. 

CLIN. Of course we now agree to it, 

ATH. There still remain, for the freeborn, three 
branches of learning : of these the first is reckoning 
and arithmetic ; the second is the art of measuring 
length and surface and solid ; the third deals with 
the course of the stars, and how they naturally 
travel in relation to one another. All these sciences 
should not be studied with minute accuracy by the 
majority of pupils, but only by a select few — and 
who these are we shall say when we have come 
near the end, — since that will be the proper place :^ 
but for the bulk of the pupils, while it would be 
shameful for most of them not to understand all 
those parts of them that are most truly termed 
"necessary," yet it is not easy nor even at all 
possible for every student to go into them minutely. 
The necessary part of them it is impossible to reject, 
and probably this is what was in the mind of the 
original author of the proverb,^ " Not even God will 
ever be seen fighting against Necessity," — meaning 
by this, I suppose, all kinds of necessity that are 
divine, since in relation to human necessities (to 
which most people apply the saying when they 
quote it) it is of all sayings far and away the most 
fatuous. 

CLIN. What necessities then. Stranger, belong 
to these sciences, that are not of this sort, but 
divine ? 

ATH. Those, as I believe, which must be practised 
and learned by every god, daemon, and hero, if 
he is to be competent seriously to supervise man- 

1 Cp. 962 C, 965 A fif. » Cp. 741 A. 



PLATO 

TToieiaOai. iroXkov S' au herjaeiev avOpwiro'^ <y€ 
Oelo^i yeveaOai fi^re ev [xrjTe hvo ixrjTe rpia jjbrjd^ 
oXco'i apria Koi irepiTTa Bvvd/j,€Vo<i yiyvcocTKeiv, 
/xTjSe apiOjxeiv to Tvapdvav elSdx:, firjSe vvktu koL 
rjfiepap 8iapidfx,eia6ai, BvvaTo<; o>v, ae\rivr)<i Se koI 
TjXiov KoX TMV d\X(ov darpcov 7repi(f)opd<i d'weipw'i 
D e^f^v. raOr' ovv Brj irdvTa 0)9 fxev ovk dvay/cald 
iari fjbadijfxuTa rw fjuiWovTi ax^Bbv oriovv t(ov 
KaWlcTjcov fxaOrj/jidTcov elcrecrdai, ttoWt] koI 
fiaypia rov BtavorjfMaro^i' irola Be eKa(Tra tovtcov 
Kol TTocra Kol TTore fiaOrjjeov, koX tc jxerd rtVo? 
KaX Tt %«/3i9 rSiv dXXcov, koX irdaav rrjv tovto)V 
Kpdcnv, ravrd iariv a Bel Xa/Soz/ra bp6cb<i irpSira 
cttI rdWa lovja tovtcov r^yovpbevwv twv /madrj/xd- 
Twv fxavOdveiv' outq) yap dvdyKrj (j)vaei KaTetXrj- 
E <^ev, fi (f)a/jiev ovBeva deSjv ovt€ fjLd)(^ecrOac tcl vvv 
ovT€ p,a')(elcr6al Trore. 

KA. "Eoi/ve ye, o) ^eve, vvv ovtco ttw? prjOevTa 
opdof; elprjaOai Kal KaTO, (f>vaLV d \eyei<i. 

A0. "JExet /iei^ yap outo)?, w KXeivla, %a\e7rov 
Be avTa TrpoTa^d/xevov tovtw tS) Tpoirw vofio- 
OeTelv dX>C eh dXXov, el BoKel, ^/joj/oi' uKpc- 
j3eaT€pov dv vopLodeTrjaaijieda. 

KA. AoKeh rj/iiLV, oi ^eve, (po^eladac to t/}? 
r)fi€Tepa<; irepl tmv toiovtcov aTretpLWi edo^. ovk- 
ovv 6p6(b<; (po^el' Tretpca Btj Xeyeiv firjBev diro- 
KpvTTTOjxevo^i eveica tovtcov. 
819 A0. ^o^ovfiai fiev Kal TavTU a av vvv Xeyea, 
fiaXXov B' eTi BeBoiKU Tov'i rififievov<; fiev avTcov 

* i.e. arithmetic, geometry, and astronomy: some ele- 
mentary ("necessary") knowledge of all three is indispens- 
able for a thorough study of any one branch of science. 
I02 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

kind : a man certainly would be far from becoming 
godlike if lie were incapable of learning the nature 
of one and of two, and of even and odd numbers in 
general, and if he knew nothing at all about 
counting, and could not count even day and night 
as distinct objects, and if he were ignorant of the 
circuit of the sun and moon and all the other 
stars. To suppose, then, that all these studies^ are 
not "necessary" for a man who means to understand 
almost any single one of the fairest sciences, is 
a most foolish supposition. The first thing we must 
grasp correctly is this — which of these branches of 
study must be learnt, and how many, and at what 
periods, and which of them in conjunction with 
which, and which by themselves apart from all 
others, and the method of combining them ; this 
done, and with these studies as introductory, we 
may proceed to the learning of the rest. For such 
is the natural order of procedure as determined by 
Necessity, against whom, as we declare, no god 
fights now, nor ever will fight. 

CLIN. Yes, Stranger, this account of yours does 
seem to be in accord with nature, and true. 

ATH. That is indeed the truth of the matter, 
Clinias ; but to give legal enactment to this pro- 
gramme of ours is difficult. We will, if you agree, 
enact this more precisely on a later occasion. 

CLIN. You appear to us. Stranger, to be scared 
by the neglect of such studies which is the habit 
in our countries ; but you are wrong to be scared. 
Do not be deterred on that account, but try to 
proceed with your statement. 

ATH. I am indeed scared about the habit you 
mention, but I am still more alarmed about the 

103 



PLATO 

rovTcov TO)v /naOrj/jbaTcov, KUKci)^ S' rj/jtfievovii. 
ovSafiov yap Seivov ovB' rj cr^ohpa ^ aireipia twv 
TTcivToyv ovBe /j,iyi(TTOV KaKov, aXX tj -TroXvneipia 
Kai TToXvfiadia fieTa KaKrj<; aycoyi)^ yiyvcTai ttoXv 
TOVTcov fiei^oyv ^rj/xia. 

KA. *A\r]Orj Xeyei'i. 

A0. TocraSe tolpvv eKacrrwv XPV 4'^vaL fiav- 
6dv€LV Becv Toi'9 e\ev6epov^, ocra Kal irdfnroXv'i 
iv AlyvTTTO) TTaihwv o-)(Xo<; dfia ypdfjL/xaai fiav- 
B Odvei. vpayTOV /nev yap ire pi Xoyia/jbov'i ttTe;)^i^a)9 
Tracalv i^evprj/ieva ixa9rjp,aTa /xera iraiSid^ re 
Kal ri8ovij<i fxavddveiv, firjXcov re tlvwv Siavofid'i ^ 
Kal ar€(f)dvQ)v, irXeiocriv dfxa Kal iXdrroaiv 

dp/XOTTOVTCOV dptOfjLMV TWI^ aVTMV, Kol TTVKTWV Kul 

iraXaLCTTMV i<f>eSpeia<; re Kal avXXr]^€(o<; iv fxepei 
Kal i(f)€^r)<; [Kal]^ a)9 necfiVKaai yiyveadai. Kal 
Br) Kal TTaii^ovTe'i, (f)idXa<i djxa ')(^pvcrov Kal )(aXKOv 

C Kal dpyvpov Kal roiovrcov tivmv dXXwv Kepav- 
vvvre<;, ol Be koI 6\a<i ttw? BiaBiB6vTe<;, oirep 
elirov, eU iraiBtdv evap/jb6TrovTe<i ra? tmv dv- 
ayKaiwv dpidfidv ')(pT](Tei^, o)(f)eXov(Xi toi'9 fiav- 
ddvovra'i etV re rd<; twv arparoTreBcov Td^ei<; Kal 
dy(oya<i Kal arpaTeia<i Kal el<i olKOPOfiia^; av, 
Kal 7rdvTco<; %p7;crf/i<uTe/0Of9 avrov<; avrot^ Kal 
iypvjyopo'Ta'i fidXXov toi'9 dvOpcawov^ direpyd- 

D ^ovjai. ixerd Be ravra iv Tat9 fierpyjcrecnv, oaa 
e^et fujKT] Kal irXdrr) Kal ^ddrj, nept cnravTa 
ravra ivovcrdv riva <f)vcr€c yeXoiav re Kal aia)(pav 

^ ovS' 71 (T<poSpa Badham : ou5e cipoSphv MSS. 
' Siavofias W.-Mollendorff : Stavo/xai MSS. (Siaco/iaTj Bad- 
ham). 

104 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

people who take up these very sciences for study, 
and do so badly.^ Complete and absolute ignorance 
of them is never alarming, nor is it a very great evil ; 
much more mischievous is a wide variety of know- 
ledge and learning combined with bad training. 

CLIN. That is true. 

ATH. One ought to declare, then, that the free- 
born children should learn as much of these subjects 
as the innumerable crowd of children in Egypt ^ learn 
along with their letters. First, as regards count- 
ing, lessons have been invented for the merest 
infants to learn, by way of play and fun,v-modes of 
dividing up apples and chaplets, so that the same 
totals are adjusted to larger and smaller groups, 
and modes of sorting out boxers and wrestlers, in 
byes and pairs, taking them alternately or consecu- 
tively, in their natural order. Moreover, by way 
of play, the teachers mix together bowls made of 
gold, bronze, silver and the like, and others dis- 
tribute them, as I said, by groups of a single kind, 
adapting the rules of elementary arithmetic to play ; 
and thus they are of service to the pupils for their 
future tasks of drilling, leading and marching armies, 
or of household management, and they render them 
both more helpful in every way to themselves and 
more alert. The next step of the teachers is to 
clear away, by lessons in weights and measures, a 
certain kind of ignorance, both absurd and disgrace- 

1 Cp. 886 A flF. 

* The Egyptian priests are said to have specially drilled 
their scholars in arithmetic and geometry — partly with a 
view to their use in land-mensuration. 

• [*col] bracketed by W.-Mollendorff. 



PLATO 

dyvoiav iv toI<; avdpcoTroi<; iraaL ravrr) ^ airaX- 
Xdrrovcriif. 

KA. Uoiav Bi] Kol riva X€<y€i<; ravrrjv ; 

A0. n <^i\e KXeivia, iravrdiracTi <ye fxrjv koI 
avro<; uKovawi oyjri nore to rcepl tuvtu r]ixS>v 
irddo^ idav^acra, koI eSo^e jxol tovto ov/c dv- 
dpcoTTivov aWa vrjvcov Tivoiv elvat fiaXXov dpefi- 
/jLUToyv, rja^vifOrjv re ov)( virep kp,avTov fxovov, 
dWd Kol virep aTrdvTcov rS)v '¥iWriV(ov. 
E KA. ToO irepi ; \e'y 6 tl koX (prj^;, co ^eve. 

A0. Aeyco Si]' fidXXov 8e ipwrmv ctol Setfeo* 

Kai p,Ot (TfJLlKpOV dlTOKpLVai. 'yi'yvdiCTKeL'i TTOV 

KA. Tt /uL^v ; 

A0. Tt he ; 7r\dT0<i ; 

KA. HdvT(o<;. 

A0. 'H Kal raina on hv ecrrov koX Tpirov 
rovrcov ^d6o<; ; 

KA. II 0)9 yap ov ; 

A0. *Ap' ovv ov hoKel aoi ravra elvac ndura 
peTprj-rd 7rpo<i dWyjXa ; 

KA. Nat. 

A0. M/;/fo? re, olpai, rrpo^ prjKO<i, koI TrXaro? 
820 TTjOo? 7rX,aT09, Kal l3ddo<i d)(TavTO)<; Bwarov elvai 
p,€Tpelv (f)vaei. 

KA. X<f)68pa ye. 

A0. Ei S' eari prjTe acpoBpa p,rjr rjpepa Sward 
evia, dWd rd p,ev, rd he p.rj, av Se iravra rijet, 
7r<w9 ocei irpo'i ravra SiaKeladai ; 

KA. Ar]Xov on (pavXca. 

^ TOUTJ7 : TovTTjs MSS., edd, {ravr7]v ci. Stallb.). 
io6 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

ful, which is naturally inherent in all men touching 
lines, surfaces and solids. 

CLIN. What ignorance do you mean, and of what 
kind is it ? 

ATH, My dear Clinias, when I was told quite 
lately of our condition in regard to this matter, I 
was utterly astounded myself: it seemed to me to 
be the condition of guzzling swine rather than of 
human beings, and I was ashamed, not only of my- 
self, but of all the Greek world, ^ 

CLIN. Why ? Tell us what you mean. Stranger. 

ATH. I am doing so. But I can explain it better 
by putting a question. Answer me briefly : you 
know what a line is .'' 

CLIN. Yes. 

ATH. And surface? 

CLIN. Certainly. 

ATH. And do you know that these are two things, 
and that the third thing, next to these, is the solid ? 

CLIN. I do. 

ATH. Do you not, then, believe that all these are 
commensurable one with another? 

CLIN. Yes. 

ATH. And you believe, I supf)ose, that line is 
really commensurable with line, surface with surface, 
and solid with solid ? 

CLIN. Absolutely. 

ATH. But supposing that some of them are 
neither absolutely nor moderately commensurable, 
some being commensurable and some not, whereas 
you regard them all as commensurable, — what do 
you think of your mental state with respect to them ? 

CLIN. Evidently it is a sorry state. 

1 Cp. Eep. 528 C f. 

107 



PLATO 

A0. Tt 8' av ; /jLrjK6<; re koX ifkdro'; 7rpb<i 
^dOo<;, rj 7r\dro<; re koX firjKO<i 7rpo<i dWrjXa, ap 
ov StapoovfieOa irepX ravra oin(o<i "^Wrjve'i 
'rrdvT€<i, co? Bvvard iari /xeTpeladai, tt/jo? aXXrjXa 

B KA. Havrdiraa-i /xev ovv. 

A0. El 8' eariv av ixrjhaixo)<; fjur^Ba/xfj Bvvard, 
rrdvre<i 6', oirep el-nov, "FtWrjve'i hiavoovfieda co? 
Bvvard, /imp ovk d^iov virep Trdvrcop al<T')(yv9evra 
elirelv 7rp6<i avrov<;, '11 ^eXriaroi rSiV 'l^WtjVwv , 
ev €K€iV(ov rovr eariv mv €(pap,ev, ala')(^pov p^ev 
ryeyovevai to p,T) iiricrracFdai,' ro 8' eTriaracrOai 
rdvajKaia ovBev rrdvv KaXov ; 

KA. nw9 8' ov ; 

A0. Kai 7rpo<i rovroi<; ye dWa earl rovrcov 
C ^vyyevrj, ev ol? av rroWd dfiaprtjfiara eKelvcov 
dBeX^*^ rjp,tv eyyiyuerai rwv dp,aprr}p,dr(ov. 

KA. Uola Bt] ; 

A0. Ta rwv p,€rprjra)v re Kal dp^erpcov Trpo? 
dXkrjXa, fjrLVi (f)vaei yeyove. ravra yap Br] 
cTKOTTOVvra BiayiyvuxjKeLv dvayKalov rj iravrd- 
iracnv elvat <pav\ov, rrpo^dWovrd re dXkrj\oL<; 
del, BiarpijBrjv rrj<i irerrela^ ttoXv ')(apiearepav 
rrpecrjSvraiv Biarpl^ovra, <^i\oveiKelv ev ral<i rov- 
rcov d^iaicrc (T^oXaL<;. 
D KA. "laoo'i' eoixe yovv ^ re irerrela Kal ravra 
dXkrfKwv rd fiadrjpara ov rrdiirro\v Ke')(a>piadai. 

A0. TaOra roivvv eyo) [xev, w KXeiyta, (^rjpX 
rov<i veov^ Belv p-avOdvetv Kal yap ovre j3\a^epd 
cure j^aXeird eari, fierd Be 7raLBid<; dp,a p,av6av6- 
p-eva o)if)e\r](xei, p.ev, ^Xdyfrei Be rjpuv rrjv rroXiv 
ovBev. el Be rt<i d\X(o<i Xeyei, aKovariov. 
108 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

ATH. Again, as regards the relation of line and 
surface to solid, or of surface and line to each other 
— do not all we Greeks imagine that these are 
somehow commensurable Avith one another ? 

CLIN. Most certainly. 

ATH. But if they cannot be thus measured by 
any way or means, while, as I said, all we Greeks 
imagine that they can, are we not right in being 
ashamed for them all, and saying to them, " O most 
noble Greeks, this is one of those ' necessary ' things 
which we said ^ it is disgraceful not to know, although 
there is nothing very grand in knowing such things." 

CLIN. Of course. 

ATH. In addition to these there are other matters, 
closely related to them, in which we find many errors 
arising that are nearly akin to the errors mentioned. 

CLIN. What are they ? 

ATH. Problems concerning the essential nature of 
the commensurable and the incommensurable. For 
students who are not to be absolutely worthless it 
is necessary to examine these and to distinguish the 
two kinds, and, by proposing such problems one to 
another, to compete in a game that is worthy of 
them, — for this is a much more refined pastime than 
draughts for old men. 

CLIN. No doubt. And, after all, draughts and 
these studies do not seem to lie so very far apart. 

ATH. I assert, then, Clinias, that these subjects 
must be learnt by the young ; for they are, in truth, 
neither harmful nor hard, and when learnt by way 
of play they will do no damage at all to our State, 
but will do it good. Should anyone disagree, how- 
ever, we must listen to him. 

1 818 A : cp. Ar. Pol. 1338* 9 ff. 

109 



PLATO 

KA. n<w9 S* ov; 

A0. 'AWa firjv av outw Tavra e)(^ovTa (fiaLvrjrat, 
Bf)\ov a>9 iyKpivov/x€V avrd, fir] ravrr) Be (paivofieva 
ex^iv aiTOKpidrjaeTai. 

E KA. Ai]\0V' Tt /JL1]V ; 

K&} OvKovv vvv, Si ^eve, KeiaOw ravra &)<? 
ovTU T(av BeovTcov nadrj/jLUTcov, iva firj BtuKeva 
tjfiiv 7j ja Tcopvoficop. Keiadco Jievjov KoooTrep 
lve)(vpa Xvaifxa fx rrj<i dX\rj<i iroXiretwi , iav rj 
TOv<; devra^ r][Ma<; r) koX 701)9 de/nivovi v/xd<i 
firjSafMco^ <^L\o(f)povrjTai. 

KA. Ai/calav Xeyei'i tijv Oecriv. 

A0. "Aarpcov Btj to fMera ravTa opa ttjv 
[xddrjcnv T049 v€oi<;, av rj/ji,d<i dpiaKr) \€)(^0€caa rj 
Kol Tovvavriov. 

KA. Ak'ye fxovov. 

A0. Kat fxrjv Oavfid ye irepl avrd iari fieya 
Koi ovhap.Si<i ovSafMT) dveKTov. 
821 KA. To irolov 6?; ; 

A0. Tov fieyicrrov Oeov koI oXov tov Kocrp.ov 
(pafiev ovre ^tjTeip Selv ovre iroXvirpay/jLovelv 
ra<i alTLa<i epevvSiVTa<i' ov yap ouS' oaiov elvai. 
TO he eoiKe irdv rovrov rovvavjiov ytyvop^vov 
6p6w<i av yiyveaOai. 

KA. n<u9 el7re9 ; 

A0. Tlapdho^ov /xev to Xeyofievov, Kal ovk av 

7rpea^vTai<i ti<; olrjdeiri irpeiTeiv' to he eireihav 

Tt9 Ti Ka\ov re olrjdij kul dXrjde^ fjuddrffia elvai 

KoX TToXei ^v/j.(f)epov /cal tw 6eS) TravTdiraai, 

B (f>l\ov, ovhevl hr) Tpoircp hvvaTOV iaTiv gti fir) 

(f>pd^€lV. 

^ OiiKovy . . . u6fji.<»i' is wrongly assigned by Zur. to Clin. 
IIO 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

CLIN. Of course. 

ATH. Well then, if this is clearly the case, ol>- 
\iously we shall adopt these subjects ; but if it 
seems clearly to be otherwise, we shall rule them 
out. 

CLIN. Yes, obviously. 

ATH. Shall we not, then, lay these down as 
necessary subjects of instruction, so that there may 
be no gap in our code of laws r Yet we ought to 
lay them down provisionally — like pledges capable 
of redemption — apart from the rest of our constitu- 
tion, in case they fail to satisfy either us who enact 
them or you for whom they are enacted. 

CLIN. Yes, that is the right way to lay them down. 

ATH. Gjnsider next whether or not we approve 
of the children learning astronomy. 

CLIN. Just tell us your opinion. 

ATH. About this there is a very strange fact — 
indeed, quite intolerable. 

CLIN. What is that } 

ATH. We commonly assert that men ought not 
to enquire concerning the greatest god and about 
the universe, nor busy themselves in searching out 
their causes, since it is actually impious to do so; 
whereas the right course, in all probability, is exactly 
the opposite. 

CLIN. Explain yourself. 

ATH. My statement sounds paradoxical, and it 
might be thought to be unbecoming in an old man ; 
but the fact is that, when a man believes that a 
science is fair and true and beneficial to the State 
and altogether well-pleasing to God, he cannot 
possibly refrain any longer from declaring it.^ 

1 Cp. 779 B. 



PLATO 

KA. EiATora \ey€L<;' dW' aarpcov irepc fidOrjfia 
rl TOiovTOv dvevprjaoixev ; 

A0. 'fl d<ya6oi, KaTaylrevB6fj.€0a vvv a)9 e7ro<? 
elirelv "EXkrjve'i iravra fj-eydXcov deoiv, 'HXiov 
T€ dfxa Ka\ Xe\i]pr)<;. 

KA. To TToloV Bt} ■>Jr€v8o<i / 

A0. ^afiev avrd ovSeTrore rrjv uvttjv oBov 
levai, KUi dX\ uttu darpa fieTO, tovtcov, 
irrovofid^ovTe<; TrXavrjTa avrd. 

C KA. N^ Tov Aia, w ^eve, dXrjdk'i tovto Xeyet?" 
ev jap Br) ru> yStw TroXXd/ci^; eoopuKa Kol avro<i 
TOV T6 'Kcoa^opov Koi TOV "Ejcnrepov koL dXXov<i 
Tiva<i ovBeTTOTe l6vTa<; el<i tov avTov Bpofiov, 
dXXd TtdvTTf} TrXava)fjL€vov<;, tov Be "HXlov ttov 
Koi '%eXr)vriv BpwvTa^ TavTa ^ del TrdvTd ^vvein- 
aTdfieOa. 

A0. TavT €(TTi Toivvv, M MeyiXXi re koI 
KXeivia, vvv a B^ <f)r)fii Beiv rrepl dedv tcov 
KaT ovpavov tou? 76 rjixeTepov^ TroXtra? re koI 
T0i»9 veovi TO fJ'^XP'' ToaovTOV fiaOelv irepl 

D dirdvTcov tovtwv, P'^XP^ '^^^ I^V ^Xaa(f>r)/jbelv irepl 
avTd, €U(pr]p,€lv Be del OuovTd^ re kuI ev eu^^at? 
ev'XpP'^vovf; evae^oi<i. 

KA. Tovto p,ev opOov, et ye irpcoTOV p-ev 
BvvuTov eaTiv Xejei^ /xadelw cItu, el p,r] Xeyo- 
fiev Ti irepl avTOiv 6pdo3<i vvv, p.ad6vTe<i Be 
Xe^op.ev, avyx^P^ Kayoo to ye toctovtov koI 
TOIOVTOV ov fuidrjTeov elvai. tuvt ovv co? e^ovTd 
ecrd' ovTco, ireipS) av pev e^rjyeicrdav irdvTQ)<i, 
'qp.el<; Be ^vveiteadai <tol p.avQdvovTe<i. 

E A0. 'Aw' eaTi p-ev ov pdBiov Xeyw fiadelv, 



113 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

cLix. That is reasonable ; but what science of 
this kind shall we find on the subject of stars? 

ATH. At present, my good sirs, nearly all we 
Greeks say what is false about those mighty deities, 
the Sun and Moon. 

CLIX. What is the falsehood ? 

ATH. We assert that they, and some other stars 
along with them, never travel along the same path ; 
and we call them " planets." ^ 

ci.iN. Yes, by Zeus, Stranger, that is true ; for 
I, during my life, have often noticed how Phosphorus 
and Hesperus and other stars never travel on the 
same course, but ''wander" all ways; but as to the 
Sun and Moon, we all know that they are constantly 
doing this. 

ATH. It is precisely for this reason, Megillus 
and Clinias, that I now assert that our citizens and 
our children ought to learn so much concerning all 
these facts about the gods of Heaven as to enable 
them not to blaspheme about them, but always to 
speak piously both at sacrifices and when they pray 
reverently at prayers. 

CLIX. You are right, provided that, in the first 
place, it is possible to learn the subject you mention ; 
and provided also that learning will make us correct 
any mistakes we may be making about them now, — 
then I, too, agree that a subject of such importance 
should be learned. This being so, do you make 
every effort to expound the matter, and we will 
endeavour to follow you and learn. 

ATH. Well, the matter I speak of is not an easy 

^ i.e. "wanderers." 

^ raZ-ra Paris MS.: toW & Par. marg., Zur., al. 

"3 

VOL, II. I 



PLATO 

ovB av TravTaTTaac ')(a\e'ir6v, ov8e <ye rtvo'; 
Xpovov nafiTToWov. reKfiijpiov Be' iyo) tovtcov 
ovT€ veo<i ovTe iraXai aKr)Koo)<; a^&v av vvv ovk 
iv TToXXo) y^povcp hi^Xoiaai, 8vi>ai/xrjv. Kai tol 
'X^aXend <ye ovra ovk av irore 0I09 t rjv SrjXovv 
Tr)\iKOVTOi<; oval Trf\.iKOVTO<i. 

KA. AXrjdi) Xe7ei9. aWa tI Kal (f)rj<; tovto 

TO fiddrj/jia, Oav/xaa-Tov fiev \eyei<i, TrpoarJKOV 

o' av fiaOeiv rot? v€oi<;, ov yiyvooaKetv Be rj/j,d<i ; 

822 Treipco irepl avTOv to 76 toctovtov <f)pd^eiv to? 

cra<f>€(TTaTa. 

A&. Heipareov. ov yap iari tovto, co dpiaTOi, 
to Boy/MU opdov irepl ae\i]vq<i re Kal rfklov Kal 
T(ov dWcov daTpcov, o)? dpa irXavaTai ttotc, 
irdv Be TovvavTLOv e%et tovtov ttjv avTtjv yap 
avTUiv 6B0V €Ka<TT0v Kal ov TToXXd'i dXXa p,Lav 
del kvkX<p Bie^ep')(^eTai, (^aiveTai Be iroXXd'i 
^epopevov' to Be Ta^fcrroj/ avTwv ov ^paSvTaTov 
OVK 6p6co^ av Bo^d^eTat, to B evavTLov evavTiaxi, 

B TavT^ ovv el necpvKe p,ev ovt(o<;, r]p,el<i Be fir) 
TavTj} Bo^d^op.ev,^ el pev iv 'OXvpiria OeovTcov 
iTTTTcov ouTco<; rj BoXi^oBp6p,cov dvBpoov Bievoovpeda 
irept, Kal irpoaiiyopevopev tov Td^ccrTOv pev &)? 
^paBvTaTOV, TOV Be ^paBvTUTOv d><i Tdj^^iaTOv, 
iyKcopid Te TToiovvTef fjBopev tov rjTTcopevov 
veviKrjKOTa, ovtc 6p6co^ av ovt olp,aL 7rpocT(}>iX(t)<; 
Tot? Bpopevcriv rjpdf; dv Ta eyKoopia TrpoadirTeiv 
dv6p(07rot<i ovaL' vvv Be Br) irepl 6eov<; Ta avTa 

C TavTa e^ap,apTav6vTCi)v r]p(f)v dp" ovk ol6p,e9a 
<o> yeXolov Te Kal ovk opdov eKel yiyvopevov r)v 
dv t6t€, vvv evTavOol Kal ev tovtolcti ylyveaOat 

1 do^d(ofM(y Ast : 56iofxfv MSS. 
114 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

one to learn; nor yet is it altogether difficult and 
demanding very prolonged study. In proof of this 
— although I was told of it neither in the days of 
my youth nor long ago^ I may be able to explain 
it to you in a comparatively short time. Whereas, 
if it had been a difficult subject, I should never have 
been able to explain it to you at all — I at my age to 
you at yours. 

CLIN. Very true. But what is this science which 
you describe as marvellous and fitting for the young 
to learn, and which we are ignorant about ? Do 
try to tell us thus much, at least, about it, with all 
possible clearness. 

ATH. I must try. The opinion, my friends, that the 
Sun and Moon and the rest of the stars " wander " 
is not correct ; the truth is precisely the opposite : 
each of them always travels in a circle one and the 
same path, — not many paths, although it appears to 
move along many paths ; and the quickest of the 
stars is wrongly opined to be the slowest, and vice 
versa.i If these are the real facts and we imagine 
otherwise, — well, suppose we held a similar notion 
about horses racing at Olympia, or about long- 
distance runners, and proclaimed the quickest to 
be slowest and the slowest quickest, and sang chants 
lauding the loser as the winner, why, then, the 
laudations we bestowed on the runners would be 
neither right nor acceptable, though they were but 
mortal men. But in the present case, when we 
commit the same error about gods, do we not think 
that what would have been ludicrous and wrong 
there and then is, here and now and in dealing with 
this subject, by no means ludicrous and assuredly 

* Cp. Tim. 39DflF. 

"5 
l2 



PLATO 

'yekolov fiev oySa/^w?,^ ov firjv ovSk 0€O(f)iXe<; <ye, 
^evZrj (pijfxrjv rjfjLMV Kara Oecov vfivovvTcov ; 

KA. ^AXrjdearara, elirep y€ ovtco ravr ecrriv. 

A0. OvKovv civ jxev Bec^cofiev ovtco ravr* 
e^ovra, fiaOrjjea fJ-expi- 7^ tovtov to, roiavra 
iravra, fir) Sei^^eVrtuv Be iareov ; koI ravra rj/iip 
OVTCO ^vyKeiaOco ; 
D KA. Haw iiev ovv. 

A0. "HSt; Toivvv XPV '^(^vai reXo? e)^;ai' to, 
lye TraiZeia'; ^aOrjfjLaTcov irepi v6/j,i/xa. irepl 8e 
6r)pa<i ooaavTQ><i SiavorjSfjvai XPV> ^<^* irepl 
airavTcov oTrocra TOiavTa. KivBvvevei yap Brj 
vo/ioOeTr} TO TrpoararTOfievov eVt fiei^ov livai ^ 
Tov vofiov; devTa aTrTiWcixdat,, erepov Be n 7rpo<; 
TOi? v6fxoi<i elvai /xeTa^u tl vov6eTr}a€ct)<; re 
E 7re0i/A:o9 a/xa Kal voficov, o Br) TroWa/fi? yficov 
ifiTreTTTcoKe T0i9 \6yot.<;, olov irepl ttjv tcop 
a-(f)6Bpa veoov iraiBcov Tpo(j)r]v' ov yap appi]Td 
(pa/xev elvai, Xeyovrh re aina o)? v6/j.ov<; oceadai 
TiOefievov<i elvai iroWrj'i avoia<i yefieiv. yeypap,- 
jxevoov Br] TavTr) tcov voficov t€ Kal 6\'T]<i t^9 
'jTo\iTeia<i ov TeXeo<i 6 tov BiacpepovTO'i ttoXltov 
TT/Jo? apeTTjv yiyveTai eiraivo^;, oTav avrov Tt? 
(f>fj TOV inrrjpeTrjaavTa rot? yofioi^ cipiaTa Kal 
Treidopevov fiaXicrTa, tovtov elvai tov ayaOov 
TeXeMTepov Be a)Be elprjfMevov, o)? apa 09 av Toc<i 
TOV <vop,o6eTOv>^ vo/jLodeTOVPTo<i Te Kat eirai- 
vovvTo<i Kal yfreyovTO<; Treido/aevo'i ypa/xfiaa-i 
823 Bie^eXdr] tov ^lov aKparov. ovTO<i 6 re X0709 

^ Zur. assigns yeXo^op ntv ovdafj.ces to Clin, (omitting the 
<h> after oUiJ.(da). 

* Ifvai Stephens : eTcot MSS. (?ti for M England). 

" <pofio0iTov> added in best MSS.: cm. Zur., vulg. 
116 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

not pleasing to the gods, when concerning gods we 
repeat a tale that is false ? 

CLIN. Very true, if the facts are as you say. 

ATH. Then, if we demonstrate that they really 
are so, shall all these subjects be learnt up to the 
point mentioned, and, failing that demonstration, be 
left alone ? Is that to be our agreement ? 

CLIN. Certainly. 

ATH. We. may now say that our regulations con- 
cerning subjects of education have been completed. 
The subject of hunting, and similar pursuits, must 
now be dealt with in a similar manner. The duty 
laid upon the lawgiver probably goes further than 
the bare task of enacting laws : in addition to laws, 
there is something else which falls naturally between 
advice and law — a thing which has often cropped up 
in the course of our discussion,^ as, for example, in 
connexion with the nurture of young children : such 
matters, we say, should not be left unregulated, but 
it would be most foolish to regard those regulations 
as enacted laws. When, then, the laws and the 
whole constitution have been thus written down, our 
praise of the citizen who is pre-eminent for virtue 
will not be complete when we say that the virtuous 
man is he who is the best servant of the laws and 
the most obedient ; a more complete statement will 
be this, — that the virtuous man is he who passes 
through life consistently obeying the written rules 
of the lawgiver, as given in his legislation, approba- 
tion and disapprobation. 2 This statement is the 

* 788 AfiF., 793 A ff. 

* i.e. for perfect ^^^tue there is required not only obedience 
to statute law, but also conformity with all the other rules 
of conduct laid down by the lawgiver in the less rigid form 
of advice ("approbation" and "-disapprobation "). 

117 



PLATO 

opOoraro^ el<i eiraivov ttoXltov, tov re vo/jLoOerrjv 
ovTQXi ^ Set fiT) fiovov ypa<f)eiv toi'9 v6/uiov<;, tt/so? 
Be TOt? vofioit; oaa KoXa avrw 8o/cel koI fxrj Koka 
elvai vofi,oi<i ifnreTrXey/jiiva ypdcfteiv, tov 8e axpov 
iroXirijv firjBep rjTTOv ravra ifnreBovv t) ra Tal<; 
^T]/uiiai^ VTTo voficcv KaTecXrjfifxeva. 

To oe OT) irapov rjfuv ra vvv olov fidprvpa eira- 

^ yo/ievoi Br]\o2/j.ev ^ av o /SovXofieOa fiaXXov. Orjpa 
yap TrdfiTToXv ri Trpdy/xd iart, TrepieiXTj/x/xevov 
ovofiaTi vvv ay^eBov evi. iToXXrj p.€v yap 77 twv 
evvBpcov, TToXXt] Be 77 rcov "jrrrjvSiv, irdfiiroXv Be Kal 
TO Trepl TO, Tre^d Orjpevfiara, ov fiovov drjpiwv dXXd 
Kol TTjv TMV dvdpdoTToyv d^iov ivvoelv Orjpav, ttjv 
T€ KUTa TToXefiov, ttoXXt] Be Kal r) kuto, (piXiav 
Orjpevovcra, rj fiev eiraivov, rj Be yjroyov €X€t' Kal 
KXcoTrecac Kal XrjaTWV Kal crTpaToireBwv [crryoaTO- 

C'7reSot9]^ Orjpai. Orjpa^ Be irepi TidevTi roS 
vojioOeTrj T0v<i v6fiov<; ovTe fir) BrjXovv Tavd' 
olov T€, ovT€ iirl ivdai Td^ei<; Kal ^rffiia^; €7rf- 
TiOevTa aTreiXrfTiKd vofiifia TiOevat. tv Btj 
BpacTeov Trepl ra ToiavTa ; tov fiev, tov vofioOe- 
Trjv, eiraiveaai Kal i/re^ai XP^^^ "^^ irepl 6r]pa<i 
irpo'i T0U9 TOiv vewv ttovov^ t€ Kal eTriTijBevfiaTa, 
TOV B' av veov uKovaavTa ireideaOat, Kal fi-qO^ 
rjBovrjV firjTe ttovov e^eipyeiv avTOV, tcov Be Trepl 
eKacTTa dTreiXrjdevTcov fierd ^rffiia<i Kai vofio- 

1 oSrvs W.-MoUendorff: oprws MSS., edd. 
* 4iray6fievoi STi\o7fiev Badham : iiTay6fji(6a- hr]\oi (jlIv Zur., 
al. {Sri\otfiev Paris MS.)- 
^ [arpaTotrtSois] I bracket. 

118 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

most correct way of praising the citizen ; and in this 
way, moreover, the lawgiver must not only write 
down the laws, but in addition to the laws, and 
combined with them, he must write down his 
decisions as to what things are good and what 
bad ; and the perfect citizen must abide by these 
decisions no less than by the rules enforced by legal 
penalties. 

The subject now before us we may adduce as a 
witness to show more clearly what we mean. 
Hunting is a large and complex matter, all of which 
is now generally embraced under this single name. 
Of the hunting of water-animals there are many 
varieties, and many of the hunting of fowls ; and 
very many varieties also of hunts of land-animals — 
not of beasts only, but also, mark 3'ou, of men, both 
in war and often, too, in friendship, a kind of hunt 
that is partly approved and partly disapproved ; ^ and 
then there are robberies and hunts carried on by 
pirates and by bands. When the lawgiver is making 
laws about hunting, he is necessarily bound to make 
this point clear, and to lay down minatory direc- 
tions by imposing regulations and penalties for all 
these kinds. What then ought to be done about 
these matters ? The lawgiver, for his part, will be 
right in praising or blaming hunting with an eye to 
the toils and pursuits of the young ; and the young 
man will be right in listening and obeying, and in 
allowing neither pleasure nor toil to hinder him, and 
in holding in greater respect the orders that are 

* Cp. Soph. 222 D where ^ ruv ipuivrwv Hpa ("the lovers' 
chase "') is mentioned as a sub-species of 0Tjptvriicfi : and in 
Sympos. 203 D the God of Love is described as "a mighty 
himter" (OijpewT^is Sfiv6i). 

119 



PLATO 

D $€Tr)6ivTCOV TO, fxcT iiralvov prjOevra fiaWov 
ri/xdv Kcu irpocna'xPevra aTrOTekeiv. 

TouTO)!/ hrj irpopprjOevTOiv e^rj<i av 'yl'^vono efifie- 
rpo<i €7raivo<; Or]pa<i kuI 'yjro'yo';, ^Tt9 f^ev ^e\Tiov<; 
airorekel ra? y^v)(a^ tmv vewv, eiraivovvro'i, yp-eyov- 
T09 8e fj Tavavria. Xi'ycojiev roivvv to fxera tovto 
€^fj<i 7rpo(xajopevovT€<i Siev^V'^ toi'9 v€ov<;,^D, cplXoi, 
etd' vfjid'i firjre ri'i iTnOvfiia fiJ]T^ e/jfo? r?'}? irepl 
OdXarjav 6i]pa<i irore \d^0L /iijSe dyKiaTpela^ 
E /iT^S' oXw9 T^9 TMV ivvBpcov ^oowv, /iyJT6 iypT]yop6ai 
jjii]T€ evSovai Kvproa dpyov drjpav 8iaTrovovfxevot,<;. 
fjiijB^ av dypa<; dvdpcoTrav Kara OdXarTav 
\rjaTeLa<i re i/j.epo'i eirekOoiv v[uv Oripevra'^ q)/xov<; 
Kul dv6fiov<i diroreXol. KKwrreia^ S' ev X^P9 
Kul iroXei firjBe et9 rbv ea-^^arov eirekOoL vovv 
d'^aadai. fxrjS' av Trrrjvcov Orjpa^ al/ji,v\o<; €pa><; 
824 oif (T<p68pa i.Xevdepio'i ineXOoi tivI vicov. ire^cov 
8r) fiovov d^pevai^ re Kal dypa Xocirrj ro2<; Trap* 
rifitv dO\r}Tai<i, (av 77 fiev rtav evBovrwv av Kara 
fiept], vvKrepela K\rj6elaa, dpyoju dvSpcop, ovk 
d^ia eiralvov, ouS' ?/ roL ^ BtaTravfiara irovcov 
eyovca, dpKvcn re Kal TTayai<;.aW ov <^C\ottovov 
■drvYV'* VLKTi ■^eipovfiepQiV rrjv dypiov rwv 6r]pL(i)V 
pdofirjv. fiovT) Sj; Tracrt Xoltttj Kal dpiarr} rj rcop 
rerpaiTohaiv iTnToa Kal Kval Kac roi<; eavrwv 
Orjpa <7d>/xa(TLV, wv dirdprcov Kparovai Bp6/xoi<i 
B Kal TrXrjyal'; Kal ^o\aU, avr6)(eip€<; 0r)p6vovre<;, 
6<T0i<i dv8pia<i T?}9 dela<; e7rt/ie\e9. 

^ ^ Toi: T] Tuv MSS. (^TToy Burnet). 
120 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

sanctioned by praise, and carrying them out, rather 
than those which are enacted by law under threat of 
penalties. 

After these prefatory observations there will 
follow adequate praise and blame of hunting — praise 
of the kind which renders the souls of the young 
better, and blame of the kind which does the 
opposite. Our next step will be to address the 
young people with prayer — '• O friends, would that 
you might never be seized with any desire or craving 
for hunting by sea, or for angling, or for ever pur- 
suing water-animals with creels that do your lazy 
hunting for you, whether you sleep or wake. And 
may no longing for man-hunting by sea and piracy 
overtake you, and render you cruel and lawless 
hunters ; and may the thought of committing 
robbery in country or city not so much as cross your 
minds. Neither may there seize upon any of the 
young the crafty craving for snaring birds — no very 
gentlemanly pursuit ! Thus there is left for our 
athletes only the hunting and capture of land- 
animals. Of this branch of hunting, the kind called 
night-stalking, which is the job of lazy men who 
sleep in turn, is one that deserves no praise ; nor 
does that kind deserve praise in which there are 
intervals of rest from toil, when men master the 
wild force of beasts by nets and traps instead of 
doing so by the victorious might of a toil-loving soul. 
Accordingly, the only kind left for all, and the best 
kind, is the hunting of quadrupeds with horses and 
dogs and the hunter's own limbs, when men hunt in 
person, and subdue all the creatures by means of 
their own running, striking and shooting — all the 
men, that is to say, who cultivate the courage that 
is divine." 

I2Z 



PLATO 

TovTwv 8r) trdvTwv eiraivo'i fiev nepi koX yJr6<yo<i 
6 Sieiprjfievo'i av etrj X0709, v6fio<; 8e oBc T0VT0V<i 
fir)8€l<; Toi'9 iepov<i ovrw^ drjpevTo,^ KcoXveTco, ottov 
Kal ovr) irep av ideXcocri Kvvrj'yeretv' vvKTGpevrrjv 
he apKVcrt Kal irXeKTat'i iriaTOV firjBeh firjheirore 
idcrrj fMrjSa/xov drjpevcrai' rov opvidevrrjv Se ev 
dpyol<; fiev Kal opecri jar) KoyXverw, iv epya(TLfioi<; 
8e Kal lepo1<i dypoi<; ^ i^eipyiro) 6 it pocrrvy^dvwv 
Q €Pvypo6rjpevTr)v Be, 7r\r]v iv \ip,ecn Kal lepoi^ 
TroTafMOt'i TC Kal eXeai Kal \i,/xvai<;' iv rot? 
dWoi<; 8e i^eajco drjpeveiv /mt] 'X^poofievov ottwv 
dvadoXutaeu fiovov. vvv ovv ij8r] irdvra XPV 
<})dvat TeA-09 ex^iv rd ye 7ratSeta9 iripi vo/j,ip,a. 

KA. KaXco9 dv \eyoi<i. 

* a.ypo7s Badham : ayplois most MSS., Zur. ; al. ayiois {kuI 
ifpariKoh England, with one MS.). 



133 



LAWS, BOOK VII 

Concerning the whole of this subject, the exposi- 
tion we have now given will serve as the praise 
and blame ; and the law will run thus, — " None 
shall hinder these truly sacred hunters from hunting 
wheresoever and howsoever they wish ; but the 
night-traj)per who trusts to nets and snares no one 
shall ever allow to hunt anywhere. The fowler no 
man shall hinder on fallow land or mountain ; but 
he that finds him on tilled fields or on sacred glebes 
shall drive him off. The fisherman shall be allowed 
to hunt in all waters except havens and sacred 
rivers and pools and lakes, but only on condition 
that he makes no use of muddying juices." ^ So 
now, at last, we may say that all our laws about 
education are complete. 

CLIN. You may rightly say so. 

^ i.e. vegetable juices which taint the water and paralyse 
the fish. 



133 



H 

828 Ae. Tovrcov firjv i^ofievd icrri Ta^aadai, fiev 
KUL vofu,od€Tt]craadai kopra<i fiera rwv e'/c AeX^cbv 
ixavreioiv, alrive^ dvcriac koX Oeot<; oiariaiv dfieivov 
Kai \S)Ov dvovcrr] jfj iroXet ycyvoivr^ av irore he 
Kai TToaai rov dpiO/iop, cr')(^686v iaco<i rjixejepov av 
vofiodeTelv [evid 7'] ^ avrwv eci], 
KA. Ta;^' av tov dpiO/xov. 
A0. Tbv dpiOjjLov Br) Xeyco/xev irpoiTov ecrrwaav 

B 'yap TMV fi€V irevre Kal e^rjKOVTa Kal TpiuKoaicov 
fiTjoev diroXeLTTOvaai, ottoj? dv fxia <yk ti<; «/)%?) 
Ourj Oewv rj haLfxovwv rivl del virep TroXeco? re Kal 
avTWV Kal Krijfidrcov. ravra 8e ^vveXdovTa i^rjyr)- 
Tat, Kai iepel<; lepeiai re Kal /j,dvT€t.<i jieTd vofxo(f)v\d- 
Kcov Ta^dvTcov, a irapaXeiireLV dvdjKT] rw vofxoOerT}- 
Kal Brj Kal avrov tovtov ■^i^prj y'lyvecyQai eiriyvtia- 
piova^ TOV rcapaXei'iTopievov TouTOf 9 Tov<i avTOv<;. 6 
fiev yap 8t] v6p,o<i epei SooSeKa pblv eoprd^i elvai 
Tol<i 8(t)BeKa 6eol<i, a)V dv rj (jivXr) eKdarr] €7r(ovvfxo<i 

C 'p, 6vovTa<i TOVTCov eKdaroi<i .e/Mfnjva lepd, ')(ppov<t 
re Kal dywva^ pLOvaLKOv^, roix; 8e yvpviKoi)^ Kara 
ro TrpeTTOV rrpoavepbovra'; rol<i 6eol<; re avroi<; dpua 
Kal Tal<; u)paL<i eKdcrrat,^, yvvacKela'i re eoprd<i, 
6crai<i ;\;<y/Jt9 dvSpcov irpocrrjKeL Kal ocrai^ pbrj, Siave- 
pLovra^. en Be Kal ro rwv ■)(6ovlci)v Kal 6crov<i av 

^ [ivid y] bracketed by England. 

i^Cp. 771DflF. 
124 



BOOK VIII 

ATH. Our next task is, with the help of the 
Delphic oracles, to arrange and ordain by law the 
festivals, prescribing what sacrifices, and to what 
deities, it will be good and right for the State to 
offer : the times and the number of them, however, 
it is, no doubt, our own business to ordain by 
ourselves. 

CLIN. Very likely, as regards the number of 
them. 

ATH. Then let us first state the number. There 
shall be not less than 365 feasts, so that some one 
official may always be doing sacrifice to some god or 
daemon on behalf of the State, the people, and their 
property.^ The interpreters, the priests, the priest- 
esses and tlie prophets shall assemble, and, in com- 
pany with the Law-wardens, they shall ordain what 
the lawgiver is obliged to omit : moreover, these 
same persons shall determine wherein such omissions 
consist. For the law will state that there are twelve 
feasts to the twelve gods who give their names to 
the several tribes : to each of these they shall per- 
form monthly sacrifices and assign choirs and musical 
contests, and also gymnastic contests, as is suitable 
both to the gods themselves and to the several 
seasons ot the year ; and they shall ordain also 
women's festivals, prescribing how many of these 
shall be for women only, and how many open also to 
men. Further, they must determine, in conformity 
with the law, the rites proper to the nether gods, 

"5 



PLATO 

0€ov<; ovpavLOv<; eTrovo/xaajiov kuItI^ tmv rovroi^ 
eTTOfievcav ov ^vfifiLKriov dWa '^cjopiaTeov, ev rtp 

D Tov Yi\ovTwvo<i ixrjvX TM BcoBeKaTO) Kara rov vofxov 
u7roSi86vTa<i, Koi ov Bvcr'x^epavTeov TroXe/iiArot? 
dvOpwTTOi^ TOV TOiovTOV 6e6v, dWa Ttftrjreov (w? 
ovTa del to) tmv dvdpcoTrcov yevei dpiarov Kotvcovla 
lydp "^Irvx^fj KoX aM/xuTi hioXvcrewi ovk eariv rj 
KpeiTTOv, ft)? iyot) ^airjv dv airovhrj Xeycov tt/so? 
rovroL^ Be Bidvotav %/3^ a')(elv Tov<i Biaiprjaouja^ 
iKavco<; Tavra roidvBe, cl)? ecr^' tj/jllv rj TroXf? o'lav 
OVK dv Tf<? erepav evpoi rcov vvv "nepl ')(p6vov 
(TXo\ij<i Kol rcav dvajKaLcov e^ovaia<i, Bel Be avTrjV, 
829 Kaddtrep eva dvOpcoirov, ^fjv ev. toi<; Be evSaip,6- 
vu)<i ^axriv v'irdp')(^eiv dvdyKr) irpcoTOv to jxrjTe 
dBiKelv dWov<i fxr'jd^ v(f>' eTepcov avTov<; dBiK€C(rOai. 
TOVTOLv Be TO fxev ov irdw 'X^aXeirov, tov Be fir) 
dBiKeiadai icTrjaaaOai Bvva/jiiv irayy^dXeirov, Koi 
ovk eaTiv avTO reXew? o')(elv dW(o<; rj reA-ew? jevo- 
jxevov dyaOov tuvtov Bt) tovto ecTTi kuI ttoXci 
vTrdpxeiv, <yevop,evr] fxev dyadfj ^io<i elptjviKo^, 
TToXe/jiCKo<i Be e^oiOev re koX evBodev, dv rj KaKrf. 
TovTcov Be TavTr] a'yeBov e^ovTcov ovk ev 7roXep,(p 

B TOV TToXefiov eKd(TT0i<; yv/xvaaTeov, dXX ev tw Ti]<i 
elp7]vr]'i yStft). Bel Toivvv ttoXlv eKacrTOV fxr/vo^; 
vovv K€KT7]fievrjv (TTpaTeveadat, /jltj cXuttov pidf 
rj/jbepa<;, TrXetou? Be, ft)9 dv Koi toU dp)(^ovai 
^vvBoKTj, firjBev 'xetfioiva^ rj Kav/xaTU BievXa^ov- 
fievovi, avTov<i re dp,a koX yvvalKa<; koi 7ralBa<i, 
OTav ft)9 iravBrjixiav e^dyeiv Bo^rj TOt<i dp')(^ovai, 

1 t/ W. R. Paton : rh MSS., edd. 

1 Cp. 832 Cff., 835 D, E. 
is6 



LAWS, BOOK VIII 

and how many of the celestial gods should be in- 
voked, and what of the rites connected with them 
should not be mingled but kept apart, and put them 
in the twelfth month, which is sacred to Pluto ; 
and this god should not be disliked by men who are 
warriors, but honoured as one who is always most 
good to the human race ; for, as I would assert in 
all seriousness, union is in no way better for soul 
and body than dissolution. Moreover, if they are to 
arrange these matters adequately, these persons 
must believe that no other State exists which can 
compare with ours in respect of the degree in which 
it possesses leisure and control over the necessities 
of life ; ^ and believe also that it, like an individual, 
ought to lead a good life. But for a good and blessed 
life, the first requisite is neither to do wrong oneself 
nor to suffer wrong from others. Of these, the 
former is not very hard, but it is very hard to secure 
immunity from suffering wrong ; ^ indeed, it is im- 
possible to gain this perfectly, except by becoming 
perfectly good. So likewise a State may obtain a 
life of peace if it becomes good, but if bad, a life of 
war both abroad and at home. This being so, all 
men must train for war not in war-time, but while 
they are living in peace.^ Therefore, a judicious 
State must carry out a march, every month, for not 
less than one whole day, or more (according as the 
rulers decree),* paying no heed to cold weather or 
hot : all shall join in it — men, women and children 
— whenever the rulers decide to march them out 

* Cp. 663 A, 904 Ef. "Perfect goodness" helps to 
secure this " immunitj' " because it includes the virtue of 
"courage " : people do not lightly provoke the brave warrior. 

' Cp. 803 D, 8U D. * Cp. 830 D. 

127 



PLATO 

Tore Be koX Kara fieptj' kul Tiva<; del 7ratSfa9 
firj^avdadat Ka\d<; d/xa OvaiaL^, otto)^ dv 'yl'^vcov- 

C rai fidxai' Tive<; eopraariKai, ^ifiovixevai ra? 
TToXe/jLiKo.'i OTL /xaXiara evapyw^ /id](^a<i. vtKrjrrjpia 
Se Kal dpiarela eKaaroiai tovtcov Sel Biavifxeiv 
iyK(t)fiid re Kal yp-6'yov<i iroielv dWrj\oi<i, QTTol6<i 
Tt? dv €Ka(XTO<; 'yCyvrjrat Kara re rov<; djMva'i ev 
rravri re av rm /3ia>, rov re dpiarov SoKovvra 
elvai KoajJLOvvra^ Kal rov firj y^reyovrai;. 7roir}rr)<i 
Be earo) rdv roiovrcov fj,r] aTra?, dWd yeyovco'; 
rrpoirov fiev fir] eXarrov 7revrt]Kovra irwv, fiijB^ av 
ro)v oTToaoL TToirjaiv fiev Kal ^lovaav iKavSi<i 
KeKrT]p,evoi ev avrol^ elai, KaXbv Be epjov Kal 

D em(^ave<i /jtrjBev Bpdaavre^ rroirrore' oaot, Be 
dyadoi re avrol Kal rt/JLioi ev rfj iroXet, epyeov 
ovr€<i Br)/xt,ovpyol koXwv, rd rwv roiovroav 
dBeaOco Troitjfxara, edv Kal /nrj fiovaiKa 7re<pVK7). 
KpLai<; Be avroiv earco irapd re tc3 rraiBevrfi Kal 
T0t9 dWoi'; vofiO(f)v\a^i, rovro dTroBiBoj^roiV 
avrot<i yepa<;, Trapprjcrlav ev Moi;<raf9 elvai, fi6voi<;, 
roi<i Be dX\oi<; /xrjBe/xLav e^ovaiav ylyvecrdai fxrjBe 
rtva roXfiav dBeiv dBoKi/nov Movaav [fir] Kpivdv- 

E rwv roiv vofiO(f)v\dKQ)v],^ fir]B dv r]BioiiV y rwv 
©afivpov re Kal ^Op(f>eicov vfivcov, dXX' oaa re 
lepd KpiOevra iroirffiara eBoOi] rot^ deol^ Kal oaa 
dyaQdv ovra dvBpcov yjreyovra f] eTraivovvrd riva<; 
eKpiOr] fierpi,o)<i Bpdv ro roiovrov. 

Ta avrd Be Xeyco arpareiaf; re irepi Kal rrj<i ev 
"TTOiifcreai Trapprjaia^ yvvai^i re Kal dvBpdaiv 
6fLoi(o<i yiyveadai Belv. ^prj Be dva^epeiv TrapaBei- 

^ [yu)j . . . vofio^vAiKwp] bracketed by England. 
138 



LAWS, BOOK VIII 

en masse, and at other times they shall go in sections. 
Along with sacrifices, they must continually devise 
noble games, to serve as festival -contests, modelled 
as closely as possible on those of war. At each of 
these they must distribute prizes and awards of merit, 
and compose for one another speeches of praise and 
blame, according to the character each one exhibits 
not only in the contests, but in his life generally, 
magnifying him who is accounted most good and 
blaming him who is not. Such speeches not everyone 
shall compose ; for, first, no one who is under fifty 
years old shall compose one, and further, no one 
shall do so who, though he may be fully proficient in 
poetry and music, has not as yet performed any noble 
or notable deed. But, even though they be not 
musical, those pwems shall be sung which are com- 
posed by men ^ who are personally good and honoured 
in the State as performers of noble deeds. The 
adjudication of these shall lie with the Educator and 
the rest of the Law-wardens, who shall grant them 
the sole privilege of free speech in song ; whereas to 
the others no permission shall be given ; nor yet 
shall anyone venture to sing an unauthorised song — 
not even should it be sweeter than the hymns of 
Orpheus or of Thamyras, — but only such sacred 
poems as have won the judges' approval and have 
been presented to the gods, or those by good men 
which have been adjudged to have duly distributed 
praise or blame. 

In regard both to military operations and to 
freedom of poetic speech I state that the same 
rules shall apply equally to both men and women. 
The lawgiver ought to commune with himself and 

» Cp. 936 A. 

129 



PLATO 

Kvvvra eavro) tov voixoderriv ro) Xoyo)' <^ep€, riVa? 
830 TTOre Tpecfxo rrjv iroXiv oXrjv irapacrKevdcra'i ; ap 
ovK ad\rira<i twv fieylaTcov dycopcov, ol<; dvraycovi- 
aral p,vpLOi UTrap^ouo-t ; Kal nrdw ye, (pair] rt? dv 
opB(b<i Xeycov. Tt 87]ra ; el TrvKra^; rj irayKparia- 
(xra^ erpe<popev 17 ri roov toiovtoov erepov dycovi- 
ap,dTa>v dSXovvTa^, dpa eh avTov dv d7rrjvra)p.ev 
TOV dymva ev ru> irpoadev ^(^povui ovSevl Kaff rfpipav 
Trpoap,a)(^6p,€voc ; rj irvKrai ye 6vTe<i Tra/j-TToWaf av 
r)pepa<i e/xirpoaOev rov dywvo<i ipavddvopev re av 

B p,d-)(e<j6ai, Kal Bi€Trovovp.eda, fxtpoupevoi irdpra 
€K€tva oiroaoi'i ip^eWopev Ci? Tore 'xpyjaeo'dai irepl 
T7]<; vIkt]<; Biap,a')(^op,evoL ; Kal o)? iyyvrara tov 
opoiov lovT€<; uvtI IpdvTwv (X(palpa<i dv irepieBov- 
pie6a, 0770)9 al 7r\t]yai re Kal al raiv TrXijy&v evXd- 
^eiai Bie/jLe\eT(ovTo eZ? to BvvaTov iKav(b<; ; et re ti<} 
i)plv avyyvpvaaTwv avve^aivev diropLa irXeicov, dp' 
av heiaavre^; rov twv dvor)ra>v yekcora ovk dv ero\- 
pLoypev KpepavvvvTe<i ethfoXov dy\rv)(ov yvpvd^eadai 
TT/oo? avTo ; Kal en ttovtcov roiv re ep,'^v')(wv Kal 

C rSiv dyfrv^fov dTT0p7]aavre<; irore, ev epr]p,ia avy- 
yvpvaaroiv dpd ye ovk eroXfi'^aafiev dv avrol irpo^ 
^p,d<; avTov<i aKcapa')(€iv 6vT(o<i ; rj ri irore dXko 
Trjv TOV x^ipovopelv peXerrjv dv tc<; (pair] yeyovkvai ; 
KA. S^eSw, w ^eve, ovSev dWo ye irXrjv tovto 
avro o av vvv e(f>6ey^ai. 

A0. Tt ovv ; TO T^9 TToXeco? r]p,lv pd^tpov 
V X^^P^^ '^'' 'Jr<^po-<^Keva(Tdp,evov rStv roiovrcov 
dycoviaTMv et9 tov peyiarov iSiv dydtvcov eKdaroTe 
ToXpj](Tec Traptevai, hiapa'X^ovpeiov irepl i/ry^^? 
[tc] Kal iraihayv Kal 'y^prjpdrcov Kal O/Vt;? t% 
D TToXeo)? ; Kal ravTa Br] (po^rjdels avTwv 6 vofio- 
130 



LAWS, BOOK VIII 

reason thus — •' Come now, what men am I to rear 
up, when I have made ready the whole State ? Are 
they not to be competitors hi the greatest of con- 
tests, wherein their antagonists will be numberless ? " 
" Most certainly," one would rightly reply. What 
then ? Suppose we had been rearing boxers or pan- 
eratiasts or competitors in any similar branch of 
athletics, should we have gone straight into the 
contest without previously engaging in daily combat 
with someone ? If we were boxers, for a great many 
days before the contest we should have been learning 
how to fight, and working hard, practising in mimicry 
all those methods we meant to employ on the day 
we should be fighting for victory, and imitating the 
real thing as nearly as jwssible : thus, we should don 
padded gloves instead of proper ring-gloves, so as to 
get the best possible practice in giving blows and 
dodging them ; and if we chanced to be very short 
of training-mates, do you suppose that we should be 
deterred by fear of the laughter of fools from hang- 
ing up a lifeless dummy and practising on it ? - '"' 
Indeed, if ever we were in a desert, and without ^ 
either live or lifeless training-mates, would we not "^ 
have recourse to shadow-fighting of the most literal 
kind, against ourselves ? Or what else should one 
call the practice of pugilistic posturing ? 

CLIN. There is no other name for it, Stranger, than 
the one you have just given to it. 

ATH. What then r Is the fighting force of our 
State to venture to come forward every time to fight 
for their lives, their children, their goods, and for the 
whole State, after a less thorough preparation than 
the competitors we have been describing ? And so 
is their lawgiver, through fear lest these training- 
's* 
k2 



PLATO 

6€T)]<i ra 77/30? aXX.i']\ov<; yvfivdcria fjurj ^aivqrai 
Ticn jeXola, ovK apa vojjLoderrjcrei arpaTeveadai 
TrpoardrTcov p,dXiara fiev iKdary]<; rj/j,€pa<i tu ye 
(TfjLiKpd %0)/)t9 Twv oirXwv, 'X,opov<; re eU ravra 
djia Kol yvfMvacTTiKTjv irdaav ^vvreivcov ; Td<i 8e 
olov TLva<i fiei^ov<i re koI eVoTrXtof ? ^ <yvp,vaa[a<; 
fxi] eXarrov rj kutcl fiyva eKacrrov TroielcrOat 
E TTpocTTd^ei, dp,lXXa<i re tt/jo? dXX'>]Xov<; iroiov- 
fievov<i Kara irdaav rrjv ')((i>pav, eVi KardXr^y^iv 
'X^Mpiwv dp,tXXa>fi6vov^ kol ive8pa<;, /cal rrdaav 
fii/xovfievovs rrjv TroXe/iiKrjP 6vra)<; af^aipofxay^elv 
re Kal ^oXal<i co<; iyyvrara roiv dXrjdSiv ^/aw/ieVoi/? 
vTTOKivhvvoL'i /3eXeaiv, otto)? /j,r) Travrdiracrtv 
d(f)o^o^ r) Trpo^ dXXijXovi yiyvrjrat TraiBcd, Sel- 
fiara Se Trape^j] Kai rcva rpoirov SrjXot rov re 
831 €vy\rvyov Kal rov fxrj, Kal rot? fiev npbd^, rol<i he 
Kal drLp,ia<i Siavificov opdcb'i rrjv ttoXlv oXrjv et? 
rov dXrjdivov dycova 8id jBiov rrapaaKevd^t) XPV' 
crifi')]V' Kal 8r) Kal riva d7To9av6vro<; ovrco^, &)? 
aKovaiov rov (f)6vov yevo/xevov, ndfj rov drroKrei- 
vavra Kara vofiov KaOapOevra KaOapov eivai 
')(elpa<i, r]yovixevo<i dvdpdyircov p,ev reXevrrjadvrcov 
fiT] ttoXXmv erepov<i irdXiv ov 'X^etpov^ (pvcreadac, 
(f)6^ov Se olov reXevrrjcravro'i iv Trdai roi<i roiov- 
roi<; ^daavov ov^ evprjaeiv rcov re dfieivovcov Kal 
B 'Xj^ipovoiv, ov crp.iKp(p rroXei fiel^ov KaKOv eKeivov. 
KA. 'B,v/jL(f)alp,ev dv r/fiel^ ye, o) ^eve, ra rotavra 
Zelv Kal vofioderelv Kal emrrjSeveiv iroXiv aTraaav. 
A0. 'A/o' ovv ytyvdiaKOfxev diravre^ rrjv alrlav 

1 ivoirXiovs ci. Stallb., England : ixdrrovs MSS. 

^ " Sphaeromachia " was a (hand) ball contest between 
opposing sides (something like our hockey or polo matches). 
132 



LAWS, BOOK VIII 

bouts may appear ridiculous to some, to refrain from 
laying down laws whereby he will ordain field- 
operations, of which the minor kind, without heavy 
arms, will take place daily, if possible, — and to this 
end both the choristry and all the gymnastic shall be 
directed, — while the others, as a major kind of 
g}Tnnastics in full armour, he shall order to be held 
at least once a month ? In this latter kind they will 
engage in contests with one another throughout the 
whole country, contending in the capturing of forts 
and in ambuscades and in all forms of mimic warfare ; 
in fact, they shall do literal fighting with balls ^ and 
darts as nearly real as possible, — though the points 
of the darts shall be made less dangerous, — in order 
that their games of combat may not be devoid of 
some element of alarm, but may provide terrors and 
indicate to some extent who is stout-hearted and 
who not : to the former the lawgiver shall duly 
assign honours, to the latter degradation, that thus 
he may prepare the whole State to be serviceable 
throughout life in the real contest. Moreover, if a 
man gets killed in these sham fights, inasmuch as 
the murder is involuntary, he shall pronounce the 
slayer to be pure of hands, when he has been legally 
purified ; for he will reflect that, when a few men 
die, others equally good will grow up in their place, 
whereas, once fear is, so to speak, dead, he will be 
unable to find a test to distinguish, in all such cases, 
the good from the bad, — and that is a far greater 
evil than the other for a State. 

CLIN. We, at least. Stranger, would certainly 
agree that every State should both ordain and 
practise these things. 

ATH. Are we all aware of the reason why such 

133 



PLATO 

BiOTi TTore vvv ev rai^i iroXeaLV rj TOiavrr} y^opela 
KoX dycovLU (T'X^eBov ovSa/xfj ov8afjLcb<; eariv, el firj 
rrrdvu n afxiKpd ; r) (jiwfjLev Bl dixaOiav rcov ttoWcov 
Kol Tcov TtOevTcov avrol<i tov<; vofiovi ; 

T/ > V 
a^ av. 

A9. Ov8afMa)<;, w /xaKapie KXeivlw Svo Se ')(pf) 

C <j)dvai TOVTcov aiTia^ elvai, koI fidXa iKavd^. 

KA. riota? ; 

A0. Trjv p.ev, inr^ €pcoTo<; ttXovtov Trdvra ■)(^p6vov 

da^oXov TTOiovi'TO'; rcov dXXcov iiriixeXelcrdai 

TrXrjv TQ)V Ihioiv KTij/xdroov, e^ S)V KpcfiafMevr) irdaa 

'^v)(ri TToXirov 7ravTo<{ ovk dv irore Bvvairo t&v 

dXXwv iirifMeXeiav la'^etv irXrjv rov Kud* rjfiepav 

KepSovi' KoX 6 Ti ixev 7rp6<i rovro (pepec fiddrjfia rj 

KOI eTTLTi^hevpLa, Ihia Tra? fxavd dveiv re Kat dcxKeiv 

erot/iOTaTO? e'crri, rcov 8e dXXcov KarayeXd. 

D rovTO fxev ev koI ravTrjv p,Lav alriav -^pr] (f)dvai tov 

fi7]re rovTo fiijr dXXo /xrjSev kuXov Kayadov iOeXeiv 

eTTiTrjBev/jLa iroXiv (TTTOvSd^eiv, dXXd Bia ttjv tov 

'^pvaov re Koi dpyvpov dirXy^aTLav irdaav fiev 

Teyprjv koI p,ri-^avriv KaXXico re Kac da^^^jjfMoveare- 

pav iOeXeiv inro/xeveiv Trdvra dvBpa, el fieXXei 

7rXovcno<i eaeadai, koI irpd^tv rrpdrrecv octlov re 

KOI dvocnov Kal rrdvrw'i ala^pdv, /nrjBev Sucr^epat- 

E vovra, idv fjbovov exo Bvva/niv Kaddirep drjpico rov 

^ayelv TravroBarrd Kal irielv oi(Tavra)<i koI acppo- 

Biaimv rrdaav rrdprax; Trapaa'xelv irXrjafiov'qv. 

KA. ^Op6co<i. 

A0. Pi.vrrj fiev roivvv, rjv Xeyw, fiia K€iada> 

BiaKwXvovaa alria rov ixrjre dXXo KaXbv fxrjre ra 

7r/)09 rov TToXep-ov iKavw^ idaai ^ dcKeiv rd<; 

1 iaa-aii eSxra MSS., edd. (bracketed by Hermann). 

134 



LAWS, BOOK VIII 

choristry and such contests do not at present exist 
anywhere in the States, except to a very small 
extent? Shall we say that this is due to the 
ignorance of the populace and of those who legislate 
for them ? 

CLIN, Possibly. 

ATH. Not so, by any means, my ingenious Clinias ! 
What we ought to say is that there are two causes, 
and both most weighty ones. 

CLIN. What are they ? 

ATH. The first springs from a lust for wealth ^ which 
allows a man no leisure time for attention to anything 
else save his own private property ; and when the soul 
of every citizen hangs upon this, it is incapable of 
attending to matters other than daily gain. What- 
soever science or pursuit leads to this, every man 
individually is most ready to learn and to practise ; 
but all else he laughs to scorn. This we must assert 
to be one particular cause why a State is unwilling 
to be in earnest about this, or any other, fine and 
noble pursuit ; and why,' on the other hand, every 
individual, because of his greed for silver and gold, 
is willing to toil at every art and device, noble or 
ignoble, if he is likely to get rich by it, — willing, too, 
to perfonn actions both holy and unholy — nay, 
utterly shameful — without a scruple, provided only 
that he is able to sate himself to repletion, like a 
beast, with all manner of foods and drinks and 
wenchings. 

CLIN. True. 

ATH. Then let this which I describe be laid down 
as one cause which hinders the States from adequatelv 
practising either military operations or any other 

1 Cp. 705 A, 742 D. 

1 35 



PLATO 

TToXei^, dX)C €/j,7r6pov<i re kuI vavK\ripov<; koX 
BcaKovov; iravTU)^ rov<; (pvaei koct/mlov^ rcov avd- 
pcorrcov uTrepya^ofievi], tov<; 8e dv8pelov<; 'X.rjcrTa'i 
Kol rof)(a)pv^ov<; kuI lepoav\ov<i koI 7ro\€/jitKOv<; 
832 Kal TvpavviKom Troiovcra, koX fidX^ ivlore ovk 
d(f)vel^ 6vra<i, Sva-Tv^ovvrd^; je p-riv. 

KA. rio)? Xeyei'i ; 

A9. nw9 fj,ev ovv avjov<i ov Xeyoifi dv to 
irapdirav Bvarvx^^'it oh ye dvdyKtj Scd ^iov 
Tretvwat ttjv ylrv^rjv del rr^v avTcov Sie^eXOeiv ; 

KA. AvTrj fiev roivvv jxia' tt]v Be Brj Bevrepav 
air lav riva \eyei<;, o) ^eve ; 

A0. KaXw? virefxvTjaa'i. 

ME. ^ Avrrj jxev Bi], ^j}? av, fxla Bid ^iov 

d7r\r]crT0<i ^r]TT]ai,<;, irapexovcra d(T')(^o\ov eKacnov, 

efnr6Bio<i yiyverai rov jxrj kuXcos dcrKelv rd trepl rov 

B TToXefiov eKdarov<;, earco' rijv Be Brj Bevrepav Xeye. 

A0. Mwf ov Xeyeiv dXXd Biarpi^eLv Bokco Bi 
diropiav ; 

ME. Ovk, dWd olov fiiaMv BoKeh rj/xiv KoXd^eiv 
TO TOiovTOP r)do<i [xdXXov tov BeovTO<; tw irapa- 
ireirjooKori, Xoyw. 

A©. KaXXfo-ra, w ^evoi, eVeTrXjy'^aTe* koI to 
fierd TOVTo dKovoLr dv, 009 eotxev. 

KA. Ae7e p,6vov. 

A0. Ta? ov TToXcTela<; eycoye ama^; eivai ^rjpa 

a9 7roXXdKi<i eiprjKU ev toI<; irpocrdev X6yoi<;, BrjfjLo- 

C Kpariav koI oXtyapx^ciV Kal TvpavvlBa. tovtcov 

yap Bt} TToXireia fxev ovBefiia, aTaa-icoTeiai Be 

^ Avrri kt\. I assign tliis reply and the next to Meg. (with 
Apelt and W.-MoUendorflf), not to Clin., as Zur. and most 
edd. 

136 



LAWS, BOOK VIII 

noble pursuits and which turns men who are of a 
quiet nature ^ into traders, ship-owners, and servants, 
while of the bold it makes pirates, burglars, temple- 
robbers, fighters and despots, — and that though, in 
some cases, they are not ill-natured, but merely ill- 
fortuned. 

CLIN. How so ? 

ATH. Well, how could I describe otherwise than 
as utterly unfortunate men who are compelled to go 
through life with hunger ^ always in their own souls ? 

CLIN. This, then, is one cause : what is the second 
cause you speak of. Stranger ? 

ATH. You are right in reminding me. 

MEG. One cause, as you assert, is this lifelong 
insatiable pursuit, which wholly engrosses each man, 
and hinders each and all from rightly practising 
military operations. Be it so : now tell us the second 
cause. 

ATH. Do you think that I am delaying to do so 
because I am at a loss ? 

MEG. No ; but we think that, owing to a sort of 
hatred against the character you describe, you are 
castigating it more severely than is required by the 
argument now on hand. 

ATH. Your rebuke is just. Strangers ; you want, 
it seems, to hear what comes next. 

CLIN. Only say on. 

ATH. There lies a cause, as I affirm, in those non- 
polities which I have often mentioned ^ in our 
previous discourse, — namely, democracy, oligarchy, 
and tjTanny. ' For none of these is a polity, but the 

1 Cp. 691 B, Rep. 410 C. 

• i.e. for gold. Cp. Virgil's "auri sacra fames." 

« 712 C ff., 713 E ff. 

137 



PLATO 

Trdaac Xeyotvr^ av opdorara' ckovtcop yap eKOvaa 
ovhefiia, aXX' cikovtwv CKOvcra ap'X^ei crvv aei Tivi 
^la, (fio^ovfievo^ Se ap-^cov ap^o/Mevov ovre koKov 
oijre TrXovaiov oure la^vpov ovt dvBpelov ovre to 
irapdirav noXe/jLiKov ckoov idaei yiyvecrOal ttotc. 
ravT ovv icrrl to, 8vo rrrdvToov fxev cr/xiKpov 
8ia<f)€p6vTCi)<; atria, tovtcov 8' ovv ovTco<i hiac^epei. 
D TO he Trj<; vvv 7ro\tTela<;, r)v vofiodeToOfxev, a ^ 
Xiyo/xev CKTrecfievyev dp^cporepa' a-^oXijv re yap 
dyei TTOV /leyiaTrjv, iXevOepoi re a7r' dWrjXwv 
elcTL, (f)i.\o')(pi]/j,aroi Be ijKtar dv, olfiai, yiyvotvT 
av eK TOVTCOV twv vo/jlcov (liCTT elK6Ta)<; dp,a Kal 
Kara \6yov rj TOiavTij Kardaracriii •noXireia^; p,6vr} 
Se^aiT dv Tcov vvv rrjv BiaTrepavdeiaav TraiBeiav 
T€ dpa Kal iraiBidv TToXe/jbiKijv dnoTeXeadeiaav 
6p6(o<: Ta> Xoytu. 

KA. KaX(t)<i. 

A0. 'A/)' ovv ov TOVTOif €<f)€^rj'; iarl /jbvija-dijvai 
E TTore TTepl aTrdvTcov tcov dycovcov tcov yvpvLKcov, 
o)? oaa pev avTCov 7rp6<; irokepov icTTiv dycovicrp^aTa 
eTTiTrjSevTeov Kal deriov dOXa viKVjT^pia, oaa 8e 
p.rj 'X^atpeiv iariov ; a S' eariv, i^ dpxv'> dp^tvov 
pr)drjvai re Kal vop.oOeTrjdrjvai. Kal irpooTov p,€v 
xa irepl hp6p,ov Kal rd^o^ oXoa^ dp ov dtTeov ; 

KA. @€Teov. 

A0. "EcTTt yovv TrdvTcov 7roX€p,iKa)TaTOv rj 
<T(iipaTO<i 6^vTrj<i 7rdvTQ)<t, rj pev diro tcov ttoBoov, 
rj Be Kal dTTO tcov '^eipcov (pvyelv pev Kal eXelv 

^ yoftoOfTovfJLfy, & Badham : vofioOerovfievoi MSS. 



LAWS, BOOK VIII 

truest name for them all would be " faction-State " ; 
for none of them is a form of voluntary rule over 
\»illing subjects, but a voluntary* rule over unwilling 
subjects accompanied always by some kind of force ; 
and the ruler, through fear of the subject, will never 
voluntarily allow him to become noble or wealthy or 
strong or brave or in any way warlike. These, then, 
are the two main causes of nearly ever\-thing, and 
certainly of the conditions we described. The polity, 
however, for which we are now legislating has 
escaped both these causes ; for not only does it enjoy 
a great amount of leisure,^ but the citizens also are 
free from one another's domination, and as a con- 
sequence of these laws of ours they will be the least 
likely of men to be money-lovers. Hence it is both 
natural and logical that of all existing p>olities this 
type alone should welcome the system above de- 
scribed, which combines military schooling with sport, 
when we have rightly completed that description. 

CLIN. Verj- good. 

ATM. The next step, then, is to remind ourselves, 
with regard to all gATonastic contests, that all such as 
afford training for war should be instituted, and 
should have prizes assigned to them, but all that do 
not do so must be set aside. What these contests con- 
sist in, it will be well to have described and ordained 
at the beginning. First, then, should we not ordain 
contests in running and speed in general ? 

cuN. We should. 

ATH. Most important of all things for war is, no 
doubt, general acti\ity of the liody, of hands as well 
as feet — acti\ity of foot for flight and piursuit, and of 

* Cp. 806 D, 828 D, E, etc. 

»59 



PLATO 

833 Tj TO)v TToBcov, Tj 8' iv Tal<i crv/jL7r\oKai<; fidyrj kuI 
crvaTaai<; Icr^uos Kal pa>fj.r](; Seofxevrj. 

KA. Tt fijjv ; 

A®. Ov /jltjv %&)/0t9 76 ottXwv ovherepa rrjv 
fjieyCa-Tijv e;^et 'x^peiav. 

KA. Uq)^ yap av ; 

A0. XTaSlo8p6/J,OV Bt) TTpSiTOV 6 KTJpv^ rjfilv, 

Kaddirep vvv, iv rot? dydai vapaKaXel' 6 he 
eiaeiacv orrXa e^wv y^riXw he adXa ov Orjaofiev 
dycovicTTfj. 7rp&)T09 he etcreiaiv 6 to a-rdhiov 
d/jiiWr]a6fj,€vo<; avv T0t9 BirXoi';, hevTepo<; he 6 

B Tov hiavXov, Kal Tpiro<; 6 rov ecpLTririov, Kal ht} 
Kav Terapro? o tov hoXi'^ov, Kal TreytiTrro? he ov 
d(f)7]<TO/jL6v irpcoTov QiTrXia ixevov , e^ijKOvra fiev 
(nahioav /xr]KO<i tt^o? lepov "Ape6<i ti Kal irdXiv, 
/Sapvrepov, ottXlttjv e7rovojjid^ovTe<i, XeiOTepa<i ohov 
8ia/jt,i\X(Ofi€vov, TOV he dWov to^otijv Trdaav 
To^iKTjv e'X^ovTa cttoXjjv, (TTahlcov he eKaTOv tt/jo? 
'AttoXXjuvo? re Kal 'Apre/ifSo? lepov ttjv hi" opwv 
T€ Kal 7ravT0La<; •ywpa'i dfj,cW(Ofj,€vov. Kal Ti6evTe<i 

C TOV dywva p^evovyiev tovtov^, e&)? dv eXdcocri, kuI 
tA viKavri to, viKrjTtjpia haxrofiev exda-Tav. 
KA. 'Op0(O(;. 

A0. TpcTTO, hr] TavTU dd\rip,aTa hiavorjda)fiev, 
€V fiev iraihiKov, ev he dyeveiwv, ev he dvhpSiv' 
Kal TOt? fiev T(bv dyevelav tu hvo twv Tpicov tov 
firiKOv; TOV hp6p.ov dr)<Top,ev, rot? he iraial to, 
T0VT03V rfpiiaea, To^6Tai<; t€ Kai, onXiTai^ dfiiX- 
X(op,evoL<i' yvvai^l he, K6pai<; fiev dvi]/3oi<; yv/j,val<i 
140 



LAWS, BOOK VIII 

hand for the stand-up fighting at close quarters which 
calls for sturdiness and strength. 

CLIN. No doubt. 

ATH. Yet, surely, neither of these is of the 
greatest ser\ace when it lacks weapons. 

CLIN. Certainly not. 

ATH. So at our contests the herald (as is now the 
practice) shall summon first the short-distance 
runner : he shall enter fully armed ; and for an 
unarmed competitor we shall offer no prize. First, 
then, there shall enter the man who, with his arms, 
is to run the furlong, — second, the runner of the 
quarter-mile, — third, the half-miler, — fourth, the 
runner of the three-quarters, — and fifth, that runner 
whom we shall despatch first, fully armed, to run a 
distance of four miles to a temple of Ares and back ; 
he shall be in heavier armour, and be called a hoplite, 
and he shall run over a smooth course, while his 
antagonist ^ shall be dressed in the full equipment of 
an archer, and shall run a course of twelve miles over 
hills and varied country to a temple of Apollo and 
Artemis. And having thus set up the contests, we 
shall await the return of these runners, and to the 
winner of each race we shall award the prize. 

CLIN. Ver}' right. 

ATH. Let us plan these contests in three divisions 
— one for children, one for youths, and one for men. 
We shall ordain that the course for the youths' races 
shall be two-thirds of the full course, and that for 
children one-half, when they compete either as 
archers or as hoplites. In the case of females, we shall 

^ In this 5th race the hoplite, running the shorter course 
competes (on time) against the archer, running the longer 
course. 

141 



PLATO 

(TTahiov /cal hiavXov Kal i(f)iTnriov koI 86\i')(ov, 
D iv avTM r(h Bpofiw a/jLLWcofievaif;' rat? Sk rpia- 
KaiBeKerecri /JiixP'' J^f^ov fievova''7]<; Koivoivla^, fxr) 
fiaKporepov eiKoaiv ircov /i.'?S' eXarrov oktcokul- 
BeKW irpeTTova-T] he (rroXfi ravra^ iaTa\/j,6va<; 
Kara^areov iirl rr]V a/xiWav tovtcop tcop Spofxcov. 
Kai Ta fxev irepl Bp6/xou<; dvSpdai re Kal yuvai^l 
Tavra etrrcu* rd 8e kut l(T')(yv, dvrX fxev iraKrj'i 
Kal T(ov roiovTcov to, vvv oaa jSapia T^f ev TOC<i 
E OTrXot? fidy^^rjv , eva re 7rp6<; eva Siafiaxofievov'; 
Kal 8vo 7rp6<i Bvo, Kal p-e^pi BeKa irpo^i ScKa 
Biap.iWcop.epov'i dX\.i]Xoi<i, a Be top yu.r/ iradovra 
Tj TTOLrjcravTa Bel viKav Kal elf oirocra, Kaddnep 
vvv ev ry TrdXrf Bievo/xoderijcravTo ol Trepl rrjv 
TToXriv avTTjv rl rod Ka\(t><i iraXalovro^ epyov Kal 
p.r) Ka\a)<i, ravTov Br] Kal Tov<i irepl oirXopaxiav 
oiKpov^ 7TapaKa\ovvTa<; ')(^pii tovtov<; avvvopo- 
derelv KeXeveiv rU vikuv dpa BiKaio<i irepl ravTa<i 
834 av ra? p.dy^a'i, 6 ri p-rj iradcov 17 Bpdaa<i, Kal top 
rjTTQifxevov d)aavTco<i r^rt? BiaKplpei rd^iq. ravrd 
Be Kal irepl rSyp OrfXeLoyp earo) Pop^oOerovp^epa 
TCOP P'^xpi' ydp,ov. 

lle\TaaTiKr]p Be oXrjp dpTiar)jcravra<; Bel ti] 
Toi) irajKpaTLOV P'd'^y, r6^oi<; Kal ireXrai<i Kal 
dKOPTioL<i Kal XiOo) ^ [/3oX^] ck ')(eipo<i re Kal 
a^epBoPTj'i ^ dpiX\o)p,€V(op, Biadep,€vov<i au irepl 
rovrcop p6p,ov<;, r& KdWiara diroBcBopri rd irepl 
ravra v6p,ip,a rd yepa Kal rd<; plKa<; Biapep-eiv. 
To Be p,erd ravra iirircop Brj irepl dy(ovo<i 



^ Xi'eijD Schneider: Xidwv MSS. (omitting /SoAfi). 
* <r(^«i/8(ii'7jj ci. England: <r^*r5J»/ais MSS., edd. 



142 



LAWS, BOOK VIII 

ordain races of a furlong, a quarter-mile, a half-mile, 
and a three-quarters for girls under the age of puberty, 
who shall be stripped, and shall race on the course 
itself ; and girls over thirteen shall continue to take 
part until married,^ up to the age of twenty at most, 
or at least eighteen ; but these, when they come 
forward and com{)ete in these races, must be clad in 
decent apparel. 

Let such, then, be the rules concerning races 
for men and women. As to trials of strength, 
instead of wrestling and the other " strong-man " 
events now in vogue, we shall ordain fencing in 
armour, both in solo-contests and in team-competitions 
of am-thing from two to ten a side. As regards the 
hits which a winner is to make or avoid, and how 
many points he must score, — just as now in the case 
of wrestling, those who deal with this art have fixed by 
law the points of good wrestling and bad, so likewise 
we must summon the experts in fencing vmder arms, 
and bid them help us to draw up laws by which to 
decide the proper winner in such fights, what he must 
do and what he must avoid, — and similarly the niles 
for determining the loser. For females also, up to 
the age of marriage, the same laws shall be laid down. 

And in the place of the pancratium we must estab- 
lish a general tourney for peltasts, who shall com- 
pete with bows, targes, javelins, and stones flung 
either by hand or by sling ; and for these, too, we 
shall prescribe laws for assigning the rewards and 
prizes to the man who best conforms to the rules 
goveming such contests. 

After these, the next thing to ordain will be 

» Cp. 785 B. 

143 



PLATO 

B >yi'yvoiTO e^fj<; av vofioOerovfieva. lttttcov 8e rj/xiv 
^peta /lei/ ovtc rt? ttoXXwi/ ovre ttoWt], Kara <ye 
8t) K.p^Ttjv, (xicne ava'^Kolov xal Ta<; (T7rov8a<; 
eXaTTOu? yiyvecrdat rd^ re iv rfj rpocfif} xal Ta9 
7r€pl dycoviav avrSiv. apfiaTO<i pev ovv Kal to 
irapdrrav ovtc ti<; Tpo(f)€v<; r)puv earlv ovre m 
(f)i\oTip,La 7r/909 ravra ovSevl yiyvoir^ av \6yov 
exovaa, ware tovtov p,ev dycoviav, <o> ^ ovk 
CTTt^co^ioi^ earat, ri6evTa<; vovv pt^re e')(jeiv pijre 
hoKelv KCKTrjcrdai' povi7nroi<; Be dSXa ridevre^, 

C TTtoXoi? re d^6\oi<i koI reXetcof re koX d^oXcov 
TOt? pecTOL^ Kal avTol^ ht) toi<; t€\o<; e^ovcri, Kara 
(fivaiv T^? ')((liipa<; av ttjv iTnrcKrjv iraihiav diroSi- 
Boipeu. earo) Btj rovToov re avTcov Kara vopov 
apiWd re Kal <f)i\ov€iKLa, <fiv\dp)^oc<; re Kal 
lTnrdpx,oi<i SeSop-evr] koivt] Kpicn<; d'rrdvrwv rwv 
re Spopcov avrcov Kal rS)V Kara^acvovrcov ped' 
ottXcov yjnXol'i Se ottXcov ovr iv rot<; yvpviKol<i 
ovr ivravOa riOevra dytovLa^ 6p6co<; dv vopioOe- 

D roZp,ev. ro^ory^; 8e d(j) '(inToyv Kpr)<; ovk d)(pri(Tro<i, 
ouS' dKOvrcarr]<i, ware earoi Kal rovTwv TratSia? 
XO'Pi'V €pi^ re Kal dycovia. Or}\€La<; Se rrepl 
rovrcov v6poi,<; puev Kal iirird^ecnv ovk d^ta 
^id^eaOai rrj<; KOLvwvla<i' idv Be e'f avroov roiv 
eprrpocrdev rraiBevpidrcov eh e6o<i lovroiv rj (f)va(,<; 
evBexV'^O'i' f^^l H-V Bva-xepaivrj 7ralBa<; rj rrapOevov'i 
Koivcoveiv, eav Kal pf) yfreyeiv. 

^Aywvla Bt) vvv rjBrj Kal pd$7]ai<; yvfivaariKij'^, 
oaa re ev dywcri Kal ocra Kaff' t)p,epav ev BiBacKd- 

E Xwv eKirovovp^da, 7rdvrQ)<; i'jBrf 7repa<; e)(^ef Kal 
Bt] Kal piOV(nKri<i rd p,ev rrXelara (aaavrco^ Bia- 



J44 



LAWS, BOOK VIII 

horse-racing. Here, in a country like Crete, there 
is not much need of horses — not in great numbers, 
— so that inevitably less attention is paid either 
to the rearing or the racing of horses. As to 
chariots, we have no one who keeps them, nor is 
anyone here likely to cherish any great ambition 
respecting them, so that to establish contests for 
them would run counter to native custom, and would 
not only seem, but be, a foolish act. If, however, 
we establish prizes for races of riding-horses — both 
for young colts, and for three-year-olds, and for those 
of full age — we shall be adapting the sport of horse- 
racing to the character of the country. Of these 
horsemen there shall be established by law a com- 
petitive contest, and the phylarchs and hipparchs 
shall act as public judges both of all the races and of 
the armed competitors. For unarmed competitors 
we should be wrong in establishing prizes, either 
here or in the gv'mnastic sports. And for a Cretan 
there is credit in being a mounted archer or javelin- 
man, so we shall have contests and matches of a 
sportive kind between these also. As to women, — it 
is not worth while to make compulsory laws and 
rules about their taking part in such sports ; but if, 
as a result of earlier training which has grown into a 
habit, their nature allows, and does not forbid, girls 
or maidens to take part, let them do so without blame. 
So now at length we have reached the end both 
of competition and instruction in gjTiinastic, so far 
as concerns our education by means of contests and 
of daily teaching. Most of our account of music has 
likewise been completed ; the regulations about 

* aywvias my conj. (and England, independently) for 
ayuviaras of XISS. : <h> I add, after Ast. 

VOL. II. L 



PLATO 

ireirepavrai, to, Be payp^wBcov Kal tcov TOVTOi<i 
eirofievcov, Kal oaat, iv kopral<i afiiWai y^opoiv 
avayKoiai 'yl'yveadai, Ta')(devTcov rol^ 6eoi<; re Kal 
Tot? pera deoiv p.t]vcov Kal rjpepcbv Kal iviavTMV 
Kocrp,r]0^aovrai tots, eire Tpi6r^]pi8e<i ecre av Kal 
835 Sia TrepiTTfov iroiv e'id^ otttj Kal 07r(i)<; av evvoiav 
BiBovTcov roiv 6eS)v Ta^eca irepi Biaveprjdcoar 
Tore Kal 701)9 povacKT]<i dy(ova<; ')(pT) irpocrhoKav 
Kara pepo<; ayanneiadaL Ta')(devTa<i vtto re dO\o- 
dercav Kal rov TraLSevrov tmv vecov Kal tcov 
vop,o<pv\dKa)v, 61? KOLVov nrepl avTcov tovtwv 
avveXdovTCdv Kal jevopivcov vop,oOeTcov avroov, 
Tov re TTore Kal rive^ Kal pera rivcov tou<; dycovaf; 
TToirjaovTai irepl diravTwy y^opwv Kal )(^opei'a<i. 
ola Be eKacrra avrcov elvai Bel Kara \6yov Kal 
Kar o)Bd<; Kal Ka0' dppovia<; pv6pol<i Kpadelaa^ 
B Kal op^rjaecri, TToXXa/ct? ecprjTat tw Trpcoro) vop,o- 
deTTj, Kad^ a rov<i Bevrepovi Bel p,€raBid)K0VTa<i 
vopodereii', Kal tou? dy(ava<; 7rpe7r6vro)<; eKaaroi'i 
Ovpaaiv iv ■)(p6voi<i iTpoarjKovaL velpavTa<i eoprd<i 
diroBovvai rfj noXet eoprd^eiv. 

Tavra pev ovv Kal dWa roiavTa out€ ')(^a\e'rrov 
yvoivai TLva rpoirov XPV Td^eQ)<; evvopiov Xayx^d- 
veiv, ovB' av p^eraridepeva evOa rj evda pikya rfi 
C •KoKei KepBo<i 7) ^rjpCav dv (pepor d Be p-r] apuKpov 
Biacfiipei TTeideiv re ^(^aXeTrov, deoii pev pdXicrra 
epyov, et tto)? olov re rjv eV^Ta^et? aura? 7ra/i»' 
CKeivov yiyveaOai, vvv Be dvOpwirov roXpripov kiv- 
Bvvevei BelaOai rtvo^, 09 Trapprjaiav Biacpepovrco^ 
TipLMV epel rd BoKovvra dptar elvai TroXei kuI 
TTdXirai'i, iv yp'vxctU BiecfiOappevai^; to irpetrov Kal 

146 



LAWS, BOOK VIII 

rhapsodes, however, and their retinue, and the 
choral contests which must accompany festivals are 
matters to be arranged after the gods and demi- 
gods have had their months, days and years assigned 
to them ; then it will be seen whether they should 
be biennial fixtures or quadrennial, or what mode 
and manner of arranging them the gods may suggest. 
Then also, one expects, the musical contests will be 
held in sections, as arranged by the Masters of the 
Games and the Educator of the youth and the Law- 
M^ardens, meeting for this special purjjose and acting 
in person as legislators to determine what persons, 
and when and with whom, are to frame the contests 
for all the choruses and choristry. Of what charac- 
ter each of these ought to be in respect of words, 
songs and tunes, blended with rhythm and dance, 
has frequently been stated ^ by the original law- 
giver ; the secondary' lawgivers should follow him in 
their enactments, and they should arrange the con- 
tests at convenient times to suit the several sacrifices, 
and thus appoint festivals for the State to observe. 

Now as to these and the like matters, it is 
by no means hard to perceive how they should be 
given legal regulation, nor indeed would a shift- 
ing of their positions cause much gain or loss to 
the State. But the things which do make no small 
difference, and of which it is hard to persuade men 
— these form a task especially for God (were it 
possible that orders should come from him) : as it 
is, they are likely to require a bold man who, 
valuing candour above all else, will declare what he 
deems best for city and citizens, and in the midst 
of corrupted souls will enjoin what is fitting and 

1 In Books VI and VII. 

147 
l2 



PLATO 

kiTOfievov rrdcrr} rfj rroXireia tuttcov, evavTia Xe'ywv 
raL<; fieyiaraLcriv eind v jxiai^i koL ovk e^cov ^or]6dv 
avOpcoTTOV ovBeva, \6yq) eTr6^6Vo<; fi6v(p fiovo'i. 
D KA. Ttj/' av vvv. Si ^ive, Xoyov Xeyo/iev ; ov 
yap TTco /jiav6dvo/jb€V. 

Ae. E4V6t(W9 y€' dX\a Sr) Treipdcro/jLat, iyco 
(fipd^eiv v/jlIp €Ti aa^ecnepov. co? yap eh iraiheiav 
rjXOov t5> \6yw, elSov veov<i re kuX v€a<; 6/ii\ovvTa<i 
(f)i\o(f)p6p(o<; dW7]'\.oi<i. elarjXOe Srj fxe, olov elK6<i, 
^o^rjdfjvat ^vvvor)(Tav7a tl Ti9 ■)(pr]cT€rai, rfj 
TOiavrr) iroXei iv fj Srj veoi fiev veat re evrpe^el<; 
eial TTovoiv re (T(f)o8p(ov Kal dve\evdepu>v, ot 
E fidXiara v^piv a^evvvacnv, dpyoi, Ovo-'tai he Kal 
eopral Kal x^P^'' ""^o"* fxeXovcri Sia ^iov. riva 
8/] TTore rpoTTov ev ravrrj rfj iroXei dcpe^ovrac 
rci)V 7roXXov<; Br) ttoXXo, ^ eTridufiiMV et? ea^O'TCi- 
^aXXovacoi', o)v av o X6yo<; irpoardrrr] direxeadai, 
v6/jio<i e'TTLX^ipoiv yiyveadai ; Kal rSiv [lev ttoXXmv 
ov Oavfiacrrov eTrtdvfiicov el Kparotr] rd irpocrdev 
836 vo/JLifxa ra^Oevra' ro yap firj irXovreiv re e^elvai 
virep^aXXovrwi dyadov TTpo<; ro (7a)<l>povelv ov 
afXLKpov, Kal irdaa rj TraiSeia /xerpiov<i tt/Oo? ra 
roiavr etXr](f)e v6fiov<;, Kal tt/jo? rovTOi<; i) rS)v 
dpxpvrav 6y\rL<i BirjvayKaafievr) /xt) aTTO^XeTreiv 
aXXoae, rrjpetv Se del rov^ veov<;. ravr ovv 
TTpo^ fiev ra? dXXa<; iTnOvfiia^, ocra ye dvOpcomva, 
jjLerpov e^et* rd he hrj rcov epoorcov vathcov re 
dppevcov Kal OrjXeiMV Kal yvvatKCov dvhpcov Kal 

1 iroWa Paris MS. : koI iroWas Zur. 

1 771 E e. 
148 



LAWS, BOOK VIII 

in keeping with all the constitution, and gainsay the 
mightiest lusts, acting alone by himself with no 
man to help him save, as his solitary leader, Reason. 

CLIN. What is it we are reasoning about now. 
Stranger ? For we are still in the dark. 

ATM. Naturally : but I will try to explain myself 
more clearly. When in my discourse I came to the 
subject of education,^ I saw young men and maidens 
consorting with one another affectionately ; and, 
naturally, a feeling of alarm came upon me, as I 
asked myself how one is to manage a State like 
this in which young men and maidens are well- 
nourished but exempt from those severe and menial 
labours which are the surest means of quenching 
wantonness, and Avhere the chief occupation of 
everyone all through life consists in sacrifices, feasts 
and dances. In a State such as this, how will the 
young abstain from those desires which frequently 
plunge many into ruin, — all those desires from which 
reason, in its endeavour to be law,^ enjoins ab- 
stinence ? That the laws previously ordained serve 
to repress the majority of desires is not surprising ; 
thus, for example, the proscription of excessive 
wealth is of no small benefit for promoting tem- 
perance, and the whole of our education-system 
contains laws useful for the same purpose ; in ad- 
dition to this, there is the watchful eye of the magis- 
trates, trained to fix its gaze always on this point 
and to keep constant watch on the young people. 
These means, then, are sufficient (so far as any 
human means suffice) to deal with the other desires. 
But when we come to the amorous passions of 
children of both sexes and of men for women and 

* A play on vSuos = vovs ; cp. 836 E, 714 A. 

149 



PLATO 

B avSpwv yvvaiKcov, oOev St) jxvpia <ye'yovev avOpcoiroif 
iBia Koi oXai<; iroXeai kuko,, ttw? rt? tovto Scev- 
Xa^otT av, Kol ri refxcov (f)dp/xaKov TOVTOi<f 
eKaaTOi's tov tocovtov Kivhvvov Bia(j)uyT]v €vp7]crei ; 
7rdvra><; ov paSiov, o) KXeiVLa. Koi yap ovv irpo'i 
fiev dXXa ovk oXiya r] Kpijrr] re 7)/j,tv oXij Kal 
7) AaxeSaip-wv ^orjdeiav eTrieiKco'i ov <Tp,iKpav 
^vfji^dXXovTai TiOelcri vofjiovi aXXoiov<i twv ttoX- 
XCov rpoTTCov, irepl 8e roiv ipcorcov, avTol yap 

Q iafiev, ivavTiovvrai iravrdiracnv. el ydp ti<; 
uKoXovdcbv TTj (jivaei Orjcrei tov irpo rov Aaiov 
v6/iov, Xeydiv a)<? 6p6(a<; et^e to roiv dppevcov koX 
veoiv fiT) Koivcovetv KuOdirep difXeiSiv irpo^ fil^cv 
dcppoSiaicov, fidprvpa iTapay6p.evo<i rrjv rcov drjplcov 
(fivcriv Kal SeiKvv<; 7rpo<; to, roiaina ov')( dinop^evov 
appeva dppevo^ hia to jxr) <j)v&ei tovto elvai, Ta'X^ 
av ')(pa>TO diTiddvo) ^ Xoym Kal Tai^ v/xcTepat'; 
TToXeacv ovhap,o}^ ^vpcficovo).^ tt/jo? Be tovtoi<;, 
Bid iravTo^ (f)ap,ev Beiv tov vofxodeTtjv BiaT7)peiv, 

D TOVTO ev TOVTOi<; ov^ 6/J.oXoyel. ^rjTOvp.ev yap 
del Br) Tt T(ov TiOe/jLevcov Trpo<; dpeTtjv (pepet Kal 
t/ p-rj. (pipe Brj, TOVTO idv (Tvyx(i>p(op€v kuXov 
rj pi,rjBapSi<i ala^pov vop,o6eTetadai, tu vvv, tl 
p-epa rjfilv ^vp^dXXoiT dv Trpo? dpcTijv ; iroTepov 
ev TTJ TOV ireiadevTo^ "^^XV yi''yv6p,evov (p,(pvaeTai 
TO T% dvBp[a<i rjdo^, rf ev ttj tov ireicravTO'i to 
Tf]<i adxppovo'i IBia^ yevo<i ; rj TavTa p.ev ovBel<i 
dv Treiadeir} iroTe, [xdXXov Be dnav tovtov tovv- 

^ airiOavif) Badham : ■mdavif MSS. 
^ ^vfKfxivKf England : lvfi.<pwvo1 MSS. 



King of Thebes, father of Oedipus. 



150 



LAWS, BOOK VIII 

women for men, — passions which have been the 
cause of countless woes both to individuals and to 
whole States, — how is one to guard against these, 
or what remedy can one apply so as to find a way 
of escape in all such cases from a danger such 
as this ? It is extremely difficult, Clinias. For 
whereas, in regard to other matters not a few, 
Crete generally and Lacedaemon furnish us (and 
rightly) with no little assistance in the framing 
of laws which differ from those in common use, — 
in regard to the passions of sex (for we are alone 
by ourselves) they contradict us absolutely. If we 
were to follow in nature's steps and enact that 
law which held good before the days of Laius,* 
declaring that it is right to refrain from indulging in 
the same kind of intercourse with men and boys* 
as with women, and adducing as evidence thereof 
the nature of wild beasts, and pointing out how 
male does not touch male for this purpose, since 
it is unnatural, — in all this we would probably be 
using an argument neither convincing nor in any 
way consonant with your States. Moreover, that 
object which, as we affirm, the lawgiver ought 
always to have in view does not agree with these 
practices. For the enquiry we always make is this 
— which of the proposed laws tends toward virtue 
and which not. Come then, suppose we grant that 
this practice is now legalised, and that it is noble 
and in no way ignoble, how far would it promote 
virtue ? Will it engender in the soul of him who 
is seduced a courageous character, or in the soul 
of the seducer the quality of temperance ? Nobody 
would ever believe this ; on the contrary, as all men 

» Cp. 636 B ff., Symp. 181-2. 



^ 



PLATO 

E avriov tov jxev Tal<i r/Boval'i vTreUovTO^ kuI 
Kaprepetv ov Swa/nevov 'yfre^ei ira<i rrjv fxaXaKiav, 
TOV 8* eh /xifirjcnv rov Orjkeo^ 16vto<; ttjv t?)? 
€lk6vo<; o/jLOLOTTjra ap^ ov fieix^ejai ; rt? ovv 
avdpcoTTcov TOVTO OV TOiovTOV vofxod€T7]aei ; a-)(ehov 
ovBeh, e-)(^03v <ye iv tw vcp vojjlov aXrjOrj. irw'i ovv 
(pafxev dXr)6€<; tovto elvai ; rrjv Tf]<i (f)i\ia<i re Kal 
837 einOvfiia'i afia Kal ra>v Xeyofievcov ipcorwv <f)vcriv 
I8eiv dvayKalov, el fiiWei Tt<? jaina 6pO(b<{ hiavorj- 
drjcreadar hvo yap ovra avra Kal i^ d/x(f)olv 
rpiTOv aWo elSo^ ev ovofia TrepiXa^ov Trdaav 
dtropiav Kal aKorov dTrepyd^erai. 

KA. IIw9 ; 

A0. ^lXov /j,ev TTOV KaXovfiev ofxoiov ofiolo) Kar 
apeTTjv Kai laov icrfo, (pCKov h av Kal to Seofievov 
rov 7reTr\ovTT]K6TO<i, evavriov ov tw yevei. orav 
Be eKarepov ylyvrfrat cr<})oBp6v, epwra eirovo- 
fid^ofiev. 
B KA. 'Op6oi<i. 

A0. ^iXia roivvv rj fiev diro ivavTicov Beivrj 
Kal dypla Kal to koivov ov 7roWdKL<i e'xpvcra ev 
r)/jbiv, T) S' e« tS)V ofiOLcov rj/j,epo<; re Kal kocvtj Bid 
/3i.ov. fxiKTT] Be eK TOVTcov yevofievY] irpcoTov fiev 
KaTafiadelv ov paBia, tl irore ^ovXolt^ dv avTot 
yeveaOat tov Tpirov epwTa Ti<; e'^^cov tovtov, 
eireira et? TOvvavTtov vir dp.<^olv eXKOfievoi; 
d'TTopel, roil fxev KeXevovTO<i Trj<; copa^ aTTTeadai, 
TOV Be d7rayopevovTO<i. 6 fiev yap tov aa)fiaTo<; 
152 



LAWS, BOOK VIII 

will blame the cowardice of the man who always 
yields to pleasures and is never able to hold out 
against them, will they not likewise reproach that 
man who plays the woman's part with the resem- 
blance he bears to his model ? Is there any man, 
then, who will ordain by law a practice like that ? 
Not one, I should say, if he has a notion of what 
true law is. What then do we declare to be the 
truth about this matter ? It is necessary to discern 
the real nature of friendship and desire and love 
(so-called), if we are to determine them rightly ; 
for what causes the utmost confusion and obscurity 
is the fact that this single term embraces these two 
things, and also a third kind compounded of them 
both. 

CUN. How so ? 

ATH. Friendship is the name we give to the 
affection of like for like, in point of goodness, and of 
equal for equal ; and also to that of the needy for the 
rich, which is of the opposite kind ; and when either 
of these feelings is intense we call it "love." 

CLIN. True. 

ATH. The friendship which occurs between op- 
posites is terrible and fierce and seldom reciprocal 
amongst men, while that based on similarity is 
gentle and reciprocal throughout life. The kind 
which arises from a blend of these presents 
difficulties, — first, to discover what the man affected 
by this third kind of love really desires to obtain, 
and, in the next place, because the man himself 
is at a loss, being dragged in opposite directions 
by the two tendencies, — of which the one bids him 
to enjoy the bloom of his beloved, while the other 
forbids him. For he that is in love with the body 

153 



PLATO 

C ipS>v KoX rrj<i a)pa<i Kaddirep 67rcopa<; nreLvwv ep,- 
7r\7](r6rjvai TrapaKeXeverac eavrw, rcprjv ouSepiav 
dirovepcov tw tj}? '^^XV'^ V^^'' '^^^ epcopevov 6 Se 
Trdpepyov pev rrjv tov crcoparo<i eTridvpiav e^wv, 
opoiv 8e pdWov rj ipcov, rfj '^VXV> ^^ oW&)9 ^ r^? 
yfrvx'*]^ iTTiredvpTjKcos v^piv ijyrjrac rrjv irepX to 
awpa TOV aoypuTO'^ TrXrjapov/jv, to aS)(^pov he koX 
dvhpelov KoX peya\o7rpe7r6<i koX to (f)p6vipoi> 
alhovpevo<; a pa kuX ae^6pevo<i dyveveiv del peO' 

D dyvevovTo^ TOV epcopevov ^ovXolt dv 6 he 
/xi^^et? e^ dp(f)Oiv 7' ^ e/3&)9 ovt6<; eaO^ ov vvv Bi- 
€\ijXv6apev &)? TpiTov. ovtcov 8e tovtcov toctovtwv 
TTOTepov diravTa^ Bet KcoXveiv tov vopov, direlp- 
yovTU p7] ryLyveadai ev rjplv, tj hyfXov otl tov pev 
dpeTt]<; [re] ovTa koI tov veov eirtOvpovvTa 009 
dpKTTOv ylyveadai ^ovXo'iped^ dv fjplv ev Trj 
TToX^i ivelvat, Toifi Be Bvo, el Bwutov eirj, kcoXvoi- 
p,€v dv ; rj ttw? Xeyopev, w (f)iXe MeyiXXe ; 

ME. UdvTr} Toi KaXa)<;, Si ^eve, irepl avTcov 

E TOVTCOV etprjKa^ tu vvv. 

A0. "EiOLKd ye, onep koI eToira^ov, Tvyeiv Tp]<i 
arj<i^ Si (filXe, ^vv(pBi,a<;' tov Be vopov vpCov, 6 tl 
voel irepl tu ToiavTa, ovBev pe e^eTdt^eiv Bei, Be- 
yeaQai Be Tr]V tw Xoyai avyxdiprjutv. KXeivia Be 
[pcTa TUVTu] ^ Kal elaavOi^ irepl avTcov tovtcov 
Trecpdcropai eiraBcov Treideiv. to Be poi BeBopevov 
VTTO a(f)Q)v I'tco, Kal Bie^eXdcopev irdvTco^i tou? 
v6pov<i. 

ME. ^OpOoTUTa Xeyei^, 

^ Se ovTws Badham : Sejj/Twy MSS. 

* y H. Jackson, England : -rplros MSS. 

' [yLtra. toOto] bracketed by England. 

154 



LAWS, BOOK VIII 

and hungering after its bloom,^ as it were that of 
a ripening peach, urges himself on to take his fill 
of it, pacing no respect to the disposition of the 
beloved ; whereas he that counts bodily desire as 
but secondary, and puts longing looks in place of 
love,2 with soul lusting really for soul, regards the 
bodily satisfaction of the body as an outrage, and, 
reverently worshipping temperance, courage, nobility 
and wisdom, will desire to live always chastely in 
company with the chaste object of his love. But 
the love which is blended of these two kinds is that 
which we have described just now as third. Since, 
then, love has so many varieties, ought the law to 
prohibit them all and prevent them from existing in 
our midst, or shall we not plainly wish that the kind 
of love wliich belongs to virtue and desires the 
young to be as good as possible should exist within 
our State, while we shall prohibit, if possible, the 
other two kinds ? Or what is our view, my dear 
Megillus ? 

MEG. Your description of the subject. Stranger, 
is perfectly correct. 

ATM. It seems that, as I expected, I have gained 
your assent ; so there is no need for me to investi- 
gate your law, and its attitude towards such matters, 
but simply to accept your agreement to my state- 
ment. Later on I Mill try to charm Clinias also into 
agreeing with me on this subject. So let your joint 
admission stand at that, and let us by all means 
proceed with our laws. 

MEG. Quite right. 



» Cp. Symp. 183 D S. 

* A play on the assonance Spiv = ip&r. 



155 



PLATO 

A0. Te^vrjv S?7 tiv av rovrov tov vo/hov t^9 

838 6eae(i)<i ev tw vvv irapovTC tt) fiev pahiav €')(o), rfj 

8' av TLva rpoTTov TravTUTracrtv cw? olov re %aXe- 

TTCOTdTTJV. 

ME. IIa)9 Bt] Xeyecii ; 

A0. "la/xep irov koI to, vvv tov<; TrXetcrTOf? rwv 
avOpdoTTcov, Kaiirep 'napavop.ov^i 6vTa<;, a)? ev re 
Kol aKpij5o)<; eipyovrai t?}? rcbv KoXoiv avvovala<i 
ovK aK0VTe<i, 0)9 olov re he fx,d\caTa iKovTe^. 

ME. IIoTe \€y€L<i ; 

A0. "Oral' dBe\<f)b<i rj dBeX(f>^ to) yevcovrai 
KokoL. Kul irepl 1/4609 Tj dvyuTpo^ 6 avTo<; v6/j,o^ 
B d<ypa(f)0<; cov 009 olov re iKavcorara (pvXdrrei pL-qre 
^avepoi<i fir)T€ \ddpa avyKaOevBovra ■>] 7rft)9 aXX&)9 
daira^ofievov dineadai tovtcov dX)C ouS' iiridv- 
fila TavTTjii T^9 (TVvovaia<i to irapdirav elaipx^TUi 
T0U9 7roXXoy9. 

ME. ^AXrjdi] Xiy€i<;. 

A0. OvKOVV afiLKpov pr]fia Karaa^evvva-t 
irdawi Ta9 rocavra^; r)8ovd<i ; 

ME. To TTotov 8r] \€yei<i ; 

A0. To ravra elvai (pdvai fir]8a/jLa)<; 6a La, 
C Oeofiiarj Be Kal alcrxP^^ accT'X^taTa. to B' aiTiov 
dp* ov TOVT ecTL, TO firjBeva dWui^ Xeyeiv avTd, 
aX-V evOix; yevo/xevov r}[xSiv exacrTOV aKoveiv re 
XeyovTCov del Kal TravTa-xpv TavTa, ev yeXoLois re 
dfia ev irdcrrj re airovBr) TpaytKrj Xeyofxeva ^ ttoX- 
XdKi^, OTav rj 0f ecrTa9 r) Tiva<; OlBiTToBa^ eladyco- 
(jiv, rj MaKap€a<i Tivd<; dBeXifiaU p.LxdevTa<i 
XaOpalco^;, 6<pdevTa<i Be eTOifi(o<i ddvaTov avToi^ 
eTTiTcdevTa'i Bckvv rr]<; d/jLapTLa<; ; 

^ \fy6nepa Orelli : \fyo/x(vp MSS. 



LAWS, BOOK VIII 

ATH. I know of a device at present for enacting 
this law, which is in one way easy, but in another 
quite the hardest possible. 

MEG. Explain your meaning. 

ATH. Even at present, as we are aware, most 
men, however lawless they are, are effectively and 
strictly precluded from sexual commerce mth 
beautiful persons, — and that not against their will, 
but with their own most willing consent. 

MEG. On what occasions do you mean ? 

ATH. Whenever any man has a brother or sister 
who is beautiful. So too in the case of a son or 
daughter, the same unwritten law is most effective 
in guarding men from sleeping with them, either 
openly or secretly, or wishing to have any connexion 
with them, — nay, most men never so much as feel 
any desire for such connexion. 

MEG. That is true. 

ATH. Is it not, then, by a brief sentence that all 
such pleasures are quenched ? 

MEG. What sentence do you mean ? 

ATH. The sentence that these acts are by no 
means holy, but hated of Gotl and most shamefully 
shameful. And does not the reason lie in this, that 
nobody speaks of them otherwise, but every one of 
us, from the day of his birth, hears this opinion 
expressed always and everpvhere, not only in comic 
speech, but often also in serious tragedy — as when 
there is brought on to the stage a Thyestes or an 
Oedipus, or a Macareus having secret intercourse 
with a sister, and all these are seen inflicting death 
upon themselves willingly as a punishment for their 
sins ? 



157 



PLATO 

ME. ^OpOoTUTu \ey€i<; to ye roaourov, on to 
D Trj<i (^r}fi7]f; davfxacmjv riva Svuafiiv eiXrj^ev, orav 
/iT^Sei? /u,r]Bafi(ii)<; dX\a><; avairvelv i'jri')(et,py](xr] ttotc 
irapa top v6/iov. 

A0. OvKOvv opOov TO vvv 8r} prjdev, otl vojxo- 
derr) jSovXafiivui riva iinOviiiav SovXcoaaaOai roiv 
Bia(j)ep6vr(t)^ tou? avOpoiTTOVi SovXovfievcov paSiov 
yvMvaL ye ovriva rpoTrov ')(^€ipcoaat,T av otl Ka6- 
lepcocrwi TavTr]p ttjv (jtrjfiTjv irapa irdai BovXoc^ 
T€ Koi iX€v6ipoi<i KoL Traicrl Kal yvvat^l Kol oXr) 

TTj TToXei KaTO, TO, aVTU, OVTO) TO ^e^aiOTUTOV 

E uTreipyaafievo^ ecrTat irepX tovtov top vofiov. 

ME. Udw jxev ovv OTTco? he av to toiovtov 
ideXovTa<i Xeyetv irdvTa'i Swutov eaTai iroTe 
irapaa'X^elv — 

A0. KaXco? vireXa^e^' avTO yap tovto tjv to 
"nap" e/xov Xe-^^Oev, oti Texyrjv eyu) 7rpo<i tovtov top 
pofxop e^ocfxc Toii KaTO, <pv(TiP yprjaOai ttj t?}? iraiSo- 
yopia<i avpovaia, tov fiep app€P0<; direxop-epovi; fxj] 
KTeiPOPTa^ T€ e'/c Trpovoia<; to toop dpdpanrdup yepo^, 
839 p,r)S' ei9 TTCT/ja? re kuI Xidov; aTretpopTWi, ov 
p,rjTTOTe ^vaip ttjp avTOV pi^coOepXTj-^jreTat y6ptfi.op, 
direxofiepovi Se dpovpa'i 6i]Xela<; iTda7)<i, ip fj /xr) 
^ovXoio ^ dp cot, (fiveaOai to airapev, o hii POfio<i 
ovTO<i BirjpeKTj^; p-ep yep6p,epo<; dp,a Kal KpaTr]aa<i, 
KaduTTep pvp irepl Td<; tmp yopecop <Tvp,pi^et<i Kpa- 
TCL, idp Kol irepX to? dXXa<i piKijcrrj 8iKat,o)<i, fivpia 
dyadd e;^ef. KaTa (hvaip p,ep yap TrpooTOP KetTai, 
XuTTr}<; Be epa)TLKrj<; Kal /xapia^ Kal /JL0i')(^et(ap iraawp 
Kal TTfOfidTcop Kal aiTLcop ecpyeadai iroiel twp 

^ Pov\oto some MSS., Hermaun : )3ouAoit' al. MSS., Zur., 
vulg. 
158 



LAWS, BOOK VIII 

MEG. Thus much at least you are quite right in 
saj'ing — that pubhc opinion has a surprising influence, 
when there is no attempt by anybody ever to breathe 
a word that contradicts the law. 

ATH. Then is it not true, as I said just now, that 
when a lawgiver wislies to subdue one of those lusts 
which es{>ecially subdue men, it is easy for him at 
least to learn the method of mastering them, — that 
it is by consecrating this public opinion in the eyes 
of all alike — bond and free, women and children, 
and the whole State — that he will effect the firmest 
security for this law. 

MEG. Certainly ; but how it will ever be possible 
for him to bring it about that all are willing to say 
such a thing — 

ATH. A very proper observation. That was pre- 
cisely the reason why I stated that in reference to 
this law I know of a device for making a natural use 
of reproductive intercourse, — on the one hand, by 
abstaining from the male and not sla\-ing of set 
purpose the human stock, nor sowing seed on rocks 
and stones where it can never take root and have 
fruitful increase ; and, on the other hand, by 
abstaining from every female field in which you 
would not desire the seed to spring up. This law, 
when it has become permanent and prevails — if it 
has rightly become dominant in other cases, just as 
it prevails now regarding intercourse with jiarents, — 
is the cause of countless blessings. For, in the first 
place, it follows the dictates of nature, and it sen-es 
to keep men from sexual rage and frenzy and all 
kinds of fornication, and from all excess in meats 



159 



PLATO 

B afierptov ttuvtcov, jvvai^l re avrcop oiKeiov; elvai 
Kai (f)i\ou<;, aWa re irdfi'TroWa dyada yiyvoir^ dv, 
el Tov vofiov Tt9 rouTov hvvano iyicpar7]<i elvai. 
rd'^a 8 dv rj/xiv ri<i 7rapaard<; dvrjp (T<po8p6<; koI 
reo9, TToWov airepfiaTO'; jxecno'^, dKovcov ridefievov 
TOV vo/jLov \otBopi]a€i€v dv ft)9 dvorjja kol dBvvara 
TidevTfov vofiifia, koI ^or)<; Trdvra €/j,7r\r]aeie. 
Trpo? d 8t) Kol /SXei/ra? 67a) rovro elirov to prjfxa, 
C W9 Tii'a Te'X^vr]v KeKrr]p,r]v, rfj /xev paarrjv diraawv, 
TTj he 'X^aXeTTCOTaTrjv, Trpo? to tovtov redevra ifi- 
fielvai TOV vofxov. vovjcraL fiev yap 8r] pacrrov ox? 
Bvvarov re eaji Koi otttj' <^apev yap 8r) Kadiepco- 
Oev rovTO iKav(o<; to vopupov irdaav ■y^v)(rjv 8ov- 
Xoocrecrdai Kal TravTUTracn fxerd (f)6^ov TTocj]aeiv 
ireideadaL toi<; reOelcn v6pot,<;' dWd yap et? 
toOto irpo^elSriKe viiv war ovS' dv ttotc yeviaOai 
BoKei, Kaddirep to twv ^vcraiTicov eTnTrjhevpa 
diricTTelTai, prj Swutov elvai Bvvacrdai, Sid ^iov 
D TToXiv oXrjv i^fjv TrpaTTOvaav tovto' iXey)(^9ev 8' 
epyo) Kal yevofievov irap vptv, o/iw? eVt to ye 
yvvaiKMV ovBe ev Tai<; vp^erepai^ TroXeai BoKel 
(pvcriv ex^tv ylyveadai. Tavrj} S' av Bid Ty]V t?}9 
d7ricrTLa<; pd)fir]v etprjxa dfi^orepa ravra elvai 
TrayxdXeira /xeivai Kara v6p,ov. 

ME. 'Op^co? 76 (TV Xiycov. 

A@. '11? 8' ovv ovK eariv virep dvdpcdTrov, oiov 
T€ Be yeveaOai, ^ovXeaOe vplv TreipadC) rivd Xoyov 
i'X^o/xevov 7ri0av6rr]TO<; elireiv tiv6<; ; 

KA. n&i? yap ov ; 



1 838 B. 
169 



LAWS, BOOK VIII 

and drinks, and it ensures in husbands fondness for 
their own wives : other blessings also would ensue, 
in infinite number, if one could make sure of this 
law. Possibly, however, some young bystander, rash 
and of superabundant virility, on hearing of the 
passing of this law, would denounce us for making 
foolish and impossible rules, and fill all the place 
with his outcries ; and it was in view of this that I 
made the statement ^ that I knew of a device to 
secure the permanence of this law when passed 
which is at once the easiest of all devices and the 
hardest. For while it is very easy to perceive that 
this is possible, and how it is possible — since we affirm 
that this rule, when duly consecrated, will dominate 
all souls, and cause them to dread the laws enacted 
and yield them entire obedience, — ^}'et it has now 
come to this, that men think that,even so, it is unlikely 
to come about, — just in the same way as, in the case 
of the institution of public meals, people refuse to 
believe that it is possible for the whole State to be 
able to continue this practice constantly ; and that, 
too, in spite of the evidence of facts and the 
existence of the practice in your countries ; and 
even there, as applied to women, the practice is 
regarded as non-natural. Thus it was that, because 
of the strength of this unbelief, I said that it is most 
difficult to get both these, matters permanently 
legalised. 

MEG. And you were right in that. 

ATH. Still, to show that it is not beyond the 
power of man, but possible, would you like me to 
tr\' to state an argument which is not without some 
plausibility ? 

CLIN. Certainly. 

i6i 
VOL. n. M 



PLATO 

E A0. Tlorepov ovv rt? a^pohiaioov paov av 
aire-xpiTO, /cal rb 'Tay(6ev iOeXot ireplavja (xer picot 
iroielv, ev to a-(op,a e')(o)v koI jxtj lBi(i)riK(o<i rj 
<f)av\Q)<i ; 

KA. Tlo\v TTOU p,dX\0V fir) lSlQ}TlK(0<;. 

A0. Ayo' ovp ovK tcrpev TOP TapavTivov ^'Ikkov 

aKof} Bia Tov ^OXv/jiTrlaai, re aycova koI tou<? [re] ^ 

840 aWov<i, 6i<i ^ Sia (j)i\ov€iKLav Kal t€)(pt]v kuI to 

fjL€ra TOV (T(ocf)pov6tv avhpelov iv ry ^vxfj KexTrj- 

/J,€VO<i, 0)9 X0709, 01;T€ TiJ/O? TTCOTTOTe JUVaiKO^i 

^yjraTO ovS" av 7raiBo<i iv 6\r) rfj t?)? aaKijcreco^ 
uKfifi ; Kal Si] Kal K.pLaoiva Kal ^AcrrvXov Kal 
Aiotto/jlttov Kal aA,A,ot'9 7ra/i7roXXou9 auT09 ttov 
X6709 €^^1. Kai TOL TOiv 7' epLOiv Kal crcov ttoXitcov, 
0) KX€tvla, TToXv KOLKLOv Tjaav TTerfraihevpievoL Ta9 
B ^lrv)(^d<;, ra Se crcop^ara ttoXv pdXXov a(^pL'yS)vre<i. 

KA. ^ AXrjOrj Tavra Xiyei^, on acfioSpa virb roiv 
iraXaioiv iarlv elprj/neva irepl tovtcov tojv dOXrjTtov 
0)9 ovTW^ irore yevo/xeva. 

A0. Tt ovv ; ol fiev dpa VLK7j'i evcKa 7raX7/9 Kal 
Bpoficov Kal TOiv TOiovrcov eToX/jbrjcrav uTre'X^eaOai 
Xeyofievov 7rpdypaT0<; utto twv ttoXXiov evhaipbo- 
vo<i, ol he ^perepoi 7rai8e<i dSvvartjaovai Kaprepelv 
•noXv KaXXlovo<i ev6Ka viKr)<;, fjv rj/xei^ KaXXiarr^v 
eK izaiBwv irpo'i avrov<i Xeyovre<i ev p.vdoi'i re 
Q Kal ev prjixaat Kal iv /xeXecnv a8ovTe<;, a)9 €Ik6<;, 
KrfXr](Top.ev ; 

KA. IIota9 ; 

A0. T% tS)v -qBovSiv VLKT)^ <• ^9> ^ iyKpaTel^ 

^ [re] bracketed by Hermann. 
« iis Hcindorf : Siv MSS. 
^ <(• ^i) added by England. 

162 



LAWS, BOOK VIII 

ATH. Would a man be more ready to abstain 
from sex-indulgence, and to consent to carry out the 
law on this matter soberly, if he had his body not 
ill-trained, but in good condition, than if he had it 
in bad condition ? 

CLIN. He would be much more ready if it were 
not ill-trained. 

ATH. Do we not know by report about Iccus ^ of 
Tarentum, because of his contests at 01\Tnpia and 
elsewhere, — how, spurred on by ambition and skill, 
and possessing courage combined with temperance 
in his soul, during all the period of his training (as 
the story goes) he never touched a woman, nor yet 
a boy .'' And the same story is told about Crison and 
Astylus and Diopompus and very many others. And 
yet, Clinias, these men were not only much worse 
educated in soul than your citizens and mine, but 
they also possessed much more sexual vigour of 
body. 

CLIN. That this really happened in the case of 
these athletes is indeed, as you say, confidently 
affirmed by the ancients. 

ATH. Well then, if those men had the fortitude 
to abstain from that which most men count bliss for 
the sake of xictory in wrestling, running, and the 
like, shall our boys be unable to hold out in order to 
win a much nobler victory — that which is the noblest 
of all victories, as we shall tell them from their 
childhood's days, charming them into belief, we 
hope, by tales and sentences and songs. 

CLIN. What victory ? 

ATH. Victory over pleasures, — which if they win. 



Cp, Protag. 316 D. 



163 
M 2 



PLATO 

6vTa<i av l^fjv €v8ai/ii6va)<;, rjTTtofievov^ Be rovvav- 
TLOv airav. irpo^ Be tovtol^ en <p6^o^ 6 tov 
fXTjBa^fi firiBa[X(ti<i ocriov avjo elvai Bvva^iv rj/uLiv 
ovK apa e^ei Kparetv wv dWot KCKparrjKaai 
TOVTCop ovTe<i xeLpov€<i ; 

KA. Et/f09 7' OVV. 

A0. 'ETTetS^ roivvv evravdd eafiev toutov tov 
D vofilfiov irepi, Bca kclkt^v Be rrjv tcov ttoWcjp eh 
aiTopiav eireaoixev, (f)i]fu to fiev rjfieTepov vo/nifiov 
dTexv<o'i Becv Trepl avTO)v tovtcov TropeveaOac Xeyov 
Q)<i ov Bel ')(eLpov'i rj/xcv elvai tov<{ Tro\LTa<; opviOcov 
Koi dWcdv OrjpLcov TToWwv, at kutu ixe<yd\a<i 
dyeXa'i 'yevvr}6evTe<i fJiixpt' /^^v 7raiBoyovLa<; '^ideoi 
Kol dKrjpaToi yd/xcov re dyvol ^axriv, orav S' ei? 
TOVTO rfK.LKia<i e\Oo)(Tt, auvBvaadevT€<i dpprjv 
drfKeia KUTa X^P'-^ '^^'' Gvi^^f-f^ dppevi tov Xoittov 
E XP^^^^ 6aiw<i Koi BiKaLQ)<; ^axriv, i^p-evovTe^ 
y9e;8aift)9 Tal<i TrpcoTaif t^<? ^tXta? 6p,o\oy{,ai<i' 
Beiv Bt] drjpiwv ye avTOv<; dixelvov; elvai. idv S' 
OVV iiTTO tS)v dX\(ov EiWrjvwv kol ^ap^dpcov tcov 
TrXeiaTwv Bia(f)6eipcovTai, Tr]v Xeyofievijv utuktov 
^A^PoBlttjv iv avToU opoiVTe^ re Koi dKovovTa 
fxeyiaTOV Bvva/J.€vrjv, koX ovtw Br) firj BwutoI 
yiyvwvTai KUTaKpaTelv, BevTcpov vofiov eV avTot<; 
fxijXfivdadai XPV toi'9 vofio(})vXaKa<t vofiodeTUf 
yevofievovi. 
841 KA. Tiva Bt] <TV/jL^ov\evei<; avToU TidecrdaL 
vofiov, edv 6 vvv Tid€fievo<; avTOV<i eK(f)vyr) ; 

A0. ArjXov OTL TOV exofievov tovtov BevTepov, 
Si KXeivua. 

KA. Tlva Xeyei<i ; 

A©. ^KyvpvaaTOv otl fidXtcrTa iroielv ttjv r(ov 
164 



LAWS, BOOK VIII 

they will live a life of bliss, but if they lose, the very 
oppMDsite. Furthermore, an'III not the dread that this 
is a thing utterly unholy give them power to master 
those impulses which men inferior to themselves 
have mastered ? 

cuN. It is certainly reasonable to suppose so. 

ATH. Now that we have reached this p)oint in 
regard to our regulation, but have fallen into a strait 
because of the cowardice of the many, I maintain 
that our regulation on this head must go forward and 
proclaim that our citizens must not be worse than 
fowls and many other animals which are produced in 
large broods, and which live chaste and celibate lives 
without sexual intercourse until they arrive at the 
age for breeding ; and when they reach this age 
they pair off, as instinct moves them, male with 
female and female with male ; and thereafter they 
live in a. way that is holy and just, remaining con- 
stant to their first contracts of love : surely our 
citizens should at least be better than these animals. 
If, however, they become corrupted by most of the 
other Hellenes or barbarians, through seeing and 
hearing that among them the " lawless Love " (as 
it is called) is of very great power, and thus be- 
come unable to overcome it, then the Law-wardens, 
acting as lawgivers, must devise for them a second 
law. 

CLIN. What law do you recommend them to 
make if that which is now proposed slips out of their 
grasp? 

ATH. Evidently that law which comes next to it 
as second. 

CLIN. WTiat is that ? 

ATH. One ought to put the force of pleasures as 

165 



PLATO 

■fjBovcov pco/jLr]v, Ttjv €TTi')(^vaiv Kol rpo^rjv avTrjq 
hia TTOVtov aWoae rpeTrovra tov (T(t)/jiaro<;. etrj 8' 
av TOVTO, el dvaCBeia fxr) iveir] rfj tmv a^pohLaiwv 
')(p7](X€t' aTTaviw yap av r(p roioinw hi alaxvvrjv 

B ')(p(Ofi€P0i aadevearepav av avrrjv heairoivav 
KTMVTO, oXiyaKi^; ')(^p(t>fievoi. to Br) \avddveiv 
Tovrcov Bpayvrd ti Ka\ov Trap auToi^ ecnw 
vo/jii/jLov, eOei Kal dypd(f>q) vo/xcaOev vofiw, to Be 
fir) Xavddveiv alaxpov, dX}C ov to fir) irdvTO)^ 
Bpav. ovTQ) TOVTO al(T')(^pov av Kal KaXov BevTepo)^ 
av rffiiv ev v6fi(p yevofxevov KeoiTO, opOoTtfTa e^ov 
BevTepav, Kal tov<; to? (f)V(7ec<i Bi,e(p6apfievov<i, ov<i 
rjTTovi avTOiv irpoaayopevofiev, ev y€vo<; 6v, irept- 

C Xa^ovTa ^ Tpia yevr) ^id^oiT av fxr) Trapavofxelv. 
KA. Tlola Br) ; 

A0. To re Oeocre^h dfia Kal (piXoTifiov Kal 
TO fir) Twi' acofidTcov dWd tcov Tpoivwv t^? 
'>^v')(f)<i ovTcov KoXtav yeyovo<; ev iTTidvfila. TavTa 
Bt) KaOdirep tawi ev fivOw to, vvv Xeyofiev 
ecTTlv ev')(^al, ttoXv ye fxr)v dpicTTa, eXirep yiyvoiTo, 
ev 7rd(Tac<; iroXeai yiyvoiTO av. Ta;^a 8' av, el 

D Oeo'i iOeXoi, kclv Bvolv OdTcpa ^laaaifieOa irepl 
epcoTiKCOV, T] fxrjBeva ToXfiav fir)Bev6<; diTTecrdai 
TCOV yevvaiwv dfia Kal eXevdepcov 'iTXr)v yafieTr)<; 
eavTov yvvaiK6<i, ddvTa Be iraXXaKcov cnripfiaTa 
Kal v66a fir) cnreipeiv firjBe ay ova dppevcov 
irapd (f)vacv rj to fiev tcov dppevcov irdfiirav 
d(f)eXoifieO^ av, to Be yvvaiKCov, ei tc<; (TvyyiyvoiTO 
Tivi irXrfv Tat<; fieTo, Oeoiv Kal iep5)v ydfiwv 

^ irepiKafiovra Stallb. : irepiXaffhv to, MSS. 
1 Cp. 626 E ff. 

i66 



LAWS, BOOK VIII 

fnr_ A^ possihl g_out of gear, by diverting its increase 
and nutriment_to another part of the body by means 
dTeSScise. This would come about if indulgence in 
sexual intercourse were devoid of shamelessness ; for 
if, owing to shame, people indulged in it but seldom, 
in consequence of this rare indulgence they would 
find it a less tyrannical mistress. Let them, there- 
fore, regard privacy in such actions as honourable — • 
sanctioned both by custom and by unwritten law ; 
and want of privacy — yet not the entire avoidance of 
such actions — as dishonourable. Thus Ave shall have 
a second standard of what is honourable and shameful 
established by law and possessing a second degree of 
rectitude ; and those people of depraved character, 
whom we describe as " self-inferior," ^ and who form 
a single kind, shall be hemmed in by three kinds of 
force and compelled to refrain from law-breaking. 

CLIN. What kinds ? 

ATH. That of godly fear, and that of love of 
honour, and that which is desirous of fair forms of 
soul, not fair bodies. The things I now mention 
are, perhaps, like the visionary ideals in a story ; yet 
in very truth, if only they were realized, they would 
prove a great blessing in every State. Possibly, 
should God so grant, we might forcibly effect one of 
two things in this matter of sex-relations, — either 
that no one should venture to touch any of the noble 
and freeborn save his own wedded A\ife, nor sow 
any unholy and bastard seed in fornication, nor any 
unnatural and barren seed in sodomy, — or else we 
should entirely abolish love for males, and in regard 
to that for women, if we enact a law that any man 
who has intercourse with any women save those who 
have been brought to his house under the sanction 

167 



PLATO 

E ekOovaai'i el<i rrjv olKiav, ci>vr}Tal<i etre aXXw 
oraovv rpoiro) KTrjTai<i, firj XavOdvcov avhpa^ re 
Koi yvvaiKa<; irdaa^, Ta^^' av arc/xov avrov rwv 
€V Tjj TToXet iiraivwv vo/xoO€TovvTe<i opda)<i av 
So^aifiep vofjioOeTelv, o)? 6vtco<; ovra ^eviKov. ovro^ 
Br) v6fM0<i, €CT€ et? eiTC Bvo avToi)^ XPV TJ'pocra'yo- 
pevetp, /cetaOa) irepl d(})poBtaia)v koI drrdvrwv Toiv 
ipcoTiKMv, oaa 7rpo<; dWr]Xov<; 8ta ra? roiavTa<i 
842 iiridvpia^i ofiiXovvre^ 6pOa)<{ re koX ovk opdSi^ 
TTpdrropev. 

ME. Kal roivvv, S) ^eve, ijci) fiev rot a(}>6Bpa 
Be^oLfjLTjv av rovrov rov vopov, 6 Be Bt] KXeifta? 
avro<i (f>pa^€rco ri irore irepl avreov Biavoeirai. 

KA. "Ecrrat ravra, cj MeyiXXe, oirorav ye Bi] 
fioi Bo^j] Tt9 TrapaTreTTrcoKevai Kaip6<i' vvv p^rjv 
iwfiev rov ^evov ere eh ro irpoadev rrpoievai rcov 

VOfMOV. 

ME. 'O/O^oS?. 

B A0. 'AXXa firjv vvv 76 iTpol6vre<i tjBtj (f)(eB6v 
icrpev iv rw /careaKevdaOai pev ^vacnria, o ^apev 
dXXodi p,ev av x^^XeTTov elvai, ev Kp^rrj Be ovBeU 
dXXco^ av vTToXd^oL Belv yiyveadai. ro Be riva 
rpoTTOv, TTorepov d><i evOdBe rj KaOdirep ev Aa/ce- 
Baipovi, rj irapd ravra ecrri ri rpirov elBo^ ^vcrai- 
rioiv dp(f)olv rovroiv apeivov dv exov, rovro ovr 
e^evpelv p,oi x^Xeirov elvai Bokcc peya re dyaOov 
evpeOev ovBev direpydaeadac' xat yap vvv 

C eppeXSi^ ex^tv Kareaxevacrpeva. 

Tovroi^ 5' earlv aKoXovdov r] rov ^iov Kara- 
CTKCVi], riv avrol<i dv rpoirov ^rroiro. ^to? Br] 
dXXai<; piev iroXeai rravroBaiTW'i dv koI ttoXXuxo- 
6ev eXt), p,dXia-ra Be eK BtTrXaaiwv rj rovroi^' e'/c 

168 



LAWS, BOOK VIII 

of Heaven and holy marriage, whether purchased or 
otherwise acquired, if detected in such intercourse 
by any man or woman, shall be disqualified from 
any civic commendation, as being really an alien, — 
probably such a law would be approved as right. So 
let this law — whether we ought to call it one law or 
two — be laid down concerning sexual commerce and 
love affairs in general, as regards right and wrong 
conduct in our mutual intercourse due to these 
desires. 

MEG. For my own part. Stranger, I should 
warmly welcome this law ; but Clinias must tell 
us himself what his \iew is on the matter. 

CLIN. I shall do so, Megillus, when I deem the 
occasion suitable ; but for the present let us allow 
the Stranger to proceed still further with his laws. 

MEG. You are right. 

ATH. Well, now we have arrived at this point in 
our progress, that common meals have been estab- 
lished — a thing which elsewhere, as we say, would 
be difficult, but in Crete no one would question its 
correctness. As concerns the manner of them, — 
whether we should adopt the Cretan fashion, or the 
Lacedaemonian, or whether we can find a third 
fashion that is better than either, — this does not 
seem to me a difficult problem to decide, nor in- 
deed would its decision prove of much benefit, 
since these meals are now actually established in 
a satisfactory way. 

Next to this comes the question of organising the 
food-supply, and how to make this fit in with the 
meals. In other States this supply would include 
all kinds of food and come from many sources, 
certainly from twice as many sources as it will in 

169 



PLATO 

7^9 7a/3 Koi €K 0aXdTT7]<i toU TrXeto-roi? tcov 
EiWrjvaov eari Karea Kevaa ^eva ra irepl ttjv rpo- 
<f>r]v, TovTOtf 8k jjiovov eK yrj<i. tw fiev ovv 
vo/xoOeTT} TOVTO paov ov yap /xovov r)fj,i,aei<i av 

D ylypovrai vofxoi fierpioi, iroXv S' eXarrof 9, eVt 8' 
eXevdepoi<i dvdpcoiroi^; fxdWov irpeTTOVTe^. vavKKr)- 
piKOiv p.€V yap Kal ifXTropiK&v Kal KaTrrfXevriKcov kuI 
iravhoKevaewv Kal reXcoviKcov Kal /jLeraWeioov Kal 
caveta p,S)v Kal iiTLTOKwv tokcov Kal dWcov pvploov 
TOiovTwv ra iroWa dirrjWaKTaL 'X^alpeiv avTOt^ 
eliroiv irepi, Taurrjv rrjv ttoXiv vofxoOirrjii, yewp- 
y6l<i Se Kal vojxevcn Kal fxeXirrovpyol'i Kal roi? 
irepl ra roiavra (f)v\aKTy]pLoi<; re Kal iTrKTrdrai'; 
opydvcov vofModerrjaei, ra fieyicTTa rjSij vevopo- 

E deTr)KOD<i irepl ydfiovi djxa Kal y6ve<Tei<i iraihwv Kal 
Tyoo^a?, en 8e Kal TraiBeia^ dp^wv re Karaardaei^ 
ev rfi TTokei. vvv S' eVl [roi)?] ■*■ ti]v Tpo(f)r)v Kal 
oaoi TTepl avTTjv rauTrjv avvSiaTTOvovaiv dvay- 
Kalov vofioderovvrd eari rpeireaOai. 

XlpSyjov hrj vopioi ecTTCoaav Xeyop^evoi Tovvop,a 
yecopyiKoL Af09 opiov fiev irpcojoi; v6/jL0<; 68e 
elprjadu)' fiTj Kiveircd 7779 opia, p,t]8el<i /nyjre oIkslov 
ttoXltov yeirovo<i fitjre 6fxoT6p/j,ovo<;, eV iay^aTid<; 
84:3 KeKTr}p€vo<; dWo) ^evw yeirovSiv, vop,i,aa<i to raKi- 
vrjra Kivelv d\rj6u)<; tovto elvar /3ov\ea6(o Se ird^ 
irerpov eVt^efyO^o-at Kivelv tov fiiyiarov dWov 
[ttXtjv opov] ^ fjbdWov rj afiiKpov \idov opi^ovra 



^ [revs'] bracketed by England. 

2 [itAV ipov] bracketed by Bekker, Zur. 



170 



LAWS, BOOK VIII 

our State ; for most of the Greeks arrange for their 
food to be derived from both land and sea, but our 
people will derive it only from the land. This 
makes the lawgiver's task easier ; for in this case 
half the number of laws, or less, will suffice, and the 
laws, too, >\ill be better fitted for free men. For the 
lawgiver of our State is rid, for the most part, of ship- 
ping and merchandise and peddling and inn-keeping 
and customs and mines and loans and usury, and 
countless matters of a like kind ; he can say good- 
bye to all such, and legislate for farmers and 
shepherds and bee-keepers, and concerning the 
preservation and supenision of the instruments em- 
ployed in these occupations. This he Mill do, now 
that he has already enacted the most important 
laws, which deal with marriage, and with the birth 
and nurture and education of the children, and >\ith 
the appointment of magistrates in the State. For 
the present he must turn, in his legislating, to the 
subject of food and of those whose labours contribute 
to its supply. 

First, then, let there be a code of laws termed 
"agricultural." The first law — that of Zeus the 
Boundary-god — shall be stated thus : No man shall 
move boundary-marks of land, whether they be 
those of a neighbour who is a native citizen or those 
of a foreigner (in case he holds adjoining land on a 
frontier), realising that to do this is truly to be 
guilty of "moving the sacrosanct"^; sooner let a 
man try to move the largest rock which is not a 
boundary-mark than a small stone which forms a 
boundary, sanctioned by Heaven, between friendly 

^ For the proverbial saying fi^, Kivtlv raKlyrjra (like "Hands 
oflF I " or " Let sleeping dogs lie "), cp. 684 E, 913 B. 

171 



PLATO 

<f)iX,iav T€ Kol i')(dpav evopKov irapa Oewv rov fikv 
yap 6/jL6(f)v\o<; Zey? fidprv<;, rov 8e ^evio<i, ot fiera 
TToXifKov TOiv e')(d'L(XT(ov iyetpovTai' kuI 6 fiev 
Treia-del^i rat v6fi(p dvaL(r6r)T0<; roiv dir avrou 
KaKcov yiyvoiT dv, KaTa^povi]cra<; Be BnTac<i 
hiKat<i evo')(o<i ea-ro), /Mia jxev irapd 6eo)v Kai 
TTpMTT}, SevTepa Se viro vofxov. ixT]hel<i yap 

B eKutv KiveiTco 7779 opia yecrovcov 09 S' av Kivijat}, 
firjvvero) fiev 6 ^ov\6^evo<i rot? y€a)/jL6poi<i, 01 8e 
eh TO SiKacTTTJpiov dyovrcov rjv Si tc<; 6(f)\r] rrjv 
TOLavTTjv BiKTjv, ft)? dvciSacTTov yrjv \ddpa Koi ^ia 
trotovvro^ rov 6(f)\6vTo<;, Ti/jidTco to ScKaaTTjpwv 
Ti dv Sir] irdcr-xeiv rj drroTiveLv tov rjTTrjdivTa. 

To Be fieTa tovto ^Xd^at iroXkal kuI afiiKpal 
yeiTovcov ycyvofievai, Bid to 6a/xi^eiP e^OpcKi 
oyKov fieyav ivTiKTOva-at, y^aXeirr^v Kal cr<f)6Bpa 

C TTiKpdv yeiTOviav direpyd^ovTai. Bio ')(pr] 7rdvTQ)<i 
evXa^eladac yeiTova yeiTOVi fitjBev iroielv 8id(f>o- 
pov, TOiv re dXkoiv irepi Kal Brj kuI iirepyacria'i 
^Vfnrd(Tr}<; a^oBpa BievXa^ov^evov to fiev yap 
pXdiTTeiv ovBev ')(a\e7r6v, dXX" dvOpcoirov iravTO^;, 
TO S' e7r(i)(f)e\elv ovBafifj drravTO^. 09 6' dv eirep- 
yd^rjTai ra tov yeiTOvo^; virep^aLVcov TOv<i opou<i, 
TO fiev ^\d^o<i dTTOTiveTO), t^9 Be dvaiBeia^ dfia 

D Kal dve\evdepla<i eveKa laTpev6fievo<i BnrXdcriov 
TOV ^Xd^ovf dXXo eKTicrdTco tw 0\a(f)6evTi. 
TovTwv Be Kal dirdvTcov TOiV toiovtcov einyvdifiove^ 
re Kal BiKacrTal Kal TtfirfToi yiyveaOwv dypovofioi, 
tmv fiev fiei^ovcov, KaOdirep ev Toh vpoadev 
eiprjTUi, irdaa 1) tov BcoBeKaTtjpoptov ra^t?, twv 

* 760 A ff. The ' ' phrourarchs " were the (5) officers of the 
(60) country police. 
173 



LAWS, BOOK VIII 

and hostile ground. For of the one kind Zeus the 
Clansmen's god is witness, of the other Zeus the 
Strangers' god ; which gods, when aroused, bring 
wars most deadly. He that obeys the law shall not 
suffer the evils which it inflicts ; but whoso despises 
it shall be liable to a double penalty, the first from 
the hand of Heaven, the second from the law. No 
one shall voluntarily move the boundary-marks of 
the land of neighbours : if any man shall move them, 
whosoever wishes shall report him to the land-holders, 
and they shall bring him to the law court. And if 
a man be convicted, — since by such an act the con- 
victed man is secretly and violently merging lands 
in one, — the court shall estimate what the loser must 
suffer or pay. 

Further, many small wrongs are done against 
neighbours which, owing to their frequent repetition, 
engender an immense amount of enmity, and make 
of neighbourhood a grievous and bitter thing. 
Wherefore every neighbour must guard most care- 
fully against doing any unfriendly act to his neigh- 
bour, and must above all things take special care 
always not to encroach in the least degree on his 
land ; for whereas it is an easy thing and open to 
anyone to do an injur}', to do a benefit is by no 
means open to everyone. Whosoever encroaches on 
his neighbour's groimd, overstepping the boundaries, 
shall pay for the damage ; and, by way of cure for 
his shamelessness and incivility, he shall also |iay 
out to the injured party twice the cost of the 
damage. In all such matters the land-stewards shall 
act as inspectors, judges and valuers, — the whole 
staff of the district, as we have said above,^ in respect 
of the more important cases, and, in respect of the 

173 



PLATO 

eKaTTovcov he ol <ppovpap'^oi. tovtcov. kuI idv rt? 
. ^oaKijfiaTa iTrivefirj, Ta<i ^\d^a<i opcovTa Kpcvov- 

TCOV KoX TlflOOVTCOV. KOl icLV €(TpOV<; oWoTpCoVi 

(T(f)er€pi^T) Tf9 rfj roiv p.e\Lrr(av tjSovt} ^vveirop.evo'i, 
E KOL KaraKpovoov ovr(o<; ocKeicoTai, rtveTco rrjv 
/SXa/S?;^. Kol idv TTvpevcov rrjv v\r]v firj SievXa- 
^rjdfi Trjv ^ TOv yelrovo'i, ttjv So^aaav ^rj/xiav 
TOi? ap')(^ov(Ti ^r]p,tovcrd(o. koI idv (fivrevoov firj 
aTToXeCTrr] to /xeTpov tcov tov yeirovo'i 'x^coptcov, 
KaOdirep etprjTai kol ttoWoI^ vop.o6eTaL<i iKavw^i, 
biV T0i9 v6fioi<; -x^prj 7rpoa)(pr]a0at Kal firj Trdvra 

d^lOVV TTOWd Kal CrflLKpd Kal tov i7TlTV^6vTO<} 

vo/jLodeTOV yi'yvopeva tov p,ei^(o 7roXe&)9 KoafjbrjTTjv 
844 vofjiodeTetv eVet Kal tmv vSdTcov Tvepi yetopyoiat 
iraXaiol Kal KaXol vofioi Ketfievoc ovk d^iot rrap- 
ox^Teveiv \070t9, aXV 6 ^ovXrjdel'i iirl tov auTov 
TOTTOV dyeiv vBcop dyeTco jiiev, dp)^6p,€vo^ iK tmv 
Koivcov vap,dT(t)v, pr) vTTOTep-vwv 'Trr)yd<; <pav€pd<; 
ISicoTOV p,r]8€v6<;, y c)' dv ^ovXrjTaL dye.iv, 7r\r)v 81 
olKLa<i rj lepMv tivcov rj Kal p^vrjpaTcov, dyeTco, fxr) 
^XdrrTcov TrXrjv avTrj^ t?}9 6')(eTayQ)yLa<i- dvhpia he 
el Tiat, TOTTOL'i ^vp,(f)UTo^ €K yr]<; ja e« Af09 iovTa 
B aTTOaTeyei vdp,aTa, Kal iXkeiireL twv dvayKaiwv 
7rcop,dTaiv, opvTTCTCo p.ev iv tw avTOv ^topto) 
P'€xpt ''■^9 Kepap-iSo^ 7^9, idv S* iv tovto) tw 
fiddeL p,r)hapSi<i vSaTi TrpoaTvyx^dvTj, irapd tcov 
yeiTOVcov vSpeveadco p^XP'' "^"^ dvayKaiov 7r(op,aT0<i 
eKd(TTOL<i TCOV oIk€tci)v' idv he hi' dKpi^eia'i 'p Kal 
T0t9 yeLToai, Td^iv t^9 vhpelai; Ta^dp.evo<; irapd 

^ t))v Stephens, England : rSiv MSS. 
»74 



LAWS, BOOK VIII 

less important, those of them who are " phrourarchs." 
If anyone encroaches on pasture-land, these officials 
shall inspect the damage, and decide and assess it. 
And if any, yielding to his taste for bees, secures 
for himself another man's swarm by attracting them 
with the rattling of j^ans, he shall pay for the 
damage. And if a man, in burning his own stuff, 
fails to have a care for that of his neighbour, he 
shall be fined in a fine fixed by the officials. So 
too if a man, when planting trees, fail to leave the 
due space between them and his neighbour's plot : 
this has been adequately stated by many lawgivers, 
whose laws we should make use of, instead of re- 
quiring the Chief Organiser of the State to legislate 
about all the numerous small details which are within 
the competence of any chance lawgiver. Thus, re- 
garding water-supphes also, there are excellent old 
laws laid down for farmers, which we, in our ex- 
position, need not draw upon. Let this suffice : — 
he that desires to bring water to his omti land may 
do so, commencing at the public cisterns, but he 
must not undercut the exposed wells of any private 
person : he may lead it by whatever way he wishes, 
except through a house, temple or tomb, and he 
must do no damage beyond the actual work of 
channelling. If, in any sp>ot, the rain-water filters 
through owing to the natural dryness of the soil, and 
there is a scarcity of necessary moisture, then the 
owner shall dig in his own ground down to the 
chalk subsoil, and if he fails to find water at this 
depth, he shall procure from his neighbours just so 
much as he requires for drinking purposes for all 
his household ; and if his neighbours also are stinted 
in their supplies, he shall apply for a ration of water 

175 



PLATO 

T0t9 dypovofioa, ravTtjv ■qixepa'i €KdaTr]<; KOfii- 
^o/ji€vo<i, ovTO) KOivcoveLTO) Tot? yeLToaiv vhaTo<i. 

C eav he ck At 09 vSara jiyvofieva, rov eTrdvco 
yewpyovvra rj koL (nxoTOi")(pv ol/covvra twv vtto- 
KUTCO ^XaTTTrj Tf9, fir] hi8ov<: eKporjV, ■^ rovvavriov 
6 eTrdvco /jt,€Oiel<; cIkt} rd pevfiara ^Xdirrrf rov 
Kdrco, Kal irepl ravra fir) edeXcoat Bid ravTa 
Koivoyvelv dXX^Xot^, iv darei, fiev dcnvvofjLOv, iv 
dypo) Se djpovofiov iTrdyav 6 ^ovXofievo^ ra^daOoi 
Tt 'X,ph TTOcelv eKdrepov 8e firj ififievwv iv rfj 
rd^ei (^Oovov 6* dfia koX BvaKoXov '\^u^7}9 U7re%€- 

D TO) Blktjv, Kal 6(f>X(i)V SiTrXdcTiov to ^Xd^o<i utto- 
Tiverco Tw ^XacftOevri, fir) ideXrjcra^ roc<t dp)(ova-i 
ireiOeadai. 

^Oirdopa'i he hr) ')(^pr) KOLvcovlav Troieiadai irdvra^ 
TOidvhe TLvd. htTrd<i rjfuv hcopedf 7; 6eb<; e')(api- 
aaro ^ avrrj, rrfv fiev irathiav Aiovvacdha dOr)- 
aavpia-TOV, ttjv S' eh diroOediv yevofievr]v Kara 
(f>v(Tiv. ecrrco hr) nepl 67T(opa<; ohe v6fL0<i ra')(j9ei<i' 
09 dv dypoiKOV 6Tr(opa<; yevarjrai, ^orpvatv eiVe 
KoX avKcov, Trplv iXOelv rrjv copav tt)V rov rpvyav 

E dpKrovpb) ^vvhpofiov, etV iv rot<; avrov %&)/9tof9 
etre Kal iv dXXcov, iepd<i fiev TrevrrJKoma o^etXexft) 
Tft> Aiovvao) hpaxf^(^'i> ^^.v iK rwv eavrov hpeirr), 
idv S' iK ro)v yeirovtov, fivdv, idv 5' i^ aXXcov, hvo 
fieprf rrj<i fivd'?. 09 S' av rr)V yevvalav vvv Xeyo- 
fievrfv ara(f)vXr)v r) rd yevvala crvKa irrovofia^ofieva 
oTTcopi^eiv fiovXrjrai, idv fiev iK rS)v olKeitav 

* ixapiffaro Badham : ?x*' X^P^'^'^^ MSS., edd, 
176 



LAWS, BOOK VIII 

from the land-stewards, and fetch it day by day/^ 
and so share the water \\'ith his neighbours. And ' 
if, when rain comes, any dweller on lower ground 
damages the farmer above him, or the adjoining 
dweller, by preventing its outflow, — or if, con- 
versely, the man on higher ground damages the 
man below by letting out the floods carelessly, — 
and if, in consequence, they refuse to accommodate | 
one another in this matter, any person who wishes \ 
shall call in a city-steward, if it is in the city, or a \ 
land-steward, if in the country, and get an order ' 
as to what each party is to do ; and the man who 
does not abide by the order shall be liable to be 
charged with envy and frowardness, and if convicted 
he shall pay to the injured party double the damage, 
for refusing to obey the magistrates. 

As concerns the fruit -harvest, the rule of sharing 
for all shall be this : — this goddess has bestowed on us 
two gifts, one the pla}i;hing of Dionysus which goes 
unstored, the other produced by nature for putting in 
store.^ So let this law be enacted concerning the 
fruit-harvest : — whosoever shall taste of the coarse 
crop of grapes or figs before the season of vintage, 
which coincides with the rising of Arcturus, whether 
it be on his own land or on that of others, shall owe 
fifty sacred drachmae to Dionysus if he has cut them 
from his own trees, if from his neighbour's trees, a 
mina, and if from others, two-thirds of a mina. And 
if any man wishes to harvest "choice" grapes or 
" choice " figs (as they are now called), he shall 
gather them how and when he will if they are from 

* i.e. (1) choice (or "dessert") fruit, for immediate use, 
and (2) coarse fruit, of poorer quality, for storing in bulk or 
making into wine. 

177 
VOL. II. N 



PLATO 

\a/j.^dvij, 0770)9 av idekrj koI oirorav ^ovXrjrac 
Kapir over dot), iav 8' e^ aWcov fxr) Tretcra?, eTTOfMevtaf 
rS) vofMM Tw fiT) Kivelv 6 Tt fjLrj Karedero, eVetVo)? 
845 ael ^rj/xiovado). iav Se Brj 8ov\o<; fzr) Treicra? top 
BeaTTOTTjv rwv "X^coplcov aTTTn^rai rov rdv roiovreov, 
Kara pd<ya ^OTpvcov Koi ctvkov avKrj<i laapiO/xou<i 
7rXr)ya<i rovTOi<i nacTTi'yovcTOciy. p.iroiKO<i he odpov- 
/xevo<i ri-jv r^evvaiav oircopav oTrcopL^eTco, iav 
^ovXrjTai. iav Be ^evo^ i'mBri/j,i]aa<; 6'ir(i>pa<i 
iiTLdvfxfi (payeiv hi,a7ropev6p,evo<i tcl^ 6hov<i, rrj^; 
fiev yevvalai; aTneaOu), iav ^ovXrjTai, fied' evo<i 
B uKoXovdov %&)/ot9 Tt/J.r]<i, ^evia 8e^6fievo<;, t^9 8e 
dypoLKov Xeyofievrj^ Kal tmv toiovtcov 6 v6p.o<; 
eLpyeTco /xrj KOivcoveiv rjfxtv tov<; ^eVof ?• iav Be rt? 
dicTTcop o)v avTO'i rj SouA-o? dyfrijTai, rov fiev BovXov 
TrXrjyai^i KoXd^eiv, rov Be eXevdepov diroTreinreiv 
vovdeTTjcravra Kal BiBd^avra Trj<; dXXr]!; OTTco/oa? 
dinecrdai rrj<i e/9 dirodeaiv daTa(^iBo<i ou'ou re Kal 
^rjpiov (TVK(ov dveiriTijBeiov KeKTrjadai. dirioiv Be 
irepi Kal /jljjXcov Kal pooiv Kal TravTcov rcov tolovtcov, 
C al(j')(^pov ixev fx,i]B€v earoi Xddpa Xa/x^dveiv, 6 Be 
X'r](f)6el<; ivro<; rpidKovra irwv yey ovcb<i TVirTeaOco 
Kal dfivvecrdo) dvev rpav/xdroiv, Blktjv S' elvai 
iXevdepw ro)V tolovtcov TrXtjycov /xrjBefiLav ^evw 
Be, Kaddirep 6'iTo>pa<;, i^eaTco' Kal tcov tolovtcov 
y^eToyov elvai' iav Be 7rpea^vTepo<; wv aTTTijTaL tov- 
Ttov, <f)aycbv avTov Kal dirofjiepwv firjBev, Kaddnep 
6 ^€vo<;, TavTT) KoivoiveiTco twv tolovtwv diravToov, 
/XT) 7reL06/jL€vo<i Be Ta> vo/lo) KivBvveveTOi dvaycovicrTd 
D yiyveaOai Trepl dpeTr]<;, iav €t9 Tore to, Toiavra 
irepl avTOV T0v<i t6t€ KpLTd<i tl<; dvafiifiv/jaKr}. 

178 



LAWS, BOOK VIII 

his own trees, but if they are from another man's, 
and without his consent, he shall be fined every 
time, in pursuance of the law,^ " thou shalt not shift 
what thou hast not set." And if a slave, without 
the consent of the master of the plots, touches any 
of such fruit, he shall be beaten with stripes as many 
as the grapes in the bunch or the figs on the fig- 
tree. If a resident alien buys a choice crop, he 
shall harvest it if he wishes. If a foreigner sojourn- 
ing in the country desires to eat of the crop as he 
passes along the road, he, with one attendant^ shall, 
if he wishes, take some of the choice fruit with- 
out price, as a gift of hospitality ; but the law shall 
forbid our foreigners to share in the so-called 
" coarse " fruit, and the like ; and should either a 
master or a slave touch these, in ignorance, the 
slave shall be punished with stripes, and the free 
man shall be sent off with a reproof and be instructed 
to touch only the other crop, which is unfitted for 
storing to make raisins for >vine or dried figs. As 
to pears, apples, pomegranates, and all such fruits, 
it shall be no disgrace to take them privily ; but the 
man that is caught at it, if he be under thirty years 
of age, shall be beaten and driven off without 
wounds ; and for such blows a free man shall have 
no right to sue. A foreigner shall be allowed to 
share in these fruits in the same way as in the grape 
crop ; and if a man above thirty touch them, eating 
on the spot and not taking any away, he shall, have 
a share in all such fruits, like the foreigner ; but if 
he disobeys the law, he shall be liable to be dis- 
quaUfied in seeking honours, in case anyone brings 
these facts to the notice of the judges at the time. 

» Cp. 913 C, D. 

179 
N 2 



PLATO 

TBcop Be irdvTcov fxev to Trepl ra? KrjTreLa<i Siacjie- 
p6vT(o<; Tp6<f>cfiov, evhid<^6apT0v Be' ovre <yap yrjv 
ovre rfkiov ovre •jrvevp.aTa, roi<i vSacri ^vvrpocpa 
tS)v ck <yrj<; dva^Xaaravovrcov, pahiov (^deipeiv 
(f)apfiaK€va€(rcv r) dTTOTpo-nai<i rj kuI K\oTrai<i, nrepl 
he TTjV vBaTo<; (fivaiv earl rd roiavra ^vpTravra 
E SwaTU 'yi'yveaOai. Sib Srj ^orjdov Selrai vofiov. 
ecTco Toivvv o8e irepl avrov' dv ti<; Siacfydelpt] 
eKoov vBcop dXkoTpiov, elre koX Tnjyalov etVe Kal 
avvayvprov, (f)apfxaKe[at<; rj axd/x/xaa-ip rj K\o7ra2<i, 
6 ^\aTTr6p,evo<i BiKa^eaOo) 7Tpo<{ tov<; daTVv6/j,ov<i, 
T7]v d^iav Trj<i ^Xd/3rj(i dTro<ypa(j)6/jbevo<i' dv Be TL<i 
6(f>\r} <j)apfxaKeiai.<i Tia\ ^Xd'Tncov, tt/jo? tw TipLrj- 
p,ari, KaOrjpdreo rd^ Trijyd^i rj rdyyeiov tov vBaTO^;, 
OTTTjirep dv ol rSiV i^rjyrjrcov vofioi dcfirj'yMV- 
rai Belv yiyveaOat tt)v KaOapcriv eKdarore Kal 
eKdaroi<i. 

Tlepl Be ^vyKOfiiBrji; twv d>pai(ov dirdvTcov, 
846 i^icTTco rw /3ov\ofjiev(p to eavTov Bid 7ravTo<; 
TOTTOV KOfiL^eadai, oTTrjirep dv rj fiijBev firjBeva 
^rjfiiol rj TpnrXdaiov avTOf KepBo<i t?}? toO yei- 
TOvo<i ^rjixiwi KepBaivr)' tovtcov Be imyvQ)/j.ova<i 
rov<i dp')(ovTa<i ylyveaOai, Kal tmv dWcov dfrdv- 
Tcov oaa ri'i dv eKcov UKOvra ^Xdirrr} ^ia rj 
\ddpa, avTov rj tmv avrov ti, Bid tmv avTov 
KTrjp,dTQ)V' irdvra rd TOiavra Tol<; dp)(ovaiv 
€7nBeiKvv<i Ttficopetado) /ie%/3t Tpicov fivoov 6vTo<i 
TOV ^\d^ov<i' edv B^ eyKXij/jid tw pel^ov aWoi 
B TT/Do? dWov yiyvrjTai, tt/jo? Ta KOivd BiKaarrj- 
pia ^epcov TTJV Blktjv Tificapeiado) tov dBiKOvvTa. 
idv Be Ti^ TOiv dp')(pvT(ov Boktj /xct* uBIkov yvdyfir]^ 

1 80 



LAWS, BOOK VIII 

Water above all else in a garden is nourishing; but 
it is easy to spoil. For while soil and sun and wind, 
which jointly ^^"ith water nourish growing plants, 
are not easy to spoil by means of sorcerj- or di- 
verting or theft, all these things may happen to 
water ; hence it requires the assistance of law. Let 
this, then, be the law concerning it : — if anyone 
wantonly spoil another man's water, whether in 
spring or in pond, by means of sorcery, digging, or 
theft, the injured party shall sue him before the 
city-stewards, recording the amount of the damage 
sustained ; and whosoever is convicted of damaging 
bv poisons shall, in addition to the fine, clean out the 
springs or the basin of the water, in whatever way 
the laws of the interjireters declare it right for the 
purification to be made on each occasion and for 
each plaintiff. 

Touching the bringing home of all crops, whoso 
wills shall be permitted to fetch his own stuff 
through any place, provided that either he does 
no damage or else gains himself three times as 
much profit as the damage he costs his neighbour ; 
the authority in this matter shall rest with the 
magistrates, as in all other cases where a man will- 
ingly injures an unvvilling party either by force or 
secretly — whether it be the party himself he injures 
or some of his chattels, by means of his own chattels ; 
in all such cases the plaintiff must report to the 
magistrates to get redress, where the damage is 
under three minas ; but if a man makes a larger 
claim than this against another, he shall bring a 
suit before the public courts and punish the injure r. 
If any of the magistrates be thought to have given 
an unjust verdict in deciding the penalties, he shall 

i8i 



PLATO 

Kpiveiv TCL^ ^i)/j,la<;, twv SnrXaalcov v7r68iKO<; earoi 

TO) ^Xai^devTL' ra he av tcov dp^oprmv dBiKij- 

jxara et'i ra Koiva BixaaTijpia eiravdyeiv top 

^ov\ofi€vov <ev> eKaaro) ^ to)v iyKXij/jLciToyv. 

, fivpia 8e ravTa ovra kuI afxiKpd v6fi,t/u.a, kuO' 

J a Set ra? Ti/jbwpia'i yiyveadat, \7]^€(ov re irept 

C BiK&v Kol TrpoaKXtjcrecov /cat K\r]T/]pcov, etV iirl 

Bv€tv etr €<p^ oTToacov Sel KokelcrdaL, koI ircivTa 

I OTToaa Toiavrd ea-Tiv, ovt dvo/jLodeTrjTa olov t 

elvai yepoi>r6<i re ovk d^ia vofioOerov, vofiode- 

TovvTMV S' avrd ol vioi irpo'i Ta tmv TrpoaOev 

j vofjLodeTrjfjuara diropinovfievot (Tp.iKpd irpo^ jxeydXa, 

I KoX T^9 dvayKala<i avTwv ■)(^peia^ e/jb7relpoo<i 

I t(TX0VT6<i, /iie^ptTTep dv irdvTa iKav(io<; So^r} Kel- 

crdai' rore he dKLVijra Troirjadfievoi ^covratv rovroi'i 

V^V %p<»/iei'Of p^erpov ^ ex^ovcrc. 

D To he T(ov dXXcov hrjp,iovpy5)v Troieiv 'X,ph i^^^Td 

rdhe. TTpMTov fiev i7rL)((i)pio<; firjheU earco rwv 

irepl TO, hi]p.iovpyiKd Te^^^i^tj/xaTU hiairovouvToyv, 

fiTjhe olKeT7]<i dvhp6<; e-TTi^copLov re^vn'^' 7^P iKavhv 

TToXXrj^ daKy]a€(o<i dp^a Kal p,adr]p,dT(t)V ttoXXmv 

heopAvrjv KeKjrjTai 7ro\iTr]<; dvrjp top koivov tt}? 

7roX6ft)9 Koapbov crco^cov Kal Krcopevo^, ovk ev 

irapepyw heopuevov eTriTrjheveiv' hvo he CTriTTjhev- 

pxiTa rj hvo Te')(va<; dKpi^(o<; hLairovelcrdai a^^hov 

E ovhepla (f)vcn<; iKavr) tcov dvdpcoTrlvcov, ovh' av 

Tr}V puev avro^ iKavcb<i dcTKeiv, rrjv he dXXov 

dcTKOvvra iiriTpoTreveiv. tovt ovv iv iroXei 

VTTdp-)(pv hel TTpoiTOv yiyveaQai' pjr]hei<i ')(CLXKevo)v 

dpa reKTatveaOo), p,7}K av reKraivopLeva ')(a\Kev- 

^ <^»'> (KdffTcp : kKaffTwv MSS. {iKaffrov Ast). 

484 



LAWS, BOOK VIII 

be liable to pay to the injured party double the 
amount ; and whoso wishes shall bring up the wrong- 
doings of the magistrates before the public courts 
in the case of each complaint. And since there 
are countless petty cases for which penalties must 
be laid down, concerning written complaints and 
citations and evidence of citation, — whether the 
citation requires two or more witnesses, — and all 
matters of the like kind, — these cases cannot be 
left without legal regulation, but at the same time 
they do not deserve the attention of an aged law- 
giver ; so the young lawgivers shall make laws for 
these cases, modelling their small rules on the great 
ones of our earlier enactments, and learning by 
experience how far they are necessary in practice, 
until it be decided that they are all adequately laid 
down ; and then, having permanently fixed them, 
they shall live in the practice of them, now that 
they are set out in due form. 

Moreover, for craftsmen we ought to make regula- 
tions in this wise. First, no resident citizen shall be 
numbered among those who engage in technical 
crafts, nor any servant of a resident. For a citizen 
possesses a sufficient craft, and one that needs long 
practice and many studies, in the keeping and con- 
serving of the public system of the State, a task 
which demands his full attention : and there hardly 
exists a human being with sufficient capacity to 
carry on two pursuits or two crafts thoroughly, nor 
yet to practise one himself and supervise another in 
practising a second. So we must first of all lay 
down this as a fundamental rule in the State : no 
man who is a smith shall act as a joiner, nor shall 

' fierpov Baiter : ^(rpwv MSS. 

183 



PLATO 

ovTcov aWcov eTri/jLeXeiaOo} fiaXKov rj t?}? avrov 
Te')(yri<i, 7rp6<f>aaiv e%&jf 0)9 ttoWmv oikctcov 
iinfJLeXovfjLevo'i eavrw SijfxiovpyovvTwv elKorw^; 
fjLoXXov e7ri/j,€\eiTat iKecvoov 8ia to ttjv irpocrohov 
847 CKeWev avrw irXeiw 'yi'yvea-OaL ri]<; avrov Te%i^?;9, 
aX,X' eh /Jbiav e/cacTTO? re^vT^v iv TroXei KGKTijfjLevo^ 
aTTO ravrrj'i a/xa koI to ^fjv KTaado). tovtov Br} 
Tov vofiov daTVvofiot BtaTTovovfievoc aco^ovrcov, kcu 
Tov fxev €7rt%o>/3foi', iav ei'9 riva Te^i^rjv airoKXivri 
fiaXXov rj TTJV Tr}9 dperi]'; itripeKeiav, KoXa^ovrwv 
oveiBeai re Kal d.Tipiai'i, fxe-x^piirep av Karevdv- 
vcocnv et9 tov avrov hpopov, ^evcov Be av Tt9 eirirr)- 
Bevrj Bvo Texva<i, Be(Tp,OLai re Kal ')(pr)pdrci)v 
B ^rip^iai^ Kal eKJ3o\al<i eK rr]<; iToXeax; KoXd^ovre^; 
dvayKa^ovTcov eva povov dXXa prj iroXXovi eivai, 
piadcov Be avTol<i irept, Kal rcov dvaipeaecov rcov 
epycov, Kal edv Tt9 avTov<; erepo<i rj Kelvov riva 
dXXov dBtKMcrt, p^xpi Bpaxpf>>v nevr^Kovra 
darvvopoL BiaBiKa^ovrcov, ro Be irXeov tovtov ra 
KOivd BLKaarrjpia BiaKpivovroyv Kara vopov. 

Te'\o9 Be iv ry iroXei p,r]Beva p^rjBev reXelv p'qre^ 
i^ayopivcov '^(^prjpdrcov prjr elaayopevwv Xi^avo)- 
Tot' Be Kal oaa 7r/oo9 ^ 0eov'; rd roiavr earl ^eviKa 
C dvpidpara, Kal iropcpvpav Kal oaa ^airrd XP^' 
para, pr) (f)epovar]'i t^9 %w/)d9, rj Trepi riva dXXrjv 
rexvrjv Beopevrjv ^evcKwv tlvwv eladymjipcov 
pr}Bevb<i dvajKaiov %a/Jti' /*'?t6 Tt9 dyerco, prjre 
av Tbiv iv rfi x^P^ dvayKaiatv ippeveiv i^ayerco. 
Tovrcov 5' av irdvrwv i'irLyv(opova<i eivai Kat, 
eTnpeXrjrdf; tmv vopocfivXdKcov, irevre dcfyaipedevrwv 
Twv irpea^vrepwv, roii^ e^rj<; BcoBeKa. 
^ vphs MSS. : irepl Zur., vulg. 
184 



LAWS, BOOK VIII 

a joiner supervise others at smith-work, instead of 
his own craft, under the pretext that, in thus super- 
vising many servants working for him, he naturally 
supervises them more carefully because he gains 
more profit from that source than from his own 
craft ; but each several craftsman in the State shall 
have one single craft,^ and gain from it his living. 
This law the city-stewards shall labour to guard, 
and they shall punish the resident citizen, if he 
turn aside to any craft rather than to the pursuit 
of virtue, with reproofs and degradation, until they 
restore him to his own proper course ; and if a 
foreigner pursue two crafts, they shall punish him 
by imprisonment, money-fines, and expulsion from 
the State, and so compel him to act as one man and 
not many. And as regards wages due to craftsmen, 
and the cancellings of work ordered, and any injustices 
done to them by another, or to another by them, the 
city-stewards shall act as arbitrators up to a value of 
fifty drachmae, and in respect of larger sums the 
public courts shall adjudicate as the law directs. 

No toll shall be paid in the State by anyone 
either on exported goods or on imports. Frank- 
incense and all such foreign spices for use in religious 
rites, and purple and all dyes not produced in the 
country, and all pertaining to any other craft requir- 
ing foreign imported materials for a use that is not 
necessarv', no one shall import ; nor, on the other 
hand, shall he export any of the stuff which should 
of necessity remain in the country : and of all such 
matters the inspectors and supervisors shall consist 
of those twelve Law-wardens who remain next in 
order when five of the oldest are left; out. 

1 Cp. Rep. 369EfiF., 434 A. 

i8S 



PLATO 

Tlepl Be oifkfov KoX oaa Trepl rov iroXe/juov 
D airavra opyava, idv rivo<i r) rixvv'i eiaaytoyt/xov 
5e/7 yijveadai rj (pvrou fj /xeraWevriKov Kr7]/jLaro<i 
Tj SecTfievTLKOv rj i^dioiv tlvwv evcKa t% ToiavTrj<i 
Xp^taf;, iTTirap^oi /cal a-TpaTrjyol tovtcov earcoaav 
Kvpioi elaaywyi)'^ re koI i^aymyi]';, 8i8ov(ti]<; t€ 
afia fcal B€')(o/jLev7]<; t^? TroXeo)?, v6/xov<; Be irepl 
TOVTCOV vo/jLo<f)v\aK€<i Tov^ irpeTTovTo.^ re Kal iKa- 
vov^ Grjaovat' KaTrrfKeiav Be eiexa 'X^prj/naTiafimv 
fiTjTe ovv TOVToy p,rjTe aWov [jirjBevo<i ev ttj %&)/9a 
E 0X77 Kal TToXei rjixlv ylyveaOai. 

Tpo<pi]<; Be Kal Biavo/xij'i tcov eK t^9 ')(^copa<i 
6771)9 Tj}9 Tov K.pr]TiKov v6p>ov €OiK€v o^^ott;? av 
Tf? ytyvofMevrj kuto, Tpoirov yiyveaOai. BcoBeKa 
fiev yap Br) /xepij to, iravTa ex t^9 ^copa^; yiy- 
voixeva vep-eiv X/Jetwy '7rdvTa<;, rjirep Kal dvaXcoTea^ 
TO Be BwBeKaTov fi,epo<i eKacnov, olov rrvpwv Kal 
Kpidwv, olcTi Br) Kal TO, dtravTa aKokovOeiTOi to, 
dWa ODpata veixojxeva, Kal oaa ^aia ^vp^iravTa 
848 "JTpdaLp! dv eKdaTOi<; rj, Tpi)(V Biaipeiadw KaTa 
Xoyov, ev p,ev fiepo<; toi<; eXeuOepoi<i, ev Be Tot9 
T0VTQ3V olKeTai'i, TO Be TpiTov Br)fj,tovpyoi<; re Kal 
irdvTO)^ Tot9 ^evoi^., o'i re Tive^ dv tcov /neTOiKovv- 
Twv Mat ^vvoiKovvTe<;, Tpo(f)7)<i dvayKalov Beofievoi, 
Kal oaoi %/3eta tivI 7roXe&)9 r) Tivo<; IBlwtmv 
elaacpLKvovvTai e/catrroTe* irdvTcov twv dvayKaiwv 
dirove/jbrjdev TpiTOV fiepa coviov e^ dvdyKr)<; ea-TW 
TOVTO /xovov, TMV Be Bvo fiepMV fir)Bev errdvayKe^i 
eaTfo TTOiXelv. iroi'i ovv Br) TavTa opOoTaTa vey^oiT 
186 



LAWS, BOOK VIII 

In regard to arms and all instruments of war, if 
there is need to import any craft or plant or metal 
or rope or animal for military purposes, the hipparchs 
and generals shall have control of both imports and 
exports, when the State both gives and takes, and 
the Law-wardens shall enact suitable and adequate 
laws therefor ; but no trading for the sake of gain, 
either in this matter or in any other, shall be carried 
on anywhere within the boundaries of our State and 
country. 

Touching food-supply and the distribution of 
agricultural produce, a system approaching that 
legalised in Crete would probably prove satisfactory. 
The whole produce of the soil must be divided by 
all into twelve parts, according to the method of its 
consumption. And each twelfth part — of wheat and 
barley, for instance (and all the rest of the crops 
must be distributed in the same way as these, as 
well as all marketable animals in each district) — 
must be divided proportionately into three shares, of 
which the first shall be for the freeborn citizens, and 
the second for their servants ; the third share shall 
be for craftsmen and foreigners generally, including 
any resident aliens who may be dwelling together 
and in need of necessary sustenance, and all who 
have come into the country at any time to transact 
either public or private business ; and this third 
share of all the necessaries shall be the only one 
liable to compulsory sale,^ it being forbidden to sell 
any portion of the other two shares compulsorily. 
What, then, will be the best way of making these 

^ For sales to foreigners, see below 849 A ff.: they had to 
buy their share of foodstuff, but the other two shares were 
not to be forced on to the market. 

187 



PLATO 

B av ; TrpwTOv /J-ev BrjiXov on ttj (xev taa, rfj S' ovk 
taa vifjiofiev. 

KA. ITa)? Xiyeiii ; 

A0. Xeipco TTov Kal ySeXTto) TOVTwv eKacrra 
avdyxr) (f)V€iv Kal €KTp€<peiv Tr]V yrji'. 

KA. riw? yap ov ; 

A0. Tft) fiev Toivvv roiovT(p roov fiepwv rpicov 
ovTcov fiy]S€v irXeov e%eTa) fxi^re to toI^ ZecnroTai'i 

rj ^0v\0L<i V€fJ,6fl€V0V, fl^T€ UV TO TMV ^€V(OV, dWa 

Tijv Trj<; ofioiOTTjTO^ IdorrjTa r] vofir) irdaiv cltto- 
C hihoTO) rr)v avTrjv' Xa^oov 8' exaaro'; twv ttoXitcov 
rd Svo fiepy] Kvpio'i earo) r^? vofi7]<i BovXoi^ t€ 
fcal ekevdepoL^, oirbcr av Kal oTrola ^ovXrjTac 
Biavifieiv to Se TrXeov rovrwv ficTpot^ re Kal 
dpi6p,S> TfjSe -^^pr) Biav€fi€(rdai, Xa^ovra tov 
dpiOfiov TrdvTcov roiv ^o)(ov ol<; e'/c t^9 7^9 Set tt]V 
Tpo(f)T]v yiyveadai, Siavifieiv. 

To Se fxerd rovro avrol<; oiKijcreiq Set %<w/c»t? 
BcaTeTayfi€va<; elvai. Ta^t? Se rjSe TTpeirei TOi? 
TOtouTOf?" ScoBcKa Koofiat elvai XPV> f^^^^ fiiaov 
D TO BcoSeKaTrjfMopiov eKaarov p,iav, iv rf) Kcofirj Be 
eKaarrj TrpSirov [xev lepd xal dyopdv i^TjprjaOai 
deSiV re xal twv eTro/xivcov 6eol<i Sai/iovwp, etre 
Tive<; evTOTTOL M.ayv}]Tcov etr dXXwv iSpv/xara 
iraXaLWV /xviJ/jlj] hiaaeawfievcov elaC, tovtoi<; aTro- 
BiBovra^ Ta<? tmv irdXai Tifid<; dvOpcoircov, £<TTta9 
Be Kal At09 ^Adr]vd<; re Kal 09 dv dp'^rjyo'i rj twv 
dXXcov rov BooBeKdrov eKda-rov fiepov<;, lepd irav- 
188 



LAWS, BOOK VIII 

di\'isions? It is plain, to begin with, that our 
division is in one way equal, in another, unequal. 

CLIN. How do you mean ? 

ATH. Of each of these products of the soil, 
necessarily some parts are worse and some better. 

CLIN. Of course. 

ATH. In respect of this, no one of the three 
shares shall have an undue advantage, — neither that 
given to the masters, nor that of the slaves, nor 
that of the foreigners, — but the distribution shall 
assign to all the same equality of similarity. Each 
citizen shall take two shares and have control of the 
distribution of them to slaves and free men re- 
spectively, in the quantity and of the quality he 
desires to distribute. The surplus over and above 
this must be distributed by weight and number as 
follows, — the owner must take the number of all 
the animals that have to be fed on the produce of 
the soil, and make his distribution accordingly. 

In the next place, there must be dwellings for 
the citizens separately arranged. A suitable arrange- 
ment for them will be this. There should be twelve 
villages, one in the middle of each of the twelve 
districts ; and in each village we shall first select 
temples and a market-place for the gods and demi- 
gods ; and if there exist any local deities of the 
Magnetes ^ or any shrines of other ancient gods whose 
memory is still preserved, we shall pay to them the 
same worship as did the men of old ; and everywhere 
we shall erect temples to Hestia and Zeus and 
Athena, and whatever other deity is the patron of 

^ The original inhabitants of the site of Clinias's new 
colony (cp. 702 B, 860 E) : they subsequent!}- migrated to 
Magnesia in Asia Minor. 

189 



PLATO 

raxov IBpvcraadai. TrpcoTOv Be olKohofila^ elvat 
irepl ra tepa ravTa, ottj} av 6 totto? vyp-TjXoraro'i 
E ^, roi^ <^povpol<; vTroSo-x^rjv on fidXiaTa evep/cij- 
rrjv he dXXrjv ■^dopav KaraaKevd^etv iraaav Brj- 
fiiovpycov TpiaKaiSeKU fieprj SieXo/ievovi, koX to 
fiev iv dcTTei KaroiKL^eiv, BieXo/jLepov<i av koI tovto 
et? rd BcoSe/ca p-eprj Trj<i TToXeco? d7rdar](i, e^ay re 
Kal iv kvkKo) KaTav6/x'>]6€VTa<;, iv rij kco/xt] Be 
eKaarrj tu Trpoa^opa <ye(AipyolaL yevyj tmv B^]- 
fiLovpyoiv (TvvoiKii^eLv. Tov<i B' iTn/j,e\r}rd<i elvat 
TOVTiov TTuvTiov T0v<i TMV dypovop,oiv dp-yov7a^, 
oacov Te Kal cjvtivwv o T07ro9 eKaaro^i Betrac, Kal 

OTTOV KaT0tK0VVT€<; oXviTOTaTol T€ Kal ai(f>e\i- 

849 ficoraToi eaovrai toIctl 'yecopyovai. tcov Be iv 
darei Kara ra aind i7np,e\ridrjvai [/cat iirifxe- 
XelaOai} ^ TrjV rcov cicrrvvo/xoov dp')^riv. 

Tot? Be Br) dyopav6ixoL<; rd irepl dyopdv ttou 
Bel eKaara fieXeiv. rj 3' iTri/xeXeia jxerd ttjv tmv 
lepoyv iirlaKeyfriv rSiv Kar dyopdv, firj Tt<i dBiKfj 
Ti T'^9 TMV dvOpoiTTOov '^peia^, TO BevTepov dv eir] 
aQ)(f>poavv^]<i Te Kal vfipeco<i iTncFKoirovi ovTut 
KoXd^eiv Tov Beo/xevov KoXdaea><i. tcov Be oovicov, 
irpSiTov fiev rd irepl tov<; ^evov<; Ta)(devTa ircoXeiv 
B TOi? daToU aKoirelv el jlyveTac Kurd rov vofxov 
eKacTTa. v6p.o<i B el? earco,^ firjvo^ ttj via oiv Bel 
TTpaOrjvai to p,epo<; Tol<i ^evot<; i^dyeiv tou? iiri- 
TpoTTOv'i, oaoi TOi? dcTTol'i ^€V0t TJ Kal BovXoi iiri- 
Tpoirevovai, BcoBeKaTij/xopiov irpSiTov tov gltov, tov 
Be ^ivov 6i? iravra tov p,rjva wveladai alrov fiev 



^ [koI iTtine\ei(r0ai] I bracket. 

* 5' els icTTw : 5' iKaiTTtf MSS. ; 5f tarui Zur., vulg. 



190 



LAWS, BOOK VIII 

the district concerned. First, buildings shall be 
erected round about these temples, and wherever 
the ground is highest, to form a stronghold, as well 
fenced as possible, for the garrison ; and all the rest 
of the land we shall provide for by dividing the 
craftsmen into thirteen sections, of which one shall 
settle in the city (and this section shall be sub- 
divided again into twelve parts, like the whole city 
itself, and distributed round about it in the suburbs) ; 
and in each village we shall settle the classes of 
craftsmen that are serviceable to farmers. Of all 
these the chiefs of the land-stewards shall be the 
supervisors, determining how many and what crafts- 
men each place requires, and where they shall dwell 
so as to be of least trouble and greatest use to the 
farmers. And in like manner the board of city- 
stewards shall diligently supervise the craftsmen in 
the city. 

All matters concerning the markets must be 
managed by the market-stewards. In addition to 
supervising the temples adjoining the market, to 
prevent any damage being done to them, they shall, 
secondly, supervise personal conduct, keeping an 
eye on temperate and outrageous behaviour, so as 
to punish him who needs punishment. They shall 
watch over commodities put up for sale, to see that 
the sales which citizens are directed to make to 
foreigners are always legally conducted. There shall 
be this one law — that on the first day of the month 
the portion of the goods which is to be sold to 
foreigners shall be brought out by the managers — 
that is, the foreigners or slaves who act as managers 
for the citizens ; and the first commodity shall be 
the twelfth share of corn, and the foreigner shall 

191 



PLATO 

Kai oaa irepX crlrov a.'yopa ttj irpcorr)' BefcaTT] Be 
Tov /xrjvo'i Ti]v Tbiv vyp(t)V 01 /lev irpaatv, ol Be 
wvTjv TToieiaOcoaav BC oXov tov /xr}vo<i Ikuvijv 
rpLTT) ^ Be elKuBi rcov ^cotov earoi irpaai'i, oaa 

C irparea eKd(noi<i rj covrjTea avToc<; BeojievoL^ kcll 
Qiroawv aKCVMV rj ■^pijfiaTCOV yeci)pyoi<; fxev irpaai'i, 
olov Bepfidrayv rj koX 7rdar}<; ia-dfjrofi rj 7r\oKrj<; rj 
iriXr/aewf; rj tipcov dWtov roiovTOiv, ^evoi<; Be 
dvayKalov covelcrdat Trap dXkoov Krcojievot^. kutttj- 
Xet'a? Be tovtoov rj Kpidwv rj irvpwv 6i<i d\<^na 
ve/jbrjdevTcov, rj Koi ttjv dWrjv ^vjiiraaav rpo<^rjv, 
daTol<i jiev koX tovtcov Bou\oi<i firjTe Tit TrcoXeLTO) 

D fitjTe oiveicrOw irapa tolovtov firjBeh p.rjBevo'i, ev 
Be Ttti? TOiv ^evcov ^evot dyopat<i TrcoXetTO) Toi<; 
Byjjiiovpyol<i Te kclI tovtcov Bov\oi<;, oivov re jieTa- 
^aWojievot koX aiTOV Trpdaiv, o Brj KanrjXelav 
eiTovojid^ovaiv ol ifKela-TOi' Kal ^wtov BiajiepicrOev- 
T(ov fidyeipoi BiaTiOeaOcov ^€VOi<i Te Kal Btj- 
fiiovpyol<; Kal tovtcov olKeTai<;. iraaav Be vkrjv 
Kavaijiov oarjjiepaL ^evo<; 6 ^ov\r)Oel<; coveiadco 
fiev dOpoav rrapd tcov ev toI^; ')(aipioi<i eiriTpoTrcov, 
ircoXeiToo Be avTot to?9 ^evoi<;, Kad^ oaov av 

E ^ovXrjTai Kal OTTOTav ^ovXrjTai. tcov Be dXXcov 
•^prjfidTcov TrdvToov koI cTKevcov oTToawv eKdcTTOiai 
')(^peia, TTcoXelv eh ttjv koivtjv dyopdv (f)epovTa<; 
eh TOV TOTTOv CKacTTov, ev ol? av vofio<pvXaKe<; 
T€ Kal dyopavofioi /uer' dcrTvvoficov TCKjirjpdpevoi, 
eBpuf; TT/jeTTOucra? opov<i doovTai tcov oovicov ev 
TOVTOL<i dXXdTTeaOat vojiicTjid Te 'X^prjjudTcov Kal 
')(^prjpaTa vojiiafJuiTOt, jirj irpolejievov dXXov 
eTepcp TTjV dXXayrjv 6 Be 7rpoe/j,evo<; co? TriaTevcov, 

* Tplrri W. R. Paton : rp/rp MSS., edd. 
192 



LAWS, BOOK VIII 

buy com, and all that goes with it, at this first 
market. On the tenth day of the month, fluids 
sufficient to last through the month shall be sold 
by the one jiarty and lx)ught by the other. Thirdly, 
on the twentieth day, there shall be a sale of live- 
stock, as much as each jiarty can buy or sell to suit 
their requirements, and also of all utensils or goods 
which the farmers have for sale, such as skins or 
any kind of clothing or woven stuff or felt or any 
such material ; and these the foreigners must obtain 
from others by purchase. But neither these goods, 
nor barley or wheat ground into flour, nor any other 
kind of foodstuff whatsoever, may be sold by way 
of retail trade to the citizens or their slaves, or 
bought from any such retailer (but to the craftsmen 
and their slaves in the foreigners' market a foreigner 
may sell and traffic in wine and corn bv way of what 
is generally termed " retail trade ") ; and the butchers 
shall cut up the animals and distribute the meat to 
the foreigners and craftsmen and their servants. 
Any foreigner who wishes shall buy any kind of 
fuel in bulk, on any day, from the managers in the 
districts ; and he shall sell it to the foreigners in 
what quantity and at what time he })leases. As to 
all other goods and utensils that each party requires, 
they shall be brought for sale to the public market, 
each kind to its appointed place, wherever the Law- 
wardens and market-stewards, with the help of the 
city-stewards, have marked out suitable sites and 
set up the stalls for market-stuff: there they shall 
exchange coins for goods and goods for coins, and 
no man shall give up his share to the other without 
receiving its equivalent ; and if any does thus give 



193 



PLATO 

idv re KOfxiair^rai koL av fii], aTepyero) &)? 

OVK€Tt BiKTjq 0V(T7]<i TCOV TOIOVTCOV TripC CVVuX- 

850 \a^e(ov. to Be wvrjOev rj irpadev oaw irXeov 
av y Kol 7r\€Ovo<i rj Kara rov v6/xov, 09 etprjKe 
TToaov Trpoayevofiivov xal airo'yevop.evov hel 
firfSerepa rovrcov iroieiv, avw^pa^rjrw tot ijSr] 
Trapa toI^ vop,o^vXa^i to TrXeov, i^aXei^iaOui he 
TO ivavTLOv. TO, avTa Be koX irepl fxeToitcwv €<ttco 
T»7? ava'ypa(j)7]<; irepi t?}9 ovaLa<i. levai Be top 
^ovXopievov elf ttjv /xeTOLKrjaiv eirl pT]T0t<i, (U? 
olKrjaewf ova-r)<; twv ^evoiv tg) ^ovXofievta koX 
B Bvvap,ev(p fieTOc/cetv, Te^vrjv KeKTijfievqy Kal eTTiBrj- 
fiovvTi firj TrXeov eTO)v eiKOaiv, d(f)^ ■^<; av ypdyfrr)- 
Tai, fieTOLKiov /jLTjBe ap-iKpov TeXovvTi ttXtjv tov 
aux^povelv, firjBe dXXo av TeXof eveKa Ttva &)i/^9 
^ Kal TTpdaeca' OTav B' e^rjKcoaLV ol xpovoi, ttjv 
avTov Xa/36vTa ovaiav dirievai. idv B' ev toi^ 
eTecri tovtol<; avTcp ^vp,^fj Xojov d^im 7rpo<i evep- 
yealav rrj<i TroXeo)? yeyovevai Tivd iKavr]v, Kal 
TTKTTevr) ireiaeiv ^ovXrjv Kal eKKXrjaiav rj Tiva 
C dva^oXrjv ttj<; e^oiKyjaecof d^icbv avTW yiyveaSai 
Kvpi(o<i rj Kal to irapdirav Bed /Stou Tiva /j,ovi]v, 
CTTeXdoiv Kal 7reiaa<i ttjv ttoXlv, direp av Treiarj, 
TavTa avTw TeXea 'yi'^veadco. iraLcrl Be fieTocKcov, 
Brj/xiovpyot'i oxxtl Kal jevofievoi^; CTtav irevTeKal- 
BeKa, T?)? /Jiev p,eTOtKia<; a/t)%eT<u ')(p6vo<; 6 /xeTa to 
TrefjLTTTov Kal BeKaTov eTO<i, eVl tovtol^ Be eUoaiv 

1 Cp. 742 C, 915 E. 
194 



LAWS, BOOK VIII 

it up, as it were on credit, he shall make the best 
of his bargain,^ whether or not he recovers what is 
due to hini, since in such transactions he can no 
longer sue. And if the purchase or sale is greater 
or more costly than is allowed by the law stating 
the limits of increase or decrease of property beyond 
which both of these transactions are forbidden, the 
amount of difference must at once (in the case of 
excess) be registered with the Law-wardens, and (in 
the case of deficiency) be cancelled. The same rule 
shall hold good regarding the registration of property 
in the case of resident aliens. Whosoever wishes 
shall enter on residence as an alien on fixed terms, 
since residence is permitted to a foreigner who is 
willing and able to reside, provided that he has 
a craft and remains in the country not more than 
twenty years from the date of his registration, with- 
out the payment of even a small aliens' tax, except 
virtuous conduct, or indeed any other tax for any 
buying or selling ; and when his time has expired, 
he shall depart, taking with him his own property. 
And if within the period of twenty years it should 
happen that he has proved his merit by doing some 
signal service to the State, and if he believes that 
he can persuade the Council and Assembly to grant 
his request and authorize a postponement of his 
departure, or even an extension of his residence for 
life, whatever request he thus succeeds in persuading 
the State to grant to him shall be carried out for 
him in full. For the children of resident aliens, 
who are craftsmen and over fifteen years of age, 
the period of residence shall commence from the 
fifteenth year, and such an one, after remaining for 
twenty years from that date, shall dej)art whither 

»95 

o2 



PLATO 

CTT] fieiva^ ir<o oirri avrSt (^iXov fiivecv 8e av 
^ovkriTai, Kara ra avra fievero) irelcra^. o 0€ 
a-mibv e^a\eLy^dixevo<i tVct) Ta<i a7roypa^d<i, ahi.ve<i 
av avrw Trapa roU dpxovcri jeypafifievat irpoTcpov 
Sxriv. 



196 



LAWS, BOOK VIII 

he pleases, or if he desires to remain, he shall gain 
permission in like manner, and so remain ; and he 
that departs shall go after first cancelling the entries 
which were previously made by him in the register 
at the magistrates' office. 



197 





853 A0. AiKai 8r] TO, fiera ravra clkoXovOol Tal<i 
e^irpocrdev irpd^ecnv airdaat,^ ovcrai Kara <pvcnv 
lyiyvoivTO av rr^v t^9 8iaKO(Tfi7](Teco<; tcov vojxcov. 
MVTcvoiv ovv St) Trepc Bel ytyveadai, St/ca?, to, fiev 
elprjrai, ra Kara yecopyla^; re Kal ocra tovtoi^ 
etirero, ra he fxeyiara ovre eXprjrai ttco, kuO^ 
ev eKaarov re Xeyofxevov [pijOev^,^ fjv 8el Xa/x- 
^dveiv avro Tipbcopiav Kal t'lvwv irore SiKaarcov 
B Tvy^dveiv, ixer eKelv avrd e^i]^ ravja prjTeov. 

KA. 'Opdm. 

A&. Alcr)(^pov fiev Bi] riva rpoirov xal vofiode- 
relv Trdvra oiroaa vvv fxiWofiev tovto Bpdv ev 
roiavrrj iroXei, ^]v (pap^ev OLKijaecrOai re ev Kal 
rev^eadai 7rdar)<; 6pd6rrjTo<i irpb^ eTrirrjSevatv 
dperrj<;. ev Be rrj roiavrr) ro Kal d^iovv t^9 
r(bv dWoyv pioxdr)pia<; ro)v p^eylarcov ep,(f)uea6ai 
riva p-ede^ovra, Mare Belv vop,o6erelv irpoKara- 
\afi/3dvovra Kal direiXovvra edv ri<; roiovros 
C yiyvrjrai, Kal rovrtov dirorpo'irri'i re eveKa Kal 
yevop,evcov KoXdcreco^; ndevai err avrol<i v6p,ov<i, 
ft)? eaop.evoL<i,^ orrep elirov, ala^pov p.ev riva 
rpoTTOV erreiBrj Be ov, Kadd-nep ol rraXaiol vo- 
fjLoderai Oecov iraKrl vo/xo6erovp.evoi rot? rjpwaiv, 
ft)? 6 vvv X070?, avroi r eK Oeoov 6vre<i dWot^ 
re eK roiovroov yeyovoaiv evojxoOerovv, aA-X' 



^ [^TiBev'] bracketed by Ast. 

* iaofiffois Steph. , Hermann : iffonevovs MSS. 



19a 



BOOK IX 

ATH. The method of our legislation requires that 
we should deal next with the judicial proceedings 
connected with all the transactions hitherto described. 
The matters which involve such proceedings have 
been stated ^ in part (those, namely, which concern 
farming and all industries dependent thereon), but 
we have not stated as yet the most important of such 
matters ; so our next step must be to state them in 
full, enumerating in detail what penalty must attach 
to each offence, and before what court it must be 
tried. 

CLIN. True. 

ATH. It is, in a sense, a shameful thing to make 
all those laws that we are proposing to make in a 
State like ours, which is, as we say, to be well 
managed and furnished with all that is right for the 
practice of virtue. In such a State, the mere sup- 
position that any citizen MriW grow up to share in the 
worst forms of depra\ity practised in other States, so 
that one must forestall and denounce by law the 
appearance of any such character, and, in order to 
warn them off or punish them, enact laws against 
them, as though they were certain to appear, — this, 
as I have said, is in a sense shameful. But we are 
not now legislating, like the ancient lawgivers, for 
heroes and sons of gods,^ — when, as the story goes, 
both the lawgivers themselves and their subjects 
were men of di\ine descent : we, on the contrary, 

1 842 E ff. « Cp. 713 B ft 

199 



PLATO 

dvdpcoTTOL T6 Kol avOpcoTTcov (TTTepfjiacn VOfXoOeTOV- 
fjtev TO, vvv, ave/j£ar]TOV St) (po^elaOai firj rt? 
iyyLyvrjTai Tcov ttoXitcov rj/xcv olov K€paa-^6Xo<i, 
D 09 a-repdpboiv el<; roaovrov (f)va€L yiyvoiT av cocrre 
p,r) T7]K€adai, Kol Kaddirep eKelva rd aireppara 
TTvpi, v6juioi<; ovToi Kaiirep ovt(o<; l(T')(ypol<i ovcnv 
drr^KTOi yiyvcovrai. o)V St] X"^P'^^ ^^'^ iTrixapiv 
Xiyoi/jb av irpcoTov v6/xov lepcov irepl (Tv\-qa€co<i, 
dv Ti9 TOVTO Bpdv ToXpa. koI TroXirTjv pev tojv 
TeOpappevcov opdo)^ ovr dp ^ovXoipLeda ovre 
eXiricnov irdvv ti vocrrjcrai irore du TcivTqv rrjV 
voaov, olKerai Be dv tovtcov koI ^evoi Kal ^evcov 
SovXot TToXXd dv ein'xeiprjaeLav roiavTa. <av 
€V€Ka pev pdXiara, op,(i)q Se Kal ^vpiraaav ttjv 
854 r?}<? dvOpcoTTivrj^ <f)V(T€(o<i dadeveiav evXa^ovpevo<i, 
epSi Tov Tcov lepoavXicov ^ irepi v6p,ov Kal tcov 
dXXcov TravTcov tcov tolovtcov ocra Svaiara Kal 
dviara. Trpoolpia Se rovTOiai Kara rov epuirpoadev 
Xoyov opoXoyrjdivTa TrpopprjTeov dnacriv o)? 
^pa'xyTara. Xeyoi hrj rt? dv eKeivo) SiaXeyopevoi; 
dpa Kal 7rapap,v6ovp€vo<i, ov i7ridvp,ia KaKt] 
TrapaKaXovaa ped^ r)p,€pav re Kal eiTeyeipovaa 
• vvKTcop eVt Tt tS)v lepoiv dyei crvXija-ovra, rdSc 
B 'n davpLaaie, ovk dvOpcoTrivov ere KaKov ovSe 
detov Kcvel to vvv iirl ttjv lepoavXiav TrpoTpeirov 
levai, oXaTpo<i 8e tre rt? ip(f>u6pevo<i e'/c iraXaiSiv 
Kal aKaddpTwv Tol<; dv6pa)Troi<i dhiKvjpaTwv, 
7r€pi(f)€p6p€vo<; dXiTrjpKoSrj'i, ov evXa^eicrdai 
•)(^peoov iravTl crdeveL. t'l^ S' iarlv evXa^eia pade' 

^ ItpoavMwv Aati iepoffuAoii' MSS. 
200: 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

are but mortal men legislating for the seed of men, 
and therefore it is permitted to us to dread lest any 
of our citizens should prove horny-hearted and attain 
to such hardness of temper as to be beyond melting ; 
and just as those "horn-struck"^ beans cannot be 
softened by boiling on the fire, so these men should 
be uninfluenced by laws, however }X)werful. So, for 
the sake of these gentlemen, no verj* gentle law 
shall be stated first concerning temple-robbery, in 
case anyone dares to commit this crime. That a 
rightly nurtured citizen should be infected with this 
disease is a thing that we should neither desire nor 
expect ; but such attempts might often be made by 
their servants, and by foreigners or foreigners' slaves. 
Chiefly, then, on their account, and also as a pre- 
caution against the general infirmity of human 
nature, I will state the law about temple-robbing, 
and all other crimes of a like kind which are hard, if 
not impossible, to cure. And, in accordance with 
our rule as already approved,^ we must prefix to all 
such laws preludes as brief as possible. By way of 
argument and admonition one might address in the 
following terms the man whom an evil desire urges 
by day and wakes up at night, driving him to rob 
some sacred object — " My good man, the evil force 
that now moves you and prompts you to go temple- 
robbing is neither of human origin nor of divine, but 
it is some impulse bred of old in men from ancient 
wrongs unexpiated, which courses round wreaking 
ruin ; and it you must guard against with all your 
strength. How you must thus guard, now learn. 

* i.e. "hard-shelled " ; seeds struck by a beast's horn were 
vulgarly supposed to become "homy '' and unfit for cooking. 
» Cp. 718 B flF. 



PLATO 

OTav croL irpoairi'ir'Tr) n twv rotouTcov SojfxaTcov, 
lOi eirl Ta? a7ro8to7ro/u,7r^(Tei<;, Wl eVi dewv 
airorpoiraioiv lepa iKerrj^, Wl iirl to,^ twv Xeyo- 
fievcov avhpSiV v/xlv dyadcov ^vvovcrCa^, koI to, 

C /j,€v cLKOve, TO, he TTetpo) Xiyeiv avrof, d)<i Set ra 
KoXa Koi TO, hiKaia iravra avSpa rifiav ra? Be 
TMV KaKoov ^vvovcria<i (pevye a/jLeraaTpeTrTL. koI 
iav fJbev aoi SpwvTC ravra Xcocfid ri to voarjixa — 
el he firj, KaWico OdvaTov (TKe-^dp,evo<i cLTTaX.- 
XuTTOV Tov ^iov. 

TaOra rjficov aSovrcov irpooi/jLia T0i9 iravra 
ravra emvoovaiv oora dvoaia epya Kal iroXi- 
ro<p06pa, To5 fiev TreiOo/xevo) rov vofiov eav (riyf] 
Set, T« Se aTreidovvri p.era ro rrpooifxiov aheiv 

D fieya, "O9 S' dv lepoavXcov Xijcpdj), edv fxev jj 
BovXos rj Revo's, ev rm irpoacoirq) Ka\ rats X^P^'' 
ypa(pe\<i rrjv avfX(^opdv Kal fxaariycoOeh orrocra^ 
dv Bo^T] roi<; hiKacrral<;, €Kro<; rtov opav rr]<; 
^dipa^i yv/j,vo<i eK^Xridtjrw rd^ci ydp dv 8ov<; 
ravrrjv rrjv SLKrjv yevocr dv ^eXrioiV, crco^povi- 
crdeL<i. ov ydp eTrl KaKw Blkt] ycyverai ovBefila 
yevofxevt] Kara v6/xov, Buoiv Be ddrepov direpyd^e- 

E rai (TX^Bov rj ydp ^eXrlova rj fxox^rjporepov rjrrov 
e^eipydaaro rov rrjv Bik'i'jv "tto paa^ovra. 7ro\irrj<i 
Be dv rL<i IT ore ri roiovrov Bpcov dva(f)avfj, rrepl 6eov<i 
rj TTepl yovea<i rj irepl ttoXcv r/BiKrjKO)^ roiv fieyaXwv 
rivd Kal diropprjrwv dBiKicov, o)? dviarov tjBt} 
rovrov ovra 6 Bi.Kaarr}<i BiavoeicrOa), \oyi^6fJLevo<; 
o'(a<i TraiBeia<i re Kal rpo(f)i]^ e« 7raiBo<i rvy^dvwv 
ovK drreax^-ro rwv fieyiarcov KaKwv. BiKrj Bjj 

1 Cp. 871 A. 2 cp. 862 D f., 934 A f. 

202 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

When there comes upon you any such intention, 
betake yourself to the rites of guilt-averting, betake 
yourself as suppliant to the shrines of the curse- 
lifting deities, betake yourself to the conijiany of the 
men who are reputed virtuous ; and thus learn, 
partly from others, partly by self-instruction, that 
everj' man is bound to honour what is noble and 
just ; but the company of evil men shun wholly, and 
turn not back. And if it be so that by thus acting 
your disease grows less, well ; but if not, then 
deem death the more noble wav, and quit vourself 
of life." 

As we chant this prelude to those who purpose 
all these unholy deeds, destructive of civic life, 
the law itself we must leave unvoiced ^ for him 
who obeys ; but for him who disobeys we must 
suffer the law, following on the prelude, to utter 
aloud this chant : " Whosoever is caught robbing 
a temple, if he be a foreigner or a slave, his curse 
shall be branded on his forehead and on his hands, 
and he shall be scourged with so many stripes 
as the judges decree, and he shall be cast out naked 
beyond the borders of the country ; for, after pajing 
this penalty, he might perchance be disciplined into a 
better life. For no penalty that is legally imposed 
aims at e\il, but it effects, as a rule, one or other of 
two results, — it makes the person who suffers it 
either better or less bad.^ But if any citizen is ever 
convicted of such an act, — that is, of committing 
some great and infamous wrong against gods, 
parents, or State — the judge shall regard him as 
already incurable, reckoning that, in spite of all the 
training and nurture he has had from infancy, he 
has not refrained from the worst iniquity. For him 

203 



PLATO 

rovTcp 0dvaro<i iXd-x^icrrov rwv KaKwv, rov<i Se 
855 aX.\ov<; 7rapd8eiy/.ia ovtjcrei yevo/xepoi; dK\er)<; koI 
vrrep rov<; t^? ')((opa^ opov; d(f)aviad€t<i' iraial Be 
Kai yevei, iav (pvyoiai tcl irarptpa ijOrj, k\€0<; 
ecTTO) Kal \oyo<i evTifio<i Xeyofxevo^, (w? ev re Kal 
dvhpeiw'i eh dyadov ex KaKov 8t,a7re(f>€vy6Twv. 
hrjfjbocna he 'X^prjixara ovSevo<; ra>v toiovtcov rfj 
TToXireia irpeirov av ecrj yiyveadai, ev 17 hel tov<; 
avTOv<; del koI laov; 6vra<i BiaTeXelv KXrjpovi. 
^rjfj,t,a^ S' eKTiaeii;, orav dBiKclv d^ia Boktj rt? 
•^prjfjbdTQyv, eKTiveiv, dp ^ ri ro) ^ rov KX^pov 
Karea-Kcvacrfievov irepmevov, /Ae%/3t roaovTov 

B ^r)pi(o6evTa, to Be irXeov prj. Td<i S' et9 ravra 
aKpi^eia'i €k rwv d7roypa(f)(ov vop,o(pvXaK€<; ctko- 
TToiivre^ to (Ta<f)€<i i^yyeXXovTcov del TOt? Biku- 
CTTah, 07ra)9 dv rcov KXrjpwv dpyo^ firjBel^ p.rjBeiTOTe 
yuyvrjTai Bi diropiav '^(prjfidTwv. ^r]fxia<i Be dv Tf? 
'TTXeovo<i d^io<i elvai BoKrj, edv dpa firj rive<i edeXco- 
criv avTov roiv (piXcov eyyvdadai re Kal ^vveK- 
rivovre<i direXevdepovv, Beafioi<i re ^poi/toi? kuI 

C €p(f)ave(Ti Kai riai TrpoTrrjXaKiafiot'i KoXd^eiv, 
drifiov Be iravrdTraai p,r)Beva elvat jxrjBeTrore firjB^ 
€</)' evl rcbv dp,aprr]fidrQ)V, firjB' VTrepopiov <f)vydBa' 
ddvarov Be rj Beap,ov<; rj TrXrjya^; rj riva^ dp-op^ov^ 
eBpa<; rj ardcrei<; rj 7rapaardaet<i et? lepd eVl ra rfj<i 
')(^oi)pa<i eaXciTa, rj yprjpdrwv KaOdirep epirpocrdev 
etirop.ev e«Ticr6t9 yiyveaSai Belv rr)v Blki^v ravrrjv, 
yiyveado). BiKacrral Be earaxrav davdrov irepc 
vop,o(f)vXaK€^ re Kal ro rcov Trepvcrivwv dp'^ovroov 

1 t/ TV W. R. Paton, England : ri rwv MSS. 

1 Cp. 745 A B. » Cp. 865 E ff., 877 C ff. 

204 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

the penalty is death, the least of e\ils ; and, more- 
over, by serving as an example, he will benefit others, 
when himself disgraced and removed from sight 
beyond the borders of the country ; but his children 
and family, if they shun their father's ways, shall be 
honoured, and honourable mention shall be made of 
them, seeing that they have done well and bravely in 
leaving the ways of vice for those of virtue. That 
the goods of any such criminal should be confiscated 
would not be fitting in a State in which the allot- 
ments must remain always identical and equal in 
number. Whosoever is held to have done a wrong 
which deserves a money-fine must pay the fine 
exacted when the fine comes within the limits of the 
surplus he has over when his allotment has been 
equipped, but not what exceeds this : the precise 
facts in such cases the Law-wardens must find out 
from the registers,^ and they must inform the judges 
of the true state of each case, in order to prevent 
any allotment falling out of cultivation through lack 
of money. And if any man is held to deserve a 
larger fine, in case none of his friends are willing to 
go bail or, by clubbing together, to pay the sum and 
set him free, then we must punish him by long 
imprisonment, of a public kind, and by measures of 
degradation ; but no one shall be absolutely outlawed 
for any single crime, even though he be banished 
from the country.^ The punishments to be inflicted 
shall be death, or imprisonment, or stripes, or seats 
or stations or exposures of a degrading kind at 
temples or at outermost boundaries, or money-fines of 
the kind we have stated, — where such punishments 
are required. In cases where the penalty is death, 
the judges shall be the Law-wardens together with 

205 



PLATO 

apiaTLpBijv airo/Mepcadev SiKacrrrjpiov' ela-ayayya^ 
D Se TovTcov Kol 7rpoaK\t]crei<i /cai oaa TOiavTU, koX 
ct)9 hel yiyvea-Oai, Tol<i vewTepoif vo/xoOeTai<i 'x^prj 
jjueketv Ti]v Bta\lri](f)iaiv 8e i^fiirepov epyop vojjlo- 
Serelv. earco 8rj <f)avepa fxev r) ■\^rj^o<i Tide/xevrj, 
TTpo rovTov he Kara to (Tiofxa rov 8i(OKOVT6<i tc 
Kat (f)€vyovTO<i 6 8iKa(TrT)<i e^% r/ptv iyyvTara 
Kara irpea^iv l^eadco, 7rdvr€<i B* oc TroXlrai, oaonrep 
av aywai (jyjSKi^v, iTtrjKOoi, earcoaav aTrovSj} rwv 
E roiovriov Slkcov. Xiyeiv he eva \6yov, irpfarov 
fjbkv rov SieoKovra, rov he (pevyovra hevrepov fxera 
he rov<i \6yov<; rovrov<i ap)(^ecrdai p.ev rov yepai- 
rarov avaKpivovra, iovra eh rrjv rwv \e')^6evra)V 
(TKeylnv iKavrjV, fiera Be rov irpecr^vrarov e^rj<i 
d7ravra<i ■)(^pr] Bie^eXdelv 6 ri av Trap" eKarepou ri<i 
rSyv dvriBiKoyv prjOev rj firi prjdev eTTirroOfj rcvd 
rpoTTOV 6 Be firjBev ttoOmv dWcp rrjv dvaKpiaiv 
TrapaBiBorco. ro)v Be prjdevrav eirKX^payiaa- 
fievov<; oaa dv elvai Kaipia BoKrj, ypdfipbaart aij/xeia 
856 eiTL^dWovra^ Trdvrcov rwv BtKacrroiv, delvai eirl 
rrjv 'Rarlav, koX TrdXiv avpcov el^ ravrov ^vve\- 
6ovra<i docravra}<i re avaKpivovra^ Bie^eXdeiv rtjv 
BlKrjv, Kal a-)]p,eca eiri^dWovra^ av rol<; \e)(dslai' 
Ka\ rpl<; Bpdaavra<i rovro, reKfiijpcd re Kal 
fxdprvpa'i iKava)<i 7rapa\a^6vra<;, -\jr7](f)ov lepdv 
cKaarov <^epovra Kal vTroa'^^ofievov tt/jo? rrj<} 
'Earia<i eh BvvapLiv rd BiKaia Kal dXrjdrj Kpiveiv, 
ovrco reXo<; eTTiOelvai rfj roiavrrj BIktj. 

1 Cp. 767 D. 
2o6 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

the court of last year's magistrates selected by merit.^ 
In respect of these cases the younger lawgivers must 
attend to the indictments and summonses and all 
such matters, and the procedure involved, while it is 
our task to regulate by law the method of voting. 
The votes shall be cast openly, and, before this takes 
place, our judges shall be seated, facing the plaintiff 
and defendant, in a closely-packed row in order of 
seniority, and all the citizens who have leisure to do 
so shall attend and listen attentively to the trials. 
One speech shall be made by the plaintiff first, and 
secondly one by the defendant ; and after these 
speeches the oldest judge shall lead off with his 
sur\'ey of the case, in which he shall review in detail 
the statements made ; and after the oldest, each of 
the other judges in turn must discuss every point 
which he has noticed in which either of the litigants 
has been guilty of making any kind of omission or 
blunder in his statement ; and he that has no such 
criticism to make shall pass on the task of reviewing 
to his neighbour ; and when such of the statements 
as the judges have pronounced relevant have been 
confirmed by affixing to the documents the signatures 
of all the judges, they shall lay them up at the altar 
of Hestia. On the morrow again they shall assemble 
at the same place and discuss the case, and they shall 
make their pronouncements in the same manner, and 
liall again sign the statements. And after doing 
this thrice, — during which proceedings they shall pay 
full attention to evidence and witnesses, — each of 
the judges shall cast a sacred vote, promising by 
Hestia to give just and true judgment to the best of 
his j)OM er ; and thus they shall bring to its end this 
form of trial. 

207 



PLATO 

B Mera Se to. irepl Oeov'; ra irepl xaraXvaiv tt)? 
TroXtreta?* 09 av dycov el<; ap'^^rjv avOpwirov SovXco- 
rai jxev tov^ v6/xov^, 6Tacp€vai<; Be rrjv iroXiv virij- 
Koov TTOif], Kal /Siaio)^ Brj irav tovto Trpdrroov KaX 
ardcnv iyetpoov Trapavofxrj, tovtov St) BiavoelaOai 
Set TrdvTcov TroXe/xLcoTarov oXp rfj iroXei. rov Be 
Koivwvovvra fiev t(ov toiovtcov fnjBevi, rcov /xeyi- 
(jTwv Be fxerexovra dpywv ev ttj TToXet, XeXr^dora 
re ravra avrov rj p,r] XeXrjdoTa, BeiXia S' virep 

C TTaTpiBo<i avTov fiT] Tificopovfievov, Bel Bevrepov 
■qyelaOat, top toiovtov ttoXlttjv KaKrj. Trd<; Be 
dvrjp ov Kol a/iiiKpov 6(f)€Xo<; evBeiKVVTco Tal<i 
dp')(cu<i €69 Kplaiv dyoiv rov eTn/BovXevovTa ^laiov 
iroXneia^ /j.€TaaTdae(o<i apa Kal irapavop.ov. 
BiKaaTal Be ea-raxrav rovToa oitrep toI<; lepo- 
avXoi<i, Kal Trdcrav rrjv Kplaiv dxravTcoi; avTot<; 
yiyveadai KaOdrrep iKelvoi<;, ttjv -yp-ijcfiov Be ddva- 
rov (pepecv ttjv irXrjdeL viKoiiaav. evl Be Xoycp, 
TTarpo^ oveiBrj Kal TC/xcopia^ TraiBwv prjBevl ^vv- 

D efrearOai, irXrjv edv tlvi Trarrjp Kal irdinro^ Kal 
irdiTiTOV iraTTjp 6^e^^}9 ocpiXcoai Omvdrov BiKrjv 
TovTov<; Bk 7) TToXf? ex,ovTa<i ri]v avroiv ovaiav, 
irXrjv o(Tov Karea Kevaa p^evov rov KXi'jpov TravreXc!)^, 
et? TTjv avTcov dp^alav iKirefXTreaOco iraTpiBa Kal 
ttoXlv. ol<i S' av Twv ttoXitcov viel<i 6vTe<; rvy- 
'X^dvoocn TrXetou? ev6<i, /ij) eXarrov BeKa errj yeyo- 
v6re<i, KXrjpwaai pbev toutcov BeKa ou<i av d7ro(j)7]vr} 
Trarrjp fj irdinroii 6 irpo<i 7raTpo<i rj p,rjTpo<;' rcov 

E Be XaxovTcov rd ovopiara et<? AeX(f)ov<; irep^devTwv 
ov 5' dv 6 6eo<i dveXr], KXripov6p,ov et9 tov oikov 
Karaarfja-ai tov tcov eKXnrovTwv, tv^J} dp,eLvovi. 



208 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

Next to cases which concern religion come those 
which concern the dissolution of the polity. Whoso- 
ever enslaves the laws by making them subject to men, 
and makes the State subject to a faction, and acts 
illegally in doing all this by violence and in stirring 
up civil strife, — such a man must be deemed the 
worst of all enemies to the whole State. And the 
man who, though he takes part in none of these 
doings, yet fails to observe them, while he has a 
share in the chief offices of State, or else, though he 
observes them, fails to defend his country and punish 
them, owing to his cowardice, — a citizen of such a 
kind must be covmted second in order of badness. 
Every man who is of the least worth shall inform the 
magistrates by prosecuting the plotter on a charge of 
violent and illegal revolution : they shall have the 
same judges as the temple-robbers had, and the 
whole trial sliall be conducted just as it was in their 
case, and the death penalty shall be imposed by a 
majority of votes. As a sununar}- rule, the disgrace 
or punishment inflicted on a father shall not descend 
upon his children, except in a case where not only the 
father, but his father and grandfather before him, have 
all been condemned on a capital charge : in such a 
case, the children, while retaining their own property, 
excepting only the allotment with its full equipment, 
shall be deported by the State to their original country 
and State. And from the sons of citizens who happen 
to have more than one son over ten years old, ten 
shall be chosen by lot — after application made by 
the father or by the paternal or maternal grandfather, 
— and the names thus chosen shall be sent to Delphi ; 
and that man whom the oracle names shall be estab- 
lished as the allotment-holder in the house of those 
departed, — be it with happier fortune ! 

209 

VOL. II. p 



PLATO 

KA. KaXw?. 

A0. K.oivo^ S' en t/)ito9 KetcrOco ^ v6fio<i, Trepl 
SiKaarwv re ov<; Bel Sixd^eiv avTol<i, koI o TpoTrot 
rSiv SiKMV, 0*9 av 7rpoB6aeco<i aWiav eVi^eptuv Ti? 
619 BiKaart]pLov ctyr). koX pbovij'i diaavTco'i iKyovoifi 
Koi i^oBou Tr}9 7raTpiBo<i el<i ecrra) Trepl ravra 
857 i/o/i09 0UT09 rpial, TrpoBoTt} koI lepocriiXw koI tS> 
Tov<i T^9 7ro\6a)9 v6/jlov<; ^ia clttoWvpti. KkeirTr} 
Be, edv re ixe<ya edv re a/xiKpov KXeirrr) Tt9, el<i 
av vo/j,o<; Keladoi kol fiia BLKt]<i ri/xcopia ^vfiTraai' 
ro fiev yap KXairev Brj j^pediv BinXdaiov rrpMrou 
€KTLV€iv, iav 6(f>\r] Ti9 rrjv roiavrrjv BiK'qv Kal 
iKavrjv exj) Tr)v aXXijv ovcrlav drroriveiv virep 
rov KKrjpov, edv Be p,rj, BeBeadai ea>9 av eKriap 
r} ireicrr] rov KaraBiKacrdfievov. edv Be ri<; 0(f)\7] 
B /c\o7r?}9 Br]/xo(Tia BiKtjv, ireicra^ rrjv iroXiv rj ro 
Kkepipa eKrLcra<i BlttXovv diraWarreadw rdov 
Beafxbiv. 

KA. J\oi<i Br) Xeyofiev, w ^eve, p,r]Bev Biacfjepeiv 
Tft) KXeiTrovrL, fieya r) crfxiKpov v(j)€\o/xev(p Kal i^ 
lepSiV rj oaiav Kal oaa dWa earl Trepl KXoirrjv 
irdaav dvofxoiorrjra e^ovra, oU Bel TrotKl\oi<i 
ovaiv eTreadai rov vofioderrjv fxrjBev 6/jL0Lai<i ^r]/jii,ai<; 
^rjpiovvra ; 

A0. ^Apiar\ S) K-Xeivla' a^eBov ri /j,e wcnrep 

C (f)€p6p,evov dvriKpovcra<: dvijyeipa^, evvevorjKora Be 

Kal TTporepov virep^vrjaa^; on rd Trepl rr)v roiv 

voficov deaiv ovBevl rpoTrai TrtoTrore yeyovev 6pdM<; 

* KelffOw : fTs itnta MSS., edd. (England ci. tjj for els). 
1 But cp. 859 B ff., 933 E flf. 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

CLIN. Very good. 

ATH. Moreover, a third general law shall be laid 
down, dealing with the judges to be employed and 
the manner of the trials, in cases where one man 
prosecutes another on a charge of treason ; and 
concerning the offspring, likewise, whether they are 
to remain in their country or be expelled, this one 
law shall apply to the three cases of the traitor, the 
temple-robber, and the man who wrecks the State 
laws by violence. For the thief also, whether he 
steals a great thing or a small, one law and one 
legal penalty shall be enacted for all alike ^ : first, \ 
he must pay twice the value of the stolen article, 
if he loses his case and possesses enough property 
over and above his allotment wherewith to pay; 
but if not, he must be put in prison until either 
he has |)aid the sum or has been let off by the ( 
prosecutor. And if a man be cast in a suit for theft I 
from the State, on obtaining pardon from the State, 
or after pajTiient of double the sum stolen, he shall f 
be let out of prison. 

CLIN. How comes it. Stranger, that we are ruling 
that it makes no difference to the thief whether the 
thing he steals be great or small, and \vhether the 
place it is stolen from be holy or unhallowed, or 
whatever other differences may exist in the manner 
of a theft ; whereas the lawgiver ought to suit the 
punishment to the crime by inflicting dissimilar 
penalties in these varying cases .'' 

ATH. Well said, Clinias ! You have collided >vith 
me when I was going, as it were, full steam ahead, 
and so have woken me up. You have reminded me 
of a pre\ious reflection of mine, how that none of 
the attempts hitherto made at legislation have ever 



p2 



PLATO 

BiaireTrovqfxiva, w? 76 iv t& vvv TrapaireTrTcoKOTi ^ 
Xeyeiv. ttw? 8' av kuI tovto Xeyofiev ; ov Kaxa^ 
airrjKaaafiev, ore hovKoi^; 0)9 laTpevo/Jbevoi^ viro 
hovXcov aiTrjKdKo[j.ev iravra^ rov^ vvv vo/ho$€TOV- 
/j.evou^. ev yap iiriaraadaL Sel to roiovBe, d><i et 
KaToXd^oi TTore rt? laTpo<; tmv rat? epireipiai^ 
D dvev \6yov rrjv larpLKrjV p.eTax^ipi'^ofiivcov iXev- 
depov iXevOepw voaovvn SiaXeyo/ievov larpov, kclI 
Tov <f)tXocro(f)€iP €771/9 YpM/iievov [/"■ei'] ^ T0t9 
\670t9, e^ ^PXV'* ''"^ aTTTO/jievov tov V0(7r)p,aT0^, 
irepX (f)va€(o<; Trdar]^ eiraviovTa t^9 twv aoifid- 
T(ov, Tw^v Kal a(p68pa yeXdaeiev av fcal ovk 
av dXXov<i eiTTOL X6yov<i rj Tovf rrepl to, TOiavT 
del Trpo^etpovi 6vTa<i T0t9 TrXeiaToi^ Xeyopevot<; 
laTpol<i' <f>airj yap av Tl p,(ape, ovk laTpevei^ tov 
voaovvTa, dXXd a-^ehov iraihevet,';, 0)9 laTpov dXX 
E ou^ vyLTf he6p.evov yiyvea 6 ai,. 

KA. OuKOVv Xeycov to, TOiavTa 6p9S)<i av 
Xiyoi ; 

A0. '^d')^ dv, el TrpoaBiavooiTO ye 0)9 oaTi<i 
irepl voficov ovtoo Sie^epx^rai, Kaddnep ■^p,€i^ to, 
vvv, iraiSevei tol'9 iroXiTWi, dXX^ ov vojj,o6eT€c- 
dp* ovv oit Kal tovt dv 7rpo<; Tpoirov Xeyeiv 
(f)aLvoi,TO ; 

KA. "Icew?. 

A0. l^vTVxJk'i he rjfiSiV TO trapov yeyovev. 

KA. To TTolov hrj ; 

A0. To /Mrj8ep,iav dvdyKrjv elvai vop,odeT€2v, 

858 aW avT0v<i ev crKeyjrei yevop,€vov<i irepl rrdarj(i 

7roXiT€ia<; ireipdadai KaTiSeiv to t€ dpiaTOV Kal 

^ ■KapaimTTu>K6ri MSS. : TcapivTi MSS. marg. , Zur. , vulg. 
* [/tec] bracketed by W.-MollendorflF. 
212 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

been carried out rightly — as in fact we may infer 
from the instance before us. What do I mean to 
imply by this remark ? It was no bad comparison 
we made ^ when we compared all existing legislation 
to the doctoring of slaves by slaves. For one should 
carefully notice this, that if any of the doctors who 
practise medicine by purely empirical methods, 
devoid of theory, were to come upon a free-born 
doctor conversing with a free-born patient, and 
using arguments, much as a philosopher would, 
dealing with the course of the ailment from its 
origin and surveying the natural constitution of the 
human body, — ^he would at once break out into a 
roar of laughter, and the language he would use 
would be none other than that which always comes 
.ready to the tongue of most so-called "doctors": 
"You fool," he would say, "you are not doctoring 
your patient, but schooling him, so to say, as though 
what he wanted was to be made, not a sound man, 
but a doctor." 

CLIN. And in sapng so, would he not be right ? 

ATH. Possibly, provided that he should also take 
the view that the man who treats of laws in the 
way that we are now doing is schooling the citizens 
rather than legislating. Would he not seem to be 
right in sajnng that, too } 

CLIN. Probably. 

ATH. How fortunate we are in the conclusion we 
have now come to ! 

CLIN. What conclusion } 

ATH. This, — that there is no need to legislate, 
but only to become students ourselves, and endeavour 
to discern in regard to every polity how the best 

1 720AfiF. 

213 



PLATO 

TO avayKatoraTOV, riva rpoirov av yiyvofx^-vov 

yiyVOLTO, KOi Bt] Kol TO VVV €^e<XTlV rjfliv, 0)9 

€oiK€v, el fiev /SouXofieOa, to ^eXmcTTOV aKOireiv, 
el 8e ^ovXofieOa, to avayKaioTaTOv Trepl voficov. 
alpco/xeda ovv oiroTepov BoKei. 

KA, TeXolav, w ^eve, irpoTiOefxeOa tt^v aXpeaiv, 
Kol dT€')(vco<; codirep KaTe)(o/xevoi<i vofxaOeTaL^ 
B ofioLOL yL<yvoip.ed^ av vrro fj,eyd\rj<; Tivb<; dvdjKrjf; 
rjhrj vop.odeT€tv, ci)9 ovKeT i^ov et? avpiov. r]pbiv 
8\ elirelv aiiv deS>, e^eaTi, KaOdirep rj \tdoX6- 
yoL'i rj Kai Ttvo<; iTepa<i dp'x^o/xivoi'i crvcrTdcreco<;, 
irapacpopijaaadai X^^V^ ^^ ^^ eKke^op^Oa to. 
irpocrcpopa ttj /xeWovcrr] yevijaecrdab avaTdaei, Koi 
hrj Kol KUTO, a-)(pXr)v eKXi^aadai. Ti6cbfiev ovv 
rjpd<; VVV etvai firj toi)? i^ dvdyKt]^ olKoBo/j,ovvTa^, . 
dWd T0v<i iirl crxoX^]^ €ti tu /jlcv TrapaTidep.evov^, 
TO. Be ^vviaTdvTa<i, u)aTe 6p6(t)<; eyei to, fxev i]Br] 
C Tcoi' v6p,cov Xiyeiv d>^ Tidefieva, to, B o)? irapaTiOe- 
fieva. 

Ae. TevoiTO yovv dv, w K.'Xeivla, kutu (pvcriv 
fidXXov 7]fjuv rj (rvvoyfri<; tcov vofjbcov. tBwpev yap 
ovv, Si 7rpo<i deSiv, to TOtovBe Trepl vofiodeTwv. 

KA. To TTolov Bt] ; 

A0. TpdfMpaTU p,ev ttov kuI ev ypdp,p,aai Xoyoi 
Kal dWwv elal ttoWcov ev Tal<; iroXeat yeypap,- 
fievoi, ypdfifiaTa Be Kal ra tov vopoOeTov Kal 
\6yoC' 

KA. n<u9 yap ov ; 

A0. TioTepov ovv T0t9 p.ev t(OV dWcov avyypdfi- 

D fUKTi, iroLrjTOiv Kal oaoi dvev fieTpcov Kal /xeTa 

fieTpwv Trjv avTMv el<; fivrjfjLrjv ^vp,^ov\r]v irepl 

»i4 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

form might come about, and how that which is the 
least elaborate possible. Moreover, we are now 
allowed, as it seems, to study, if we choose, the best 
form of legislation, or, if we choose, the least 
elaborate. So let us make our choice between these 
two. 

CLIN. The choice we propose. Stranger, is an 
absurd one : we should be acting like legislators 
who were driven by some overpowering necessity to 
pass laws on the spot, because it is impossible for 
them to do so on the morrow. But for us (if 
Heaven will) it is quite possible to do as bricklayers 
do, or men starting on any other kind of con- 
struction, — that is, to collect material piecemeal, 
from which we may select what is suitable for the 
edifice we intend to build, and, what is more, select 
it at our leisure. Let us assume, then, that we are 
not now building under compulsion, but that we are 
still at leisure, and engaged partly in collecting 
material and partly in putting it together ; so that 
we may rightly say that our laws are being in part 
already erected and in part collected. 

ATH. In this way, Clinias, our surv'ey of laws will 
at any rate follow nature's course more closelv. Now 
let us consider, I adjure you, the following point 
about legislators. 

CLIN. What point ? 

ATH. We have in our States not only the writings 
and written speeches of many other people, but also 
the writings and speeches of the lawgiver. 

CLIN. Certainly. 

ATH. Are we, then, to pay attention to the 
compositions of the others — poets, and all who, 
either with or ^vithout metre, have composed and 

215 



PLATO 

yStoi; KariOevTO crvyjpdyjravre';, 'rrpoae')(^a)/jL€V tov 
vovv, Tot9 he TOiv vofioOercov fir} Trpoai-^co/xev ; 
7} irdvTWV fiaXiaTa ; 

KA. IloXu <ye. 

A0. AXXa SriTa ov ^PV "^^^ vo/xoOerrjv fiovov 
rcov ypacfySvTcov irepl koXmv koI d'yadS)v koX Si- 
KULcov ^v/j.j3ov\eveiv, BtSdaKOPra old re iaTi Kal 
0)9 iTTiTrjBevTeov avrd rot? fiiXXovaiv evBaifioaiv 
eaeaOai. 

KA. Kat TTOJ? ov ; 
J^ A0. 'AWa alcr^pov 8r) /xdWov 'Ofi^pqy re kuI 
Tvpraup Kal roh dWoi,<i iT0ir]Tal<i irepl ^iov re 
KoX eiriTrjSevfidrcov KaK(t)<; Oeadai, ypdyjravTa^, 
Avfcovpyo) 8e tjttov Kal %6\q)vi Kal oaoi 8rj vo/xo- 
0€Tac yevo/jLevoi ypd/xfiara eypa-yjrav ; rj to ye 
opOov TrdvTOiv hel ypapumTwv rcov iv ral^ TToXeai 
ra irepl tov<; v6/j,ov<i yeypa/jLfxiva (jiaiveadai Sia- 
TTTurrofieva p,aKp(p KaWiai-d re Kal dpiara, 
rd he rcov dXXcop r) Kar eKelva ^vveirofxeva 
859 ^ 8ia(f)Ci)vovvra avroi'i elvai Karayekaara ; 
ovro) oiavo(t)p,eOa irepl vo/jLwv Seiv ypa^rj^ yly- 
veaOai raX'^ iroXeaiv, iv irarpo^ re Kal fxrirpo^ 
a^'t]/xaat (f)i\ovvr(ov re Kal vovv e')(^6vrwv (pai- 
vecrdai ra yeypa/nfieva, t) Kara rvpavvov Kal 
SeaTTorrjv, rd^avra Kal diretXTjcravra, ypdyfravra 
ev roL')(oi<; dirijWdx^ac ; aKOirco/xev ovv 8j] Kal 
ra vvv ^/xei9 irorepa ravry ireipcofxeOa Xeyeiv 
B hiavorj6evre<i irepl voficov, etr ovv Bvvdfieda etre 
fxrj, dXyC ovv ro ye irp66vfiov irape')(oiJuevov Kal 
Kara ravrrjv rrjv 68bv I6vre<i, dv dpa ri Kal 8eTj 
Trdaxeiv, ird(T)(^cop.ev- dyaObv S' etrj ye,^ Kal dv 
6eo<i ideXrj, yiyvoir dv ravrrj. 

2l6 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

put on record their counsels concerning life, — but to 
pay no attention to those of the lawgivers ? Or 
should we not attend to them above all others ? 

CLIN. Yes, far above all. 

ATH. But we surely do not mean that the law- 
giver alone of all the writers is not to give counsel 
about what is noble, good and just, teaching what 
these are, and how those who intend to be happy 
must practise them. 

CLIN. Of course he must do so. 

ATH. Well then, is it more disgraceful on the 
part of Homer and T>T-taeus and the rest of the 
poets to lay down in their A\Titings bad rules about 
life and its pursuits, and less disgraceful on the part 
of Lycurgus and Solon and all the legislators who 
have written ? Or rather, is it not right that, of 
all the writings which exist in States, those which 
concern laws should be seen, when unrolled, to 
be by far the fairest and best, and all other writings 
to be either modelled on them or, if disagreeing 
with them, contemptible ? Are we to conceive that 
the written laws in our States should resemble 
persons moved by love and wisdom, such as a father 
or a mother, or that they should order and threaten, 
like some t\Tant and despot, who writes his decree 
on the wall, and there is an end of it ? So let us 
now consider whether we are going to try to discuss 
laws ^^nth this intention — showing zeal, at any rate, 
whether or not we may prove successful ; and if, 
in proceeding on this course, we must meet with 
mishap, so be it. Yet we pray that it may be well 
with us, and if God wills, it shall be well. 

1 7e England : t€ MSS. 

217 



PLATO 

KA. KaX«59 €iipr]Ka<;, iroico/xiv re o)? \€y€L<;- 

A0. Ai,acrK€7neov dpa irpwTOV, watrep iirexcipi]- 
crafiev, aKpi^(0<i rov irepi toov re lepoavXovvrcov kui 
K\o7rf]<; Trd(xrj<; rrrepi kol dSiKTjfidTcov ^vfXTrdvToyv 
Kol ov hv(T')(epavTeov el /xera^v vofioOeTOvine^ ra 
C fxev eOefxev, tmv S' 6tl 8iaaKOTrovp,€V irepi' vofio- 
Oerai yap yiyvofMcda, aXX' ovk ia-fiiv tto), rd)(^a Be 
t(7&)9 dv yevoijjieda- el Br) BoKel irepl S)v etprjKa, 
0)9 eXprjKa, aKOTreiaOai, aKoiroofxeda' 

KA. Uavrdiraai fiev ovv. 

Ae. Tiepl Br) KaXcbv kuI BiKalwv ^vfnrdvrwv 
Treipco/xeda KuriBeiv to roiovBe, oirr) irore o/xoiXo- 
jov/xev viiv Ka\ ottj] Bia^epop^eOa r)p,el'i re r)/J,iv 
avrol^, o'l Br) <^ai)iev dv Trpodv/xelcrdai <ye, el fxr)Bev 
D dWo, Biacf)ep€iv tmv TrXelaTOiV, oi ttoWol t€ avTOt, 
7rpo9 auToii^ av. 

KA. Ta9 7roia<i Be Br) Bia(f)opd<i r)/j,(iov evvor)Oel<i 
\ej€C<i ; 

A0. ^Kyo) ireipdaofxai (fypd^eiv. irepl Bixaio- 
crvv7)(i oXcB9 Kal tmv BiKal(ov dvOpcoTroiv re kui 
trpayfidrtov xal irpd^ecov Trdvre^ 7r&)9 ^vvoao- 
Koyovp,ev iravja ecvai ravra KaKa, ware ovo 
et Tt9 Bucr'X,vpL^oiro [elvai] ^ tov<; BLKaiov<; dv6pu>- 
TTOV^, dv fcal Tvy')(^dvcL)aLV 6vre<; aca'^^poi ra aco- 
fiara, kut avro ye to BixaioTaTov ^do<i TavTr) 
E TTayKoXovi elvai, a-)(eBov ovBel<; dv Xeywv ovtw 
7TXr)ixfJieXw<i Bo^eie Xeyecv. 

KA. OvKOVV 6pd(b<i ; 

A0. "IcTft)?' tBcoaev Be (09, €t iravT e<7Tt KaXa 
ocra oiKacoauvr)<; e')(eTai, TOiV TravTwv toi kui, tu 
iradrjfiaTa r)p,lv e'cTTi a'xeBov Tol<i iroiijp^aa-iv I'cra. 

^ [elvoi] bracketed by Hermann. 
3lS 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

CLIN. You are right : let us do as you say. 

ATH. First of all, since we have started on it, we 
must examine closely the law about temple-robbers 
and all forms of thieving and wrong-doing ; nor 
should we be vexed by the fact that, although we 
enacted some points while legislating, there are 
some points still under consideration : for we are 
in process of becoming lawgivers, and may perhaps 
become so, but we are not lawgivers as yet. So if 
we agree to consider the matters I have mentioned 
in the way I have mentioned, let us so consider them. 

CLIN. Most certainly. 

ATH. In respect of goodness and justice as a 
whole, let us try to discern this, — how far we now 
agree with ourselves, and how far Me differ (for we 
should certainly say that we desire, if nothing else, 
to differ at least from the majority of men), and how 
far also the majority agree or differ among them- 
selves. 

CLIN. WTiat differences of ours have you in 
mind ? 

ATH. I will try to explain. Concerning justice in 
general, and men, things, or actions that are just, we 
all agree that these are all beautiful, so that no one 
would be regarded as saying what was wrong even if 
he should maintain that just men, however ugly in 
body, are quite beautiful in respect of their very just 
character. 

CLIN. Would not that be right ? 

ATH. Perhaps ; but let us observe this, — that if 
all things which belong to justice are beautiful, that 
" all " includes for us passions ^ nearly as much as 
actions. 

* i.e. " safferiogs." 

219 



PLATO 

KA. Tt OVV 8rj ; 

A0. Tioirifia fiev, oirep av rj hiKaiov, a'yehov 
ocrovirep av rov StKaiov KOivwvfi, Kara roaovrov 
Kal Tov KoKov ixere')(pv iariv. 

KA. Tt fiijv ; 

A0. OvKovv Kal irdOo'i o-rrep av SiKaiov Koiveovfj, 
860 Kara roaovrov ^i'yveadai kuXov ofxoXoyovfievov, ovk 
av Scacpcovovvra irapexoL tov Xojov ; 

KA. 'AXrjdrj. 

A0. ^Eiuv Be <ye BiKaiov fxev o/xoXoyoo/xev, alaj^pov 
he elvat 7rddo<;, Siacfxjovija-ei to re SiKaiov Kal to 
KaXhv Xe'xOevTWv riov BiKalcov alcryjiaTwv elvai. 

KA. rico? TOVTo eipr)Ka<i ; 

Ae. OvSev x^Xeirov ivvoelv ol yap oXiya) 
trpocrdev TedevTe<i tj/xiv vofiOL rrdvTcov evavricoTaTa 
TrapayyeXXeiv Bo^eiav av toi<; vvv X€yop,evot<i. 

KA. Ilotof? ; 
B A0. Tov lepoavXov vov eTidefiev SiKaLwi; av 
diToOvrjaKeiv Kal tov tcov ev Keifikvoiv vofxwv 
TToXifJiiov, Kal fxeXXovT€<; St) vofiifxa ToiavTa 
TiOevai ird/xTToXXa eVecr^j^o/xei', lB6vr€<i cu? TavTa 
iaTi [xev diretpa iraOrjixaTa TrXrjdei Kal fi€ye6eai,^ 
BiKaioraTa Be irdvToov TradrjfidTcov Kal ^vp^TrdvTwv 
aia'X^KTTa. p,cbv ovx 0VTC0<i rjfuv ra re BtKaia 
Kol rd KaXd totc /xev &)? TdvTa ^vfinavra, tot€ 
Be tt)9 ivavTicoTaTa (f)aveiTai ; 

KA. K-cvBvvevei. 

A0. Tot? fxev TOLvvv 7roXXot<i ovtco irepl ra 
TOiavTa dcrv/j,(f)(ovci)<; to, KaXd Kal ra BiKaia 
Bieppififieva Trpoaayopeverai. 

KA. ^aCveTai yovv, o) ^eve. 

1 lx(yiQ«n MSS. : /xfyfOfi Zur., vulg. 
220 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

CLIN. Well, what then ? 

ATH. Every just action, in so far as it shares in 
justice, practically in the same degree j)artakes of 
beauty. 

CLIN. Yes. 

ATH. It is agreed also — if our argument is to be 
consistent — that a passion which shares in justice, 
becomes, so far, beautiful. 

CLIN. True. 

ATH. But if we agree that a p)assion though just 
is unseemly, then justice and beauty will be at dis- 
cord, when just things are called most unseemly. 

CLIN. What do you mean by that ? 

ATH. It is not hard to grasp. The laws we 
enacted a short time ago might seem to enjoin what 
is absolutely contrary to our present statements. 

CLIN. What statements ? 

ATH. We laid it down^ that it is just to put to 
death the temple-robber and the enemy of the 
rightly-enacted laws ; and then, when we were 
minded to enact a host of similar rules, we held our 
hand, since we perceived that such rules involve 
passions infinite both in number and in magnitude, 
and that, although they are eminently just, they 
are also eminently unseemly. Thus the just and the 
beautiful will seem to us at one moment wholly 
identical, at another, utterly opposed, will they 
not? 

CLIN. I am afraid so. 

ATH. Thus it is that by the multitude the beautiful 
and the just are flung apart, and inconsistent language 
is used about them. 

CLIN. It certainly seems so, Stranger. 

» 854BflF. 



PLATO 

Ae. To roivvv rj/nerepov, S) KXeivia, ttoXiv 
thoifiev, 7rw9 av irepl avra ravra '^^(ei t>}9 

(TVfKpCOVLa'i. 

KA. Ilota? St) Trpb'i irolov ; ^ 

A0. 'Ej/ T0t9 eixirpoadev Xoyoi^; olfiac Biappi]8r]v 
ip^e elprjKevai ttco?, et 8' ovv prj Trporepov, aWa 
vvv CO? Xeyovrd pe ridere 

KA. To TTolov ; 
D A0. fl? ol KaKoX 7rdvT€<; et<? iravTa elalv 
aKOVTe<i KaKoi. tovtov 8e ovrox: exoPTOf avdjKr} 
TTov rovT(p ^vveTreaOai rbv e^fj<i Xoyov. 

KA. Tlva Xeyei'i ; 

A0. 'n? 6 pev a8iK6<; irov kuko^, 6 Se KaKb<i 
dfcwv TOiovro<;. dKovalco<i he eKovaiov ovk 6')(ei, 
irpdrrecrdai rrore Xoyov ukwv ovv eKeivw ^aivoir 
av ahiKelv 6 ahiKSiv r& ttjv aSi/clav clkovctiov 
Tide.pevtd' Koi Bt) Kal vvv opoXoyijreov ipoi, 
^vpcfyijpi yap a/covTa<i dBiKelv iravra't' el Kal 
E Tt9 (jiiXoveiKLa^ rj <f)iXoTtpla<; eveKa aKOVTa<i p,ev 
d8iKov<i elvai (^tjcxlv, dScKclv prjv eKovra^ 7roXXov<;, 
6 7' e/i09 \0709 eKetvo^, dXX" ov')^ ovro<;' riva 
ovv av TpoTTOV eycoye ^vp(f)(ovoLr]v av T0t9 epavTov 
X6yoi<i ; ec pe, a> K-Xeivia Kal MeytXXe, ipcoT&re, 
Et 8r) Tavra ovt(i)<; exovrd eariv, w ^eve, tL 
crvp^ovXevei'i rjplv irepl Ti]<; vopodeala<; rfi rcov 

^ TToiov Ast : iroiav MSS. 



1 731 C, 734 B : cp. Ar. Eth. K 1109* 30 ff. 

^ In what follows, the Athenian, adopting the Socratic dictum 
that " vice is involuntary " (cp. Tim. 86 E ff.)> applies it to the 
special vice of injustice ; but here his view is found to conflict 
with the popular view which distinguishes between voluntary 

222 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

ATH. Then let us look again at our owti \-iew, and 
see how far it is consistent in this respect. 

GUN. What kind of consistency, and in respect of 
what, do you mean ? 

ATH. I believe that I expressly stated^ in our 
previous discourse, — or, if I did not do it before, 
please assume that I now assert 

CLIN. What ? 

ATH, That all bad men are in all respects un- 
willingly bad ; and, this being so, our next statement 
must agree therewith. 

CLiN. What statement do you mean ? 

ATH. This, — that the unjust man is, indeed, bad, 
but the bad man is unwillingly bad.^ But it is illogical 
to suppose that a willing deed is done unwillingly ; 
therefore he that conunits an unjust act does so 
unwillingly in the opinion of him who assumes that 
injustice is involuntary — a conclusion which I also 
must now allow ; for I agree that all men do unjust 
acts unwillingly ; so, since I hold this \iew — and do 
not share the opinion of those who, through conten- 
tiousness or arrogance, assert that, while there are 
some who are unjust against their will, yet there are 
also many who are unjust willingly, — how am I to 
prove consistent >\'ith my own statements ? Suppose 
you two, Megillus and Clinias, put this question to 
me — " If this is the state of the case. Stranger, what 
counsel do you give us in regard to legislating for 

and involimtary acts of injustice, and assigns to them dif- 
ferent legal penalties. If this popular distinction is wrong, 
the lawgiver must either (a) simply apply the Socratic rule, 
and enact that all unjust acts are involuntary and deserve 
therefore equal penalties, or (6) draw a new distinction, which 
Ath. proceeds to do in 861 £ S. (see note ad loc.). 

223 



PLATO 

M.ayv^Ttov TToXei ; irorepov vo/j,oO€T€iv rj fit] ; 
rio)? fyap 01) ; <pi']aQ). Aiopc€i<i ovv avroi^ uKovaid 
re Kal eKovcna dSiKij/jiaTa, koI rwv jxev €Kovcr[(op 
dfiaprrjfidrcov re koI dBiKtjp.drcov fiei^ov; rd<; ^r]fiLa<i 
861 di](TOfX€V, rcov 8' e\drrov<i ; fj irdvrcov i^ tcn](;, d)<i 
ovK ovrcov dSiKTjfjidratv rb irapdirav eKovaicov ; 

KA. 'Opdcb^ pevroL Xeyefi, w ^eve. /cal rovroi^ 
Sr} ri ;\;/37;cro/xe^a rot? vvv Xeyop.evoif; ; 

A0. KaXw9 rjpov. irpcorov pev roivvv avroc<i 
roSe 'X^prjcTcopeda 

KA. To TTolov ; 

A0. Wvap,vr](7d(t)p,€U ft)9 epuTTpoaOev vvv Bt) 
/faXco? iXiyopev on rrepX rd hiKaia e'er] rrapiroWri 
ri<i rjpoiv rapa^T] re koI davp(})0)vla. rovro Se 
B \a^6vre<i rrdXiv epcoroipev r)pd<i avroix;, ^Ap* ovv 
irepi rrjv rovrwv diropiav ovt' i^ev7ropt)cravre<; 
ovre Biopicrdpevoi ri iror earl ravra dWijXcov 
Bia^epovra, d 8t] Kara 7racra9 ra? TToXei? viro 
vop^oOeruiv irdvrtov rcov irdtirore yevopevcov w? 
8vo ecBr] rcov dSiKyjpdrwv ovra, rd p,€V e/covaia, 
rd Be dKOvaia, ravrrj Kal vop.o6erecrar 6 Be Trap" 
rfpSiV vvv Br) f)r]9eh X0709, wairep rrapd deov 
\e')(6ei^, roaovTOV povov eliroov diraWd^erai, Bov^ 
Be ovBeva Xoyov cJ? 6pd(t)<; etprjKe Karavop,oder^aec 
C Ttm rpoTTOV ; Ovk ecrriv, dXXd dvajKr) tto)? ravra 
ep.TrpoaOev rov vopoderelv BrjXcocrai Bvo re ovra 
Kal rrjv Bia(f)opdv dXXijXcov,^ Xva, orav eKarepw 
Tt9 rrjv Blktjv eTTiriOy, 7rd<i eiraKoXovdrj T0t9 Xeyo- 

^ aA\^Aoi' Hermann : &\\riv MSS. 
224 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

the Magnesian State ? Shall we legislate or shall 
we not ? " " Legislate by all means,'' I shall reply. 
" Will you make a distinction, then, between volun- 
tary and involuntar}' >vrong-doings, and are we to 
enact heaWer penalties for the crimes and wrong- 
doings that are voluntary, and lighter penalties for 
the others ? Or shall we enact equal penalties for 
all, on the view that there is no such thing as a 
voluntary act of injustice ? " 

CLIN. What you say, Stranger, is quite right : so 
what use are we to make of our present arguments ? 

ATM. A very proper question ! The use we shall 
make of them, to begin with, is this 

CLIN. What ? 

ATH. Let us recall how, a moment ago, we rightly 
stated that in regard to justice we are suffering from 
the greatest confusion and inconsistency. Grasping 
this fact, let us again question ourselves, — " As to 
our perplexity about these matters, since we have 
neither got it clear nor defined the point of difference 
between those two kinds of wrong-doing, voluntary 
and involuntary, which are treated as legally distinct 
in every State by every legislator who has ever yet 
appeared, — as to this, is the statement we recently 
made to stand, like a di^^ne oracle, as a mere ex 
athedra statement, unsupjwrted by any jiroof, and to 
erve as a kind of master-enactment ^ ? " That is im- 
I )ossible ; and before we legislate we are bound first 
to make it clear somehow that these wrong-doings 
are two-fold, and wherein their difference consists, in 
order that when we impose the penalty on either 
kind, everyone may follow our rules, and be able to 

* Literall}-, " to legislate down " {i.e. over-rule the popular 
objection to our Socratic view). 

225 
VOL. II. Q 



PLATO 

fievoi<i Kol hvvaTo<i 17 to re irpeTTovTco'i TeOei> afifj 

76 TTT} Kplvai KoX TO fl7]. 

KA. KaX,W9 rifiiv (f)aiv€i Xiyeiv, w ^€V€' Bvolv 
yap OuTepov r)/jid<; ')(p€cov, r) /jlj] Xeyeiv o)? Travra 
CLKOvaia ra aSiKTjfxara, rj rovro w? 6p0(o<; e'lprjTai 
D irpSiTOV SiopiaapTa^ SrjXcoaai. 

A0. Tovroiv ro'ivvv rolv hvolv to fiev ovk 
avcKTOv ifiol iravTO)'; irov yiyveaOai,, to ye hrj 
fiT] \eyeiv ovrocx; olofievov €)(^ei,i' ra\t]d€<;' ov yap 
av vofii/xov ovB' oacov av etrf kuto, riva he 
TpoTTov earov Bvo, el fir) tS> re aKovalm Kal tc5 
eKovai(p Bia^eperov eKarepov, [dWa] ^ dWa rivl 
81] TTore rreipuTeov dfxw'i ye 7ro)<i BrjXovv. 

KA. TlavTaTracTi fxev ovv, to ^eve, tovto ye ovx, 
olov re dWaxi Trw? T^yaa? Biavoijdrjvai. 
"El A0. TavTa etrrai. (fiepe Bij, jBXd^ai fiev, cJ? 
eoLKev, dWrjXwv tcov ttoXitmv iv Tal<; /cot-vayvlat^; 
re Kol 6piLXiai<i iroXXal yiyvovrai, Kal to ye 
eKovaiov re kuI Akovoiov iv avTac<; d(j)6ov6v 
iariv. 

KA. ITo)? yap ov ; 

A0. Mr/ Toivvv Tf? Ta? ^\d^a<i 7rdcra<i dBiKia<; 
Tidel<; ovTQ)<; OirjTat Kal ra dBiKa iv avTaiai 
ravTr) yiyveadai BnrXd, ra fiev eKovcrta Bi), ra 
S' iiKOvaia' l3Xd^ai yap ctKovaioi rcov Trdvrcov 
ovr dpi,6fiol<i ovre fieyedeaiv iXdrrov^ elal rcov 

1 [aXXo] bracketed by W.-Mollendorff. 

^ The proper distinction to be drawn (as J.th. proceeds to 
argue) is not that between voluntary and involuntary acts of 
injustice (since there are no such voluntary acts), but that 
between "injuries" (fi\d$ai, "acts causing loss") and "acts 
of injustice." Injustice is really a quality of the agent rather 

236 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

form some judgment regarding the suitability or 
otherwise of our enactments. 

CLIN. What you say, Stranger, appears to us to 
be excellent : we ought to do one of two things, — ■ 
either not assert that all unjust acts are involuntary, 
or else make our distinctions first, then prove the 
correctness of that assertion. 

ATH. Of these alternatives the first is to me quite 
intolerable — namely, not to assert what I hold to be 
the truth, — for that would be neither a lawful thing 
to do nor a pious. But as to the question how such 
acts are two-fold, — if the difference does not lie in 
that between the voluntary and the involuntary, 
then we must try to explain it by means of some 
other distinction. 1 

CLIN. Well, certainly. Stranger, about this matter 
there is no other plan we can possibly adopt. 

ATH. It shall be done. Come now, in dealings 
and intercourse between citizens, injuries committed 
by one against another are of frequent occurrence, 
and they involve plenty of the voluntary as well as 
of the involuntary. 

CLIN. To be sure ! 

ATH. Let no one put down all injuries as acts of 
injustice and then regard the unjust acts involved as 
two-fold in the way described, namely, that they are 
partly voluntary and partly involuntary^ (for, of the 
total, the involuntary injuries are not less than the 
voluntary either in number or in magnitude) ; but 

than of the act, and (like all vice) is a form of un-reason : as 
the slave of un-reason, the unjust man is never a free agent. 
Hence the task of the lawgiver is two fold, (1) to make good 
the "injuries," and (2) to cure the agent of his " injustice " 
by restoring the power of reason (" moral sense ") in his soul. 

227 



PLATO 

eKovaicov' aKOTrelaOe he el re tl \eyai \e<ycov a 
862 /aeWct) Xeyeii^, eire koI ixrjhev to irapdirav. ov 
yap (f)r]/j,i eycoye, Si KXetvla koI yVeyCKXe, el Ti? 
Tivd Ti TryjfiaLvei jirj ^ov\6fi€vo<i, aXV ukcov, 
dhiKelv fiev, ciKOvra pi]v, koI ravrr) fiev Br] vo/xo- 
Oerijao) rovro cJ? aKovcriov dSlKrj/na vofioderSiv, 
aXV ovhe dhiKiav to Trapdirav d^aco rrjv roiavTrjv 
^Xd^rjv, ovTe av fiei^cov ovre av ixdrrcov rq> 
yiyvrjrai. 7roXXa«i9 ^e oi^ekeiav ovk opOrjv yevo- 
/jLevrjv, TOP TTj^ a)cf)e\e[a<; airiov dSiKCtv (f)j]ao/jLev, 
B iav rj y ifxr) vlku. a-)(eBov ydp, co (f)[\oi, ovr 
€L T19 Tft) SiBcoaC TI, ra>v ovtcov, ovt el Tovvavriov 
d^aipelrai, BiKaiov aTrXw? rj dBiKov ')(pr] to 
ToiovTov ouTco \eyeiv, aXV iav yOei Kal BiKala> 

TpOTTCO ')(^pO)p.ev6<i Ti9 00(f)e\jj TLvd TL Kal ^XdlTTT), 

TOVTo ecTTL Tft) vo/xo0€TT) OeuTeov, Kal 7r/309 Bvo 
TavTa Bt] ^XeiTTeov, Trpo? Te dBiKiav Kal ^Xd^rjv, 
Kal TO fiev ^a^ev a/3Xa/3e9 ■^ toc<; v6p,oi<; el<i to 
BvvaTov TTOLriTeov, to Te diroXop.evov crai^ovTa kuI 
TO irecTov viro tov irdXiv e^opdovvTa Kal to 
C 6avaTO)0ev rj TpcoOev vyie<i, to Be diroivoL'i e^iXa- 
o6ev Tot9 Bpcocri Kal 'nd(T')(^ovaiv eKacrTa^ tmv 
^Xdy^ewv €K Biacf)opd^ et9 ^tXlav TreipaTeov del 
KadiaTdvai toc<; i>6fioi<i. 

KA. KaX<w9 TavTd ye. 

A0. Ta9 Toivvv dBiKov<; av ^Xd^a<i Kal KepBij 
edv Ti9 dBiKSiv Tii'd KepBaiveiv Troifj, tovtiov otroaa 
fxev ittTa, &)9 ovawv ev "^vyji voctwv, cdadar to 
Be Trj<; ldaeo)<; rjfuv t^9 dBiKLa<i TrjBe peneiv XPV 
(f)dvai 

1 fiXafifv afi\a$fs Badham : afiXa^is vjifs MSS. {$\afify in 
marg.): fi\a0ev vyih Zur., al. 

228 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

consider whether in saying what I am now going to say 
I am speaking sense or absolute nonsense. For what 
I assertj Megillus and Clinias, is not that, if one man 
harms another involuntarily and without wishing it, 
he acts unjustly though involuntarily, nor shall I 
legislate in this way, pronouncing this to be an in- 
voluntary' act of injustice, but I will pronounce that 
such an injury is not an injustice at all, whether it be 
a greater injury or a less. And, if my view prevails, 
we shall often say that the author of a benefit 
wrongly done commits an injustice ; for as a rule, 
my friends, neither when a man gives some material 
object to another, nor when he takes it away, ought 
one to term such an act absolutely just or unjust, but 
only when a man of just character and disjwsition 
does any benefit or injury to another, — that is what 
the lawgiver must look at ; he must consider these 
two things, injustice and injury, and the injury 
inflicted he must make good so far as possible by 
legal means ; he must conserve what is lost, restore 
what has been broken down, make whole what is 
wounded or dead ; and when the several injuries 
have been atoned for by compensation, he must 
endeavour always by means of the laws to convert 
the parties who have inflicted them and those who 
have suffered them from a state of discord to a state 
of amity. 

CLIN. He will be right in doing that. 

ATM. As regards unjust injuries and gains, in case 
one man causes another to gain by acting unjustly 
towards him, all such cases as are curable we must 
cure, regarding them as diseases of the soul. And 
we should affirm that our cure for injustice lies in 
this direction 

229 



PLATO 

KA. n^ ; 
D A0. "Otto)? Tt Tt9 av ahiKrjar) fxeya rj afiiKpov, 
6 vofio^ avTOV StBd^ei koX dvayKaaei to irapdirav 
et9 avOi^ TO roiovTOV rj /xrjSeTrore eKovra ToX/nrjcrai 
TTOieiv rj 8ca(})€p6vT(i}<; rJTTOv rrokv, irpo'i ifi t^9 
0Xd^t]<; eKrlaei. ravra etre epyoLf; rj Xoyoif, rj 
ped^ r)hovo)v rj Xvirayv, rj Tip,c!)v rj drip^iSiV, koX 
yprjp.aTwv ^r]p,La<; ^ Kal Scopcov, rj kuI to irapdirav 
WTIVL TpdiTtt) TTonjaei r^? p,tarjaai p,€v tijv dhtKLav, 
aTep^at Se 77 p,r) piaelv Ti]v tov BiKalov (f)vaiv, 
avTo ean tovto epyov tcov KaXkiaTWv v6p,(ov. 
E op S' av dvidTco<; et? tuvtu e^ovTa aio-OrjTaL 
vopio6eTr}<i, Slktjv TovTOiai /cal v6p,ov dtjcret Ttva ; 
yiyvcoaKcov ttov rot? TOiovToif Trdaiv ot)<; ovt€ 
avTol<i GTL i^fjv dp^eivov tov<; re aWov<i av StirXr] 
bi^eXolev diraXkaTTop-evoL tov ^iov, irapdheiypa 
p,ev TOV p^rj dSc/ceiv rot? dX\oi<; yevopevoi, ttol- 
863 ovvTe^ he dvhpoiv KaKOiv €pr]p,ov ttjv ttoXiv' ovtq) 
[p-ev^ 8t) tmv ToiovTOiv Trepi vopLodeTrj KoXaaTrjv 
TOiv dp,apTr]p,dTcov OdvaTOV dvdyKrj vepeiv, dXXco<i 
he ovhap,Si<;. 

KA. ^'KoiKe p,ev 7r&)<? XeyeaOac to, irapa crov 
Kal p.dXa p,€Tpiu)<i, rjhiov 8' av eTi aa(f)i(XT€pov 
aKovcraipbev TavTa prjOevTo, to Trj<; d8iKLa<i re 
Kal yQXa/S??? 8id(f)opov Kal to tcov eKOvaiayv Kal 
aKOVcricov 009 iv tovtoi,<; SiaTreTTOLKiXTai.' 

A&. UeipaTeov tolvvv ct)9 KsXeveTe Bpav Kal 

B Xeyecv. SijXov yap otc Toaovhe ye Trepl 1/^1/^779 

Kal XeYcre 7r/J09 dXX^Xov^ Kal aKOvsTe, (09 ev 

p,ev iv avTrj Trj^ <f)vaeco'i ei're Tt 7rddo<i etVe Tt 

1 Cp. 957 E, Eep. 410 A. 
930 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

CLIN. What direction ? 

ATH. In this, — that whenever any man commits 
anv unjust act, great or small, the law shall instruct 
him and absolutely compel him for the future either 
never willingly to dare to do such a deed, or else to 
do it ever so much less often, in addition to paying 
for the injury. To effect this, whether by action 
or si)eech, by means of pleasures and pains, honours 
and dishonours, money-fines and money-gifts, and in 
general by whatsoever means one can employ to 
make men hate injustice and love (or at any rate 
not hate) justice, — this is jirecisely the task of laws 
most noble. But for all those whom he perceives 
to be incurable in respect of these matters, what 
penalty shall the lawgiver enact, and what law ? 
The lawgiver will realise that in all such cases not 
only is it better for the sinners themselves to live 
no longer, but also that they will prove of a double 
benefit to others by quitting life — since they will 
both serve as a warning to the rest not to act un- 
justly, and also rid the State of wicked men,^ — and 
thus he will of necessity inflict death as the chastise- 
ment for their sins, in cases of this kind, and of this 
kind only. 

CLIN. What you have said seems very reasonable ; 
but we should be glad to hear a still clearer state- 
ment respecting the difference between injury and 
injustice, and how the distinction between the 
voluntary' and the involuntary applies in these cases. 

ATH. 1 must endeavour to do as you bid me, and 
explain the matter. No doubt in conversing •with 
one another you say and hear said at least thus much 
about the soul, that one element in its nature (be it 
affection or part) is " passion," which is an inbred 

231 



PLATO 

lxepo<i oiv 6 6vfi6<i, Svaepi Kal hvcrfiaxov KTriJia 
ifnr€^VK6<;, aXo^icnw ^ia iroWa avarpeTrei. 

KA. lift)? S' ov ; 

Ae. Kal fiTjv rjBov7]v ye ov ravrov to) dv/xat 
Trpoaajopevo/xev, e^ ivavria^ Be avT<p <f)ap,€v 
pci)fir]<; BuvacTTevovaav ireidol fxeTO, airdrrj'i 
[/Statou] ^ Trpdrreiv 6 Tt nep av avTr)<; rj ^ov\'r)cn<i 
eOeXtjcrr]. 

KA. Kat fxaXa. 
C A0. Tpirov ixrjv d'yvoiav Xeycov av ra twv 
dfiapTijfMaTcov aWlav ovk av yjrevSoLTO. Bi')(^fj firjv 
SieX6/Jbevo<i avTo 6 vo/jLo6err]<; av ^eXrioiv etrj, to 
[lev dirXovv avrov Kov(f)Cov afxapTrj/xaTcov airiov 
Tjyovfievo'i, to Be BlttXovv, orav dp^aOalvp ri<; fir] 
fiovov dyvoia ^vve)(^6/ievo<;, dWd Kal Bo^rj (TO(f)La<;, 
ft)9 et'Scb? 7ravTe\(t)<; Trepl a /ir]Ba/i(t)<; olBe, fierd fiev 
l<T')(yo<; Kal pcofiT}<; eTro/ievrj^; /leydXcov Kal dfiovacov 
dfiaprrj/idrcov ri0el<; atria rd TOiavra, dcrdeveta<; 
D Be e7ro/i€vrj(i, iraiBeid re d/iapr^fiara Kal irpecr^v- 
Tcpcov ytyvofieva, drjaei [lev dfiapTij/iara Kal tw? 
d/iaprdvovai vofiov^ ra^et, TTpaordrov<; ye firjv 
TrdvToyv Kal (Tvyyv(o/it]<; 7r\ei(TT7}<i e^ofievov^. 

KA. Et«oTa Xeyei^. 

A0. 'HBovm fiev Toivvv Kal 6v/iov Xeyofiev 
a'X^eBov diravTe^ &)<? o fiev KpeLTTcov tj/imv, 6 Be 
rjTTwv ecTTt* Kal e^^et ravTy. 

KA. Uavrdiraai fiev ovv. 

A0. ^AyvoLa<i Be ye o)? o fiev r)fi(ov KpeLTTCov, o 
Be rjTToiV, OVK TfKOvaafiev ircoiroTe. 

^ [Biaiov] I bracket {ov fili} England). 

1 Cp. 864 D f., 908 E ; Ar. Eth. iV^. 1110* 18 S. 
232 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

quality of a contentious and pugnacious kind, and 
one that overturns many things by its irrational force. 

CLIN. Of course. 

ATH. Moreover, we distinguish " pleasiu-e " from 
passion, and we assert that its mastering power is 
of an opposite kind, since it effects all that its inten- 
tion desires by a mixture of persuasion and deceit. 

CLIN. Exactly. 

ATH. Nor would it be untrue to say that the third 
cause of sins is ignorance.^ This cause, however, 
the lawgiver would do well to subdivide into two, 
counting ignorance in its simple form to be the 
cause of minor sins, and in its double form — where 
the folly is due to the man being gripped not by 
ignorance only, but also by a conceit of wisdom,^ as 
though he had full knowledge of things he knows 
nothing at all about, — counting this to be the cause 
of great and brutal sins when it is joined with 
strength and might, but the cause of childish and 
senile sins when it is joined with weakness ; and 
these last he will count as sins and he will ordain 
laws, as for sinners, but laws that will be, above all 
others, of the most mild and merciful kind. 

CLIN. That is reasonable. 

AiH. And pretty well everyone speaks of one 
man being " superior," another " inferior," to pleasure 
or to passion ; and they are so. 

CLIN. Most certainly. 

ATH. But we have never heard it said that one 
man is "superior," another "inferior," to ignorance.^ 

* Cp. 732 A, Phileh. 48 E. 

' i.e. ignorance is not regarded as an active force (like 
passion or pleasure) capable of opposing reason and tyrannizing 
over the soul. 

233 



PLATO 

E KA. ^AXijdecTTaTa. 

A0. Yidvra he ye irporpeireiv ravrd <f)afi€v et? 
Trjv avTOV ^ovXrjcnv eirLaircofxevov e/caarov et? 
TavavTLa ttoXXuki^ a/xa. 

KA. n\eio"Ta«t9 fiev ovv. 

A0. 'NvV Sj] aOl TO T6 Slkulov Kal TO dSlKOV, 6 

ye iya> Xeyco, aa(l)(o<i av Siopia-aLfirjv ouSev iroi- 
KiWcov. TTjV yap tov 6vp,ov koI (f)6^ov Kal 
rjhovTj'i Kal A-uTTr;? Kal <^dova>v Kal eTTidufiiMV ev 
"^^XV T^pm'vlSa, idv re ri ^Xdirrr) Kal idv fi7], 
'TrdvTay^ dSiKiav irpoaayopevco, rrjv Be tov dplaTov 
864 So^av, OTTrjTrep dv i^eadat tovtov ^ tjytjacovTac 
TToXi? ecTe ISicoTal Tive<i, edv avTrj KpaTouaa ev 
"^^XV BiaKoap^f] TrdvTa dvBpa, Kav acfjdWrjTai tl, 
BtKaLov fiev irdv elvai (pareov to TavTrj irpaydev 
Kal TO Tr/9 T0iavTr]<i dpxv'* yiyvopevov VTrrjKoov 
€KdaTO)v Kal eVt tov drravTa dvOpcoTTcov ^iov 
dpi(7TOV, ho^d^eadai he viro iroWoiv uKovcnov 
dhiKiav elvai ttjv TOiavTtjV ^\d^r}v. rj/xlv he ovk 
B ecTTt TO, vvv ovojxaTwv Trepc hvaepi^ X6yo<;, aXV 
eTreihrj tcov dfiapTavo/xevcov Tpla ethrj hehr^XcoTai 
yiyvofieva, TavTa et9 p,vi]pT]v irpuiTov ert fidXXov 
dvaXrjTTTeov. Xvin]^ p,ev ovv, rjv dv/nov Kal (po^ov 
eirovop.d^op.ev, ev elho^ rjplv eaTiV. 
KA. Udvv pev ovv. 

A0. 'Hhovrj^ 8' av Kal eiridvpioov hevrepov, 
eXirlhoov he Kal h6^ri<i t?}? <P'h> ^ dXr}dov<i Ttepl 
TO <TOv> dplaTOV e(pe<j6ai ^ TpiTOV erepov. tovtov 
he av TOV Tp'tTOV ht)(^i) Tp,r]6evT0<; Trerre eihi] yeyo- 



^ fct>effdaL TOVTOV : efftaOai tovtwv MSS. 

* <M^> added by Ritter (ojuaOoCs for aXrjeovs England). 



234 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

CLIN. Quite true. 

ATH. And we assert that all these things urge 
each man often to go counter to the actual bent of 
his own inclination. 

CLIN. V^ery frequently. 

ATH. Now I will define for you, clearly and with- 
out complication, my notion of justice and injustice. 
The domination of passion and fear and })Ieasure and 
pain and envies and desires in the soul, whether 
they do any injury or not, I term generally " in- 
justice " ; but the belief in the highest good — in 
whatsoever way either States or individuals think 
they can attain to it, — if this prevails in their souls 
and regulates every man, even if some damage be 
done, we must assert that ever^-thing thus done is 
just, and that in each man the part subject to this 
governance is also just, and best for the whole life 
of mankind, although most men suppose that such 
damage is an involuntary injustice. But we are not 
now concerned with a verbal dispute. Since, how- 
ever, it has been shown that there are three kinds 
of sinning, we must first of all recall these still more 
clearly to mind. Of these, one kind, as we know, is 
painful ; and that we term passion and fear.^ 

CLIN. Quite so. 

ATH. The second kind consists of pleasure and 
desires ; the third, which is a distinct kind, consists 
of hopes and untrue belief regarding the attainment 
of the highest good. And when this last kind is 
subdivided into three,^ five classes are made, as we 

» Cp. PhiUb. 40 D, E. * Cp. 863 C, D. 

• rh ^Toiy apiffrov itptcrdat : rh &piffTov e(p(ffis MSS., edd. 
{i<ptats ci. Grou, v(pf(Tis H. Jackson). 

235 



PLATO 

vev, 0)9 vvv (})afjLev' 0I9 vofjuov; 8ia<f)ipovTa<i 
C dWi]\o)v trevTe e'iSeai Oereov iv Svolv yeveaiv. 

KA. TCai TOvroL^ ; 

A0. To jxev 8ia ^laicov koI ^v/xcftavcov ^ Trpd^ecov 
TrpaTTo/jLevov eKciaTOTe, to 8e [xerd <tk6tov<; koI 
aTraTr]<; \a6paico<; ^^Lyvofievov, ecrri 8' ore Kol 8l 
d/ji(f>otv TovTOiv irpa-x^dev' m 87] koI vojxov rpa- 
'X^urarot jCyvoivro dp, el to irpocrijKov fJiepo<i €Xoi€v. 

KA. Et/C09 'yovv. 

A0. "Icofiev 8r) rd yLtera Tavra ixelae oiroOev 
e^e^rjp^ev 8evpo, irepaivovre'i rrjv decriv TOiv vo/jlmv. 
D ^v 5e rj/MV /C€LfjL€va irepi re rS)v avXcovToov, ol/xai, 
Tov<i Oeovi Kol rd irepl tmv tt po8oTO}v , en 8e t&v 
Tovf v6fiov<; 8ia<f}d€ip6vTcov eVl KaraXvaeL Ti]<; 
7rapov(Tr}<; TToXtreta?. rovrcov 87] rt? av 'icrox; 
Trpd^eie tl ixave'i^;, 7) vocroiq rj yj'jpa virep peer pat 
^vve'X,op'evo<; i) ■nai8la p^/sw/iei'O'?, ovhev irco ruiv 
roiovTO)v 8ia^epa)v' wv dv •yi'yvrjTai ri (f)avep6v 
Toi<; eKXeyOelaLV eKaaTore 8tKa(TTai<i dva(f)epovro<; 
Tov 8pdaavT0<i rj rov axTjirTOpievov inrep tov 
7roi7]aavTo<;, Kpidfi 8e ovtco 8taTedel<; irapavopbrjaaL, 
E T^i; pbkv pXajBriv rjv dv rtva KaTafiXdyfrrj 'jrdvToy'i 
drrXrjv drroTiveTO), TOiV 8e dXXcov 8iKaico/jLdTa)V 
d(f)€iaOco, irXrjv dv dpa rivd uTroKreLva^ /jlt] KaOa- 
pb<i 77 ra? x^lpa'i (jiovov ovtco S" eh uXXtjv ^^wyaaf 
/cat Toirov aTreXOoov olKeLTco tov eviavTov e/c8r}fiiov, 
rrpoTepov 8e iXdcov tov xP^^'^^ ^^ ^ vofMo<i copiaev, 
rj Kol Trd(7rj<i eTn^d<i t^? oiKeia<i XJ^P^'^' ^^ 8r)iioai,(p 

^ ^vfifavHy Faehse : ^vfx<pivwv MSS. : a^vfx<p(iy(»y Zur. 
236 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

now assert ; and for these five classes we must enact 
distinct laws, of two main t^'pes. 

cuN. What are they ? 

ATH. The one concerns acts done on each occa- 
sion by violent and open means, the other acts done 
privily under cover of darkness and deceit, or some- 
times acts done in both these ways, — and for acts 
of this last kind the laws will be most severe, if they 
are to prove adequate. 

CLIN. Naturally. 

ATH. Let us revert next to that point from which 
we digressed,^ and proceed with our enactment of 
the laws. We had, I believe, laid down the laws 
dealing with those who plunder the gods and with 
traitors, and also with those who wreck the laws 
v.ith intent to overthrow the existing constitution. 
An act of this kind a man might commit when mad, 
or when suffering from some disease or from excessive 
senility, or in a state of childishness, whereby he is 
no better than a madman. If any case of this kind 
is ever brought to the notice of the selected judges, 
either on the information of the doer of the act or 
on that of him who is pleading for the doer, and if 
it be judged that he was in this state of madness 
when he broke the law, then he shall certainly jiay 
for the damage he has done, but only the exact sum, 
and he shall be acquitted of the other charges, unless 
it be that he has killed a man and has not purged 
his hands from blood : in this case he shall dei>art 
into another country and place, and dwell there as 
an exile for a year ; and should he return within the 
time fixed by the law or set foot at all within his 
own country, he shall be put in the public gaol by 

1 i.e. 857 B. 

237 



PLATO 

Sec/jLw SeOelf viro rcov vofio(f)vXdK(ov Bvo iviav- 
865 TOL'9 ovTo)<i aTraWaTTeadco tcov Sea/xcov. 

<t>06vo<; ov8eL<;,^ KaOdirep rip^ajxeda, [ttci- 
poo/xeOa^ ^ Bia reXov; tTavro^i ethovi irept (povov 
deivai rov'i vofiov^, kuI irpoirov fiev ra ^iaia 
Kav cLKovaia Xeyw/iev. ec rt? iv dydovt, Koi 
dO\oi<i Br}/j,o(TLOi<; aKoav, etre 7rapa)(prj/xa eire 
KUi iv vcrrepoL^ ')(p6vot<; €k rS)v TrXijycov, dire- 
KTCive Tiva (jiiXiov, rj /card jroXe/xov uxravTW^; rj 
Kara p,e\eT7)v rrjv irpof 7r6\€p,ov, 7roiov/j.ev(ov 
^ d(TK}]aLV TMV dKOVTCcov^ i^tA-ot? (Toop.aaiv rj fxerd 
Tivcov oirXwv diro fiipLOV pievcov rrjv TroXe/jiiKijv 
Trpd^iv, Ka6ap6e\<i Kara rov e/c A€\(f)Q)v KOfii- 
aOevra irepl tovtcov vojiov earco Ka6ap6<i. larpwv 
he irepi irdvrwv, dv 6 depaTrevofievo^ vtt avrcov 
dKovToov reXevTa, Ka6apo<; ecTTu) Kara v6px>v. 

^Eidv he avTo^eip p,ev, ukcov he dTroKreCvrj xf? 
erepo^ erepov, etre tw eavrov aco/xari i^iXw ecre 
opydvw rj ^eXei rj Trcofiaro^ rj airov hocrei rj TTVpo<; 
rj '^€ifio)vo<; Trpoa^oXrj rj (TreprjcreL iTvevixaro'i, 
avTo<i Tft> eavrov acofjuari rj he erepoov (Tm/juiro)V, 
C TTdvroi^ ecTTft) p,ev cu? avroj^eLp, hiKa<i he rtverco 
rdf rotdahe' idv fiev hovXov Kreivrj, vo/xi^oov rov 
eauTOv hieipjdadai, rov rov reXevn^aavro^ hea- 
TTorrjv d^Xa^rj Trape-)(^eru) koi dt^rjpnov, rj hiKrjv 
61? rr}v d^iav rov reXevryjaavro^ v7re-)(er(o htTrXrjv 
rrj<; he d^la<; ol hiKUCrral htdyvooaiv iroLeiaOcocrav' 
KaOapfiol<; he ^ptjaaadai fiei^oai re kol irXelocrc roiv 

^ ^dovos oiiSeis, : <pe6vov Z)) MSS. : <p6vov 5j) Zur., vulg. 
238 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

the Law-wardens for the space of two years, and not 
let out of gaol until after that time. 

We need not hesitate to enact laws about every 
class of murder on similar lines, now that we have 
made a beginning. First we shall deal with the 
cases that are violent and involuntarv. If a man 
has killed a friend in a contest or in public games 
— whether his death has been immediate or as the 
after-effect of wounds, — or similarly if he has killed 
him in war or in some action of training for war, 
either when practising javelin-work without armour 
or when engaged in some warlike manoeuvre in 
heavy armour, — then, when he has been purified as 
the Delphic rule on this matter directs, he shall be 
accounted pure. So too with respect to all doctors, 
if the patient dies against the will of his doctor, the 
doctor shall be accounted legally pure. 

And if one man kills another of his own act, but 
involuntarily, — whether it be with his own unarmed 
body, or by a tool or a weapon, or by a dose of drink 
or of solid food, or by application of fire or of cold, or 
by deprivation of air, and whether he does it himself 
with his own body or by means of other bodies, — in 
all cases it shall be accounted to be his own personal 
act, and he shall pay the following penalties. If 
he kill a slave, he shall secure the master against 
damage and loss, reckoning as if it were a slave of 
his own that had been destroyed, or else he shall be 
liable to a penalty of double the value of the dead 
man, — and the judges shall make an assessment of 
his value, — and he must also employ means of 
{purification greater and more numerous than those 

- [wfipu>iJLe6a] I bracket, as wanting in best ilSS. 

* aKovTiuiv : apxovTwv MSS. (Burnet brackets ruy apx^f'To^v). 

239 



PLATO 

D irepl ra adXa aTroKTeivavTcov' tovtcov 8' e^rjyrjTaf; 
eivai Kvpiov<i ou9 av 6 ^eo? dveXr)' iav Be avrov 
oovXov, Ka6r]pd/jLevo<i diraWaTreaOu) tov (j)6vov 
Kara vo/xov. iav he rt? iXevOepov ukcov diroKreivr}, 
Tov<; fxeu Ka9app,ov<i rov<i avTov<i Kadapdtjjo) ra> 
rov BovXov aTTOKrelvavTi, iraXaiov Be riva rcov 
dp')(^a,ioiv fivOcov Xeyofievov fir) drip^a^ero). Xeyerai 
Be a)9 o 6avarQ)6el<; dpa /3fat&)9, ev eXevdepw 
^povrjfxaTi /3e/3t&j«ft)9, dufxovraC re tm BpdcravTi 

E v€odvr}<; &v, koX ^o^ov kuI Bei/xaTO^ dfia Bid rrjv 
^iaiov TrdOrjv awTo? 7r€7rXr]p(o/Mevo<;, opojv re tov 
eavrov (f)Ovea ev toi^ r^decn Tol<i Tr)<; eavrov avvrj- 
dela<i dvacTT pe<ji6p,evov Beipalvei, koI raparro/xevo'; 
auTo? Tapdrrec Kara Bvvap.iv irdaav tov Bpdcravra, 
pvrjp^rjv ^yppa^ov e')(a)V, avrov re /cal rd<; 7rpd^et<; 
avrov. Bio Brj ^pecov iariv dpa vrre^eXdeiv rw 
tradovri rov Bpdaavra rd<; copa? 7rdaa<i rov 
iviavrov xal iprjpooaai rrdvra^ rov<; OLKeiovi 
rorrovi ^vpirdcrT]^ t^9 rrarpiBo^;' iav Be ^eva o 
reXevrr](Ta<i ^, Koi rrj<i rov ^evov ')(o}pa<i elpyeaOo) 
866 rov<; avrov<; '^p6vov<>. rovrw Bt] t& vopo) iav fiev 
eKoov rreidrjra'i ri<;, 6 rov reXevryaavro^ yevei 
iyyvrara, iiricrKorro^ o>v rovrcov irdvrcov yevo- 
pevcov, exiTco avyyvdjprjv re Kol dycov rrpo<i avrov 
elprjvrjv perpL0<i dv ecrj rrdvrw'i' idv Be ri<i drreiOfi 
Kal irpcorov pev dKd6apro<; cov et? ra lepa roXpa 
TTopeveaOai Kal Oveiv, en Be rov<; ')(^p6vov<i prj 

B ideXrj ttXtjpovv drro^evov pevo<i rov<i elprjpevovi, o 
TOV reXevrrjaavro<i yevei iyyvrara iire^irb) pev 
240 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

employed by persons who kill a man at games, and 
those interpreters ^ whom the oracle names shall 
be in charge of these rites ; but if it be a slave 
of his own that he has killed, he shall be set free 
after the legal purification. And if anyone kill a 
free man involuntarily, he shall undergo the same 
purifications as the man that has killed a slave ; and 
there is an ancient tale, told of old, to which he 
must not fail to pay regard. The tale is this, — that 
the man slain by violence, who has lived in a free 
and proud spirit, is wroth with his slayer when newly 
slain, and being filled also with dread and horror on 
account of his own violent end, when he sees his 
murderer going about in the very haunts which he 
himself had frequented, he is horror-stricken ; and 
being disquieted himself, he takes conscience as his 
ally, and >nth all his might disquiets his slayer — 
both the man himself and his doings. Wherefore 
it is right for the slayer to retire before his victim 
for a full year, in all its seasons, and to vacate all the 
s|X)ts he owned in all j^arts of his native land ; and 
if the dead man be a Stranger, he shall be barred 
also from the Stranger's country' for the same period. 
If a man willingly obeys this law, he that is nearest 
of kin to the dead man, having the supervision of 
the performance of all these rules, shall j^ardon him 
and live at peace with him, and in doing so he will 
be acting with perfect propriety ; but if a man dis- 
obeys, and dares, in the first place, to approach the 
altars and to do sacrifice while still unpurified, and 
if he refuses, further, to fulfil the times appointed 
in exile, then the next of kin to the dead man shall 

1 Cp. 759 C. 

241 



PLATO 

(f)6vov T&i KTelvavTi, BiirXd Be irdi'ra earo) ra 
Tifi(opi]fxaTa T(p 6(ji\6vTi. iav S' o irpoaTjiccov 
iyyvTara fiij eTre^ir} tw 7ra6i]fiaTi, to fiiaa/jLa co? 
ei? avTov 7r€pi€\7]\vd6<; rov 7ra06vTO<; irpocnpeiro- 
fxevov TTjV irdd-qv, 6 ^ovK.op,€vo<i iire^eXdcov tovtco 
BiKrjv irevre 'irrj diroa-xeadaL ri]<; avrov iraTpLho^ 
dpa<yKa^€T(o Kara vo/mov. 

^Eav Be ^evo<i clkcov ^evov KTeivrj rcov ev ry iroXei, 
eTre^LTco p.ev 6 ^ov\6/j,evo<; eVl rot? avrol<; vofioi^, 

C ixeroiKo<i Be mv dTreviavTrjadrai, ^€vo<i Be av y 
TravTciTraai, tt/oo? to) Ka6app>a), edv re ^evov edv 
re p,eTOLKOv edv re daTov Krelvrj, rov ^iov airavra 
Trj<i '^(opa<; t>)9 tmv voficov TCOvBe Kvpia<i elpyecrOco' 
iav S' ekOri 7rapav6/xci)<{, oi vo/xo(f}v\aKe<; davdrto 
^rjfiiovvToov avTov, kuI edv exj] ova-lav rivd, tw 

D Tov iradovTO^ e'^yvraja yevei irapaBiBovroiv. edv 
Be aKcov e\dr], av fiev Kara OdXarrav exTnTTTr} 
7r/309 Trivy^dipav, (TKr)v^]crdp,evo<; ev OaXdrrr) reyycov 
Tou? TToBu'i ttXovv iiT L^vXaj t eT (o , Kara yr]v Be 
dv ^ia vTTo rivcov d)(d^, rj irpcorr] Trpoarv^ovaa 
^PXV '^^^ ^^ '^V '^oXei Xvaaaa el<; rrjv vnepopLav 
eKTre/jLTrerco dcrvXov. 

'Eat' B^ dpa ri<i avro^^eip fiev Kreivr) eXevdepov, 
dvpG) Be 17 TO TreTrpay/xevov eKirpax^^v, Bixf} Bel 
TTptorov TO roiovrov BiaXa^elv. Ovpbw yap Brj 
rreTTpaKrai Kal rol<i ocroi av i^ai(f)vr]<; fiev Kal 

E dirpo^ovXevrco'i rov aTroKreivat rrXtjyai^; rj run 
roiovro) Bca(f)delp(i)al riva 7rapa')(pi]/j,a t/)? 6p/j,rj<; 
242 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

prosecute the slayer for murder, and in case of con- i 
viction all the penalties shall be doubled. And ' 
should the nearest relative fail to prosecute for the 
crime, it shall be as though the pollution had passed 
on to him, through the victim claiming atonement 
for his fate ; and whoso pleases shall bring a charge 
against him, and compel him by law to quit his 
country for five years. 

And if a Stranger involuntarily kills a Stranger 
who is resident in the State, whoso pleases shall 
prosecute him under the same laws ; and if he be 
a resident alien, he shall be exiled for a year, while 
if he be altogether a Stranger — whether the man 
slain be a Stranger or resident alien or citizen — in 
addition to the purifications imposed, he shall be 
barred for all his life from the country which ordains 
these laws ; and if he transgresses the law, and 
conies back to it, the Law-wardens shall punish him 
with death ; and if he has any property, they shall 
hand it over to the next of kin of the victim. And 
should he come back unwillinglv, in case he be 
shipwrecked oft' the coast of the country, he shall 
camp with his feet in the sea, and watch for a ship 
to take him off"; or in case he be brought in by 
people forcibly by land, the first magistrate of the 
State that meets with him shall loose him, and send 
him out over the border unharmed. 

If a person with his own hand kills a free man, 
and the deed be done in passion, in a case of this 
kind we must begin by making a distinction be- 
tween two varieties of the crime. For murder is 
committed in jiassion by those who, on a sudden and 
A\ithout intent to kill, destroy a man by blows or 
some such means in an immediate attack, when the 

243 
R 2 



PLATO 

yevofi€vrj(;, /xerafxeXeid re €v6v<i tov Treirpwy/xevov 
jLyvijTai, dvfMM 8e koI oaoi trpoTrrfKaKiadevref; 
\o'yoi<i rj Kol ajifjiOL^ epyoL^, fj,€TaSicofcovT€<; rrjv 
rt/jLcopiav, varepov aTroKT€Lvcocri rtva ^ovXrjdevre^ 
KTelvai, Kol TO TrcTrpay/xevov avToi<; dfierafieXijTov 
•yLyvrjTac. Sittov^ p.€v 8r] tov<; <f)6vov<i, 0)9 eoiKe, 
867 Oereov, koL a'^eSbv dfji(f)OTepov<; dvfio) yeyovoTU';, 
/jL€Ta^v Be TTOV rov re eKOvaiov koI aKovaiov 
ScKaioraT dv \eyofxevov<;. ov [xrjv a\X' elKutv 
ead^ eKurepo^;' /nev rov Ov/nbv (f)v\drrQ)v /cal ovk 
eic rov TTapw^^^prj/jLa €^al(fivr)<i dWd fierd iTri^ov\i]<; 
varepov 'x^povm rifj,Mpovfi€vo<i eKOvaicp eoiKev, b he 
drap.ievr(o<i ral^ opyah Kal €k rov Trapa-x^pfj/jba 
evdv<i 'X^pcofievo<; drrpo^ovXevTO)^ o/xoio<; /xev ukov- 
aia>, eari Be ovB^ ovro<; av Travrdiraaiv dKOvcrio<;, 

B d\yC cIkmv dKOvaiov. Bio ^aXeTroi Biopi^eiv ol rat 
Ovfiw irpax^^vre'; ^ovoi, rrorepov eKOvaiov^ avrov<i 
7] riva<; co? d/covalov^ vo/xoderrjreov. /SeXriarov 
firjv Kal dXrjdecrrarov et? eiKova fiev dfi(f)a) deZvai, 
refjLeiv Be avroo %(i)/9i9 rfi eTTi^ovXfi koI diTpo^ovXia, 
Kal T0?9 P'^v fxer eVtySoL'\?)9 re Kal opyf} Kreivaat 
rd<i rip,(opla<; ')(^a\e7rcorepa<;, rol<; Be dTrpo^ov- 
Xei;T&)9 re Kal e^ai(^vr]<i 7rpaorepa<i vop.oderelv ro 
yap ioiKo<i p,ei^ovL KaKtd fMei^ovco^, ro S' eXdrrovi 

C rLp-coprjreov eXarr6va><;. Troirjreov Bt) Kal roi<i 
ri/j,erepoi<; vop.ot<i ovr(o<i. 
KA. HavraTraai fiev ovv. 

A0. TldXiv iiraveXdovre'i roivvv Xeycofiev *Av 
dpa ri<i avro'X^eip fiev Kreivp eXevdepov, ro Be 
244 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

deed is at once followed by repentance ; and it is 
also a case of murder done in passion whenever men 
who are insulted by shameful words or actions seek 
for vengeance, and end by killing a man \\-ith 
deliberate intent to kill, and feel no repentance for 
the deed. We must lay it down, as it seems, that 
these murders are of two kinds, both as a rule done 
in |)assion, and most properly described as l^ing 
midway between the voluntary and the involuntary. 
None the less, each of these kinds tends to resemble 
one or other of these contraries ; for the man who 
retains his passion and takes vengeance, not suddenly 
on the spur of the moment, but after lapse of time, 
and with deliberate intent, resembles the voluntary 
murderer ; whereas the man who does not nurse his 
rage, but gives way to it at once on the spur of the 
moment and without deliberate intent, has a likeness 
to the involuntary murderer ; yet neither is he 
wholly involuntary, but bears a resemblance thereto. 
Thus murders done in passion are difficult to define, 
— ^wli«sfher one should treat them in law as voluntary 
or involuntary. The best and truest way is to class 
them both as resemblances, and to distinguish them 
by the mark of deliberate intent or lack of intent, 
and to impose more severe penalties on those who 
slay with intent and in anger, and milder penal- 
ties on those who do so without intent and on a 
sudden. For that which resembles a greater evil 
must be more heavily punished, that which resembles 
a lesser evil more lightly. So our laws also must do 
likewise. 

CLCN. ITiey must, most certainly. 

ATH. Returning, then, to our task, let us make 
this pronouncement : — If a man with his own hand 

245 



PLATO 

TreTTpay/jievov cltt po^ovXevrw^ opyfj rivl yevrjTai 
irpax^ii'i TO, pev dXka, KaOdirep. avev Ovpov 
KTeivavri 7rpoar)Ke to) Trd(T)(^6iv, 7rao"^eT&), Svo S' 
ef dvdyKri<i errj <peuyeTco KoXd^cov top avrov 6v- 
D pov. 6 he dvpa> piv, per e7n/3ovXrj<i Se KTeiva<i, 
ra pev aWa Kara top irpoadev av, Tpia he errj, 
KaOdirep drepo'i e^evye to, Svo, (jievyero), peyedei 
dvpov TrXetft) TLpwpr)9e\<i ')(^p6vov. KaOoSov 8e 
irepi rovTOL<i wS' eaTw. '^oKeirov pev aKpi^co^; 
vopoOerelv eari yap ore tovtolv 6 tw vopo) 
ra')(9el^ ^aXeTrwre/JO? rjp€pcoT€po<; dv, 6 he rjpe- 
p(or€po<; 'xaXeirdoTepo^ dv eir], kcu to, irepl rov 
<f)6vov dypicorepa><i civ irpd^eiev, 6 he -qpepwuepwi' 
ct)9 he TO TTokv Kara ra vvv eLpr]p,eva ^vp^aivei 
E yiyvopeva' rovrwv ovv rrdvrwv imyvdipova^i 
elvai 'X^prj vopo<f)v\aKa^, erreihdv he o ')(p6vo<; 
eXdrj T?}9 (f)vyi]<; eKarepw, irepireLv avrcov hiKaard^ 
hcoheKa eVi tou? 6pov<i tt}? 'Xjcapa^, iaKeppevov; ev 
Tft) y^pov(a rovrw rd<i rwv <f)vy6vrQ)v irpd^ei'; en 
ara(f>e(Trepov, koI rrj<; athov<; re rrepi Kal Kara- 
hoxV'i rovrcov hiKaard<; yiyveadar rov^ he av 
rol<i hiKaa$etaiv vtto roiv roiovrwv ap')(pvr(i)v 
868 eppeveiv. idv S' av6i<i irore KareXdoov ovorepo^ 
avrolv r)rrr)del<; opyfj irpd^rj ravrov rovro, (pvyobv 
p,7)Keri KareXOr], xareXdcov he Kara rrjv rov ^evov 
d(f)i^iv, ravrj} rracxyerw. hovKov he o Kreiva<i 
eavrov pev KadrjpdaOco, idv he dWorpiov dvpw, 

1 Cp. 856 C. 
246 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

slay a free man, and the deed be done in rage with- 
out dehberate intent, he shall suffer such other ; 
penalties as it is proper for the man to suffer who j 
has slain without passion, and he shall be compelled i 
to go into exile for two years, thereby chastising his i 
own passion. And he that slays in passion and with 
deliberate intent shall be treated in other respects 
like the former, but shall be exiled for three years — 
instead of two, like the other, — receiving a longer 
period of punishment because of the greatness of his 
passion. As regards the return home, in such cases 
it shall be on this wise. (It is a difficult matter to 
legislate for ^^^th exactness ; for sometimes the more 
dangerous of the two murderers in the eye of the 
law might prove the more gentle and the gentler 
the more dangerous, and the latter might have com- 
mitted the murder more savagely, the former more 
gently ; though as a rule matters turn out in the 
way we have stated : so, regarding all these regu- 
lations the Law-wardens must act as supervisors). 
When the period of exile in each case has elapsed, 
they must send twelve of their number to the borders 
of the country to act as judges — they having made 
during the interval a still closer investigation into 
the actions of the exiles ; and these men shall serv^e 
also as judges in regard to the matter of giving them 
pardon and admitting them back ; and the exiles 
must abide by the verdicts of these magistrates. 
And if either of them, after his return, again yields 
to rage and commits the same act, he shall be 
exiled, and never again return ; and if he returns, 
he shall suffer the same fate as the returned Stranger.^ 
He that slays a slave of his own shall purify himself; 
and if he kill another man's slave in rage, he shall 

247 



PLATO 

SLTrXf) TO )QA,a/9o9 eKTLcrdrai rm K€KTT]/ii€va). oaTd 
5' dv TWi' diroKTeivavTCOV irdvTWV fir) TrelOrjrat jSt 
vofio), dW* dKadapro^i wv d'yopdv re koI dSXa kuI 
rd dXka Upd fiiaivp, 6 ^ov\6fi€Vo<i rov re eVt- 

B rpeirovra rSiv rrpocrijKovrwv ra rekevrrjcravri koX 
rov dTTOKreivavra eh SIktjv Kara(rrt]aa<; rrjv 
BcTrXaaiav ')(^prjixdr(ov re koX rwv dWwv irpd^emv 
dvajKa^erco irpdrreiv re koI eKriveiv, to he eKricr- 
fia avro<; avrw KO/it^ecrdco Kara rov vojxov. idv 
8e ri^ Ovfia> BovXo^ hecnr6rr}v avrov Kreivr], rov<; 
Trpoai]KOvra<i rov re\evri]cyavro<; ■)(pQ)fievov<i rw 
Kreivavn -y^pelav rjv dv ideXcoai, ttXtjv fj,r)8ap,fj 

C pLri8afxci)<; ^coypovvrai;, KaOapov'i elvai. idv Be 
dXXov Tt? BovXo<; eXevdepov diroKreivrj 6vfi^, 
TrapaBiBovrcov ol heanorai, rov SovXov TOt? Trpoa- 
rjKOVcri rov reXevryjaavro^;, ol Se e'f dvdyKT]<; /xev 
davarwcrdvrcov rov Spdcravra, rpoirw Be c5 dv 
edeXfoaiv. 

'Eav Be, yiyverai fxev, 6XiydKi<; Be, Bid dvfiov 
irarrjp rj fiijrrjp vlov rj Ovyarepa '7rXr)'yai<; i] rivi 
T/ooTTO) ^iai(p Kreivr], KaOdpa€i<i fiev rd^ avrd^ 
T0t9 dXXoL^i Kadalpeadai ^ Kal eviavrov<; rpei<i 

D d-Treviavrelv, KareXdovraiv Be rcov Kreivdvrcov 
diraXXdrreadat jwatKa re ttTr' dvBpo<; Kal rov 
dvBpa aTTO yvvaiKo^, Kal fir] iror en KOivfj TraiBo- 
TTOirjaaadai, /nrjBe ^vveariov wv eKyovov rj dBeX^ov 
direarepriKe ylyvea$al rrore firjBe koivcovov lepcov 
6 Be dae^Mv re irepl ravra Kal drreidoiv vttoBiko^ 
dae^ela<i yiyveadw rS> ideXovrt. yvvaiKa Be 
yafierrjv idv dvrjp Bi opyrjv Kreivr) rivd Tt9, rj yuvrj 
€avrr]<; dvBpa ravrbv rovro waavrco^ ipydarjrai, 

* KaOaiptvBai Euseb. , Hermann : KadaiptaOw MSS. 
248 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

pay to the owner twice the damage. And if anyone 
of all these t^-pes of slayers disobeys the law and, 
being unpurified, defiles the market and the games 
and other sacred assemblies, whoso pleases shall 
prosecute both that member of the dead man's 
kindred who permits this and the slayer himself, 
and shall compel the one of them to exact, and the 
other to pay, double the amount of the money-fines 
and of the other exactions ^ ; and the sum so paid he 
shall keep for himself as the law directs. If a slave 
kills his own master in rage, the kindred of the dead 
man shall treat the slayer how they please, — save 
that they must not in any wise let him live, — and 
shall be held guiltless. And if a slave kill a free 
man (other than his master) in rage, his masters 
shall hand over the slave to the kindred of the dead 
man, and they shall be compelled to put the criminal 
to death, doing so in whatever manner they choose. 
If in a fit of rage a father or mother slays a son 
or daughter by means of blows or some kind of 
violence, — an occurrence which, though rare, does 
sometimes happen, — the slayer must make the same 
purifications as the other slayers, and be exiled for 
three years ; and when the slayers have returned, the 
wife must be separated from the husband and the 
husband from the wife, and they must never again 
have a child, nor shall they ever share a home with 
those whom the slayer has robbed of child or brother, 
nor shall they t^ike part in their worship ; he that is 
disobedient and impious concerning this matter shall 
be liable to an action for impiety at the hands of 
whoso pleases. And if a husband in a fit of rage 
kills his wedded wife, or if a wife in like manner 

^ Such as the costs of the parification -rites. 

249 



PLATO 

E KaOaipeadai fiev tov<; avTOv<; Ka6apfxou<;, rpiejel^ 
he aTreviavTr]a€i<; StareXelv. KareXdcov 8e 6 tl 
TOiovTOv Spdaa<i toI<; avTOu iraialv lepcov prj 
KoivcoveiTco pijSe 6p,oTpd7re^o<; ycyviadco Trore* 
diretOSiv he 6 yevinjrcop r) 6 y€VP')]6el<; dae^eia<; av 
VTr6BiK0<; yiyvecrdo) tm edekoini. Ka\ eav d8e\<f)o<i 
d8e\(f)ov rj d8e\(f)rjv rj dBeX^r] dBe\<pov i) d8e\(l>riv 
dvpw Krelvrj, ra fiev rcov Kadapp,oiiv Koi ciireviav- 
T7]aea)v ftxrauro)?, Kaddirep eiprjrat T0t9 yoveuai koX 
T0t9 eK<y6voi<i, elprjadto Beiv yiyvea-dai, kuI rovroi^ 
(ov dBe\<pov<; re dSeXcfycov /cal yovea^ iaTeprjKe 
iralScov, TOVTOi^ he ^vvecTTio^ avro<; ^ /jLrjheTroTe yiy- 
869 viadco fi^^he Kotvcovo^ lepoiv eav he ra dTreiOfj, tw 
T7]<i irepl raura dae^ela<i elprjixevw vofitp vTr6hiKo<; 
6p0(o<i dv yiyvoLTO p^erd hiKrj<;. 

^Edv S* dpa Tt9 et9 rocrovrov dKpari]<; Oupov 
yiyvrjrai 7rp6<; rov'i yevv}]aavTa<;, Mcrre p,avLai'i 
6pyr]<; rcov yevvrjjopoiv ToXpirjcraL Krelvai rcva, eav 
pev re\evTr)aa<i TrpXv reXevTt^aat, tov hpdaavra 
(fiovov d(f)cfj excov, KaOdirep oi tov dKovaiov (povov 
e^epyaadpevoL Kadapdel^ Kal rdWa oaairep eKei- 
B VOL TTpd^a^ KaOapo<; earco, eav he pLrj d(f)fj, TroWot? 
evovo'i ecnu) v6p,0L<; 6 hpdaa^ Ti roiovTOV Kai yap 
aiKLa<i hlKai<; raU eaxdTaL<i evo^o'^ dv yiyvoiTO 
Kul daejSeia^; dxravrwi Kal lepoavXla^, Trjv tov 
yevv7]Tov "^f^v^rjv avXrjaa^, u>aT elrrep ocov r rjv to 
iroXkdKi'i diroOvrjCFKeLV tov avrov, Kal tov iraTpo- 
<f)6vov rj prjTpoKTOVOv e^epyaadpevov OvpS) tovto 
hiKUioraTOv Oavdrcov ttoWmv tjv Tvy^dvetv. c5 
yap pLovtp ovh^ dpvvopevcp OdvaTOV \peWovTi viro 

^ avrhs: avTo7s MSS., ecld. {av ci. England). 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

kills her husband, they must undergo the same 
purifications, and remain exiled for three years. 
And when one who has committed such a crime 
returns, he shall never take part in worship with his 
children, nor sit at table with them ; and if either 
the parent or the child disobeys, he shall be liable to 
a charge of impiety at the hands of whoso pleases. 
And if in rage a brother kill a brother or a sister, or 
a sister kill a brother or a sister, it shall be declared 
that they must undergo the same purifications and 
banishment as have been ordained for parents and 
children, — namely, that the homicide shall never 
share in the house or in the worship of those brothers 
or parents whom he has robbed of brothers or of 
children ; and if anyone disobeys, he will rightly and 
justly be liable to the law laid down concerning such 
cases of impiety. 

If any man gets into such an uncontrollable rage 
with his parents as actually to dare to kill a parent 
in the madness of his rage, then, in case the dead 
{>erson before d>ing voluntarily acquits the culprit 
of murder, he shall be held pure, after he has 
purified himself in the same manner as those who 
have committed an involuntary murder, and done 
as they in all other respects ; but in case the dead 
person does not so acquit him, then he that has 
done such a deed is liable to a number of laws : for 
outrage he will be liable to most heavy penalties, 
and likewise for impiety and temple-robbing, since 
he has robbed his parent of life ; so that if '' to die 
a hundred deaths " were possible for anv one man, 
that a ])arricide or a matricide, who did the deed 
in rage, should undergo a hundred deaths would 
be a fate most just. Since every law will forbid 



PLATO 

Ttov 'yoveoiv rekevrriaeadai],^ nape^ei v6/jLo<i oySel? 
C KTeivai TOP TTUTepa rj firjTepa, rov<; eh 0w<? ttjv 
eKelvov (f)V(Tiv dyay6vTa<;, dW' vTrofieivavra ra 
irdvra 7rda')^€iv irpiv tl hpdv tolovtov vofio- 
derrjcreL, ttw? tovtw 8lkt)<; <ye aX-Xtw? Trpoa-rJKOv 
TU7%ay€<i/ dv yiyvoiTO iv vopuw ; KeiaOoi Bfj ra> 
irarepa rj firjTepa diroKTeivavTi Ov/xo) Odvaros 17 

A86X^09 S' idv d8eX(f)6v Kreivr] ev ardaeai 
p.d')(r)<i <yevofji,evr]<i rj rivi TpoTro) roiovTUi, dfivvofie- 

D vo<i dpxovra x^cp(ov Trporepov, Kaddirep TroXefiiov 
d-KOKTeiva<i earw Kadapo^' Kol idv 7ro\iTr]<; tto- 
XiTtjv d)aavTa)<; rj ^euo'i ^evov idv Be acrro? ^evov 
rj ^€vo<; dcrrbv dfivv6p.evo<i Krelvp, Kara tuvtu 
ecTTCt) rov Kadapo<i elvai. kuI idv SovXo^ SovXov, 
ftxrauTO)?* idv 8e av 8ov\o<; iXevdepov dfMVv6p,evo<; 
diroKreivr), Kaddirep 6 KT€iva<; irarepa, rol<i avTol<; 
evoxof ea-TQ) v6p.oi<i. o he irepX Tfj<; a^ecrew? 
eiprjTai (}36vov iraTpl, ravrov tovto earco irepl 

E d7rdar]<; tcov toiovtcov a<^e<re&)?, iav oaricrovv 
oTfpovv d(f)i7J TOVTO eKOiv, CO? dKovcnov <ye<yovoTO<i 
Tov (f)6vov 01 re fcaOap/iol yiyveadcoaav tw 
SpdcravTi koI iviavTb<i eh ecrTW Trj<; iK8r)p,La<; iv 
v6fi<p. 

Kat rd fxev Brj /3iacd re koI aKovaia koI /cara 
TOV 6v/jl6v yiyvo/iieva irepl (f)6vov<; /JbeTpLa)<i eiprjcrdco' 
Td Be irepl ra eKOvaia koI kut dBiKiav irdtjav 
yiyvo/xeva tovtwv irepi Kol <i^> ^ iiri^ovXri^ Bi 
rjTTa<i rjBovcov re kuI iindvfiiMV koX (f)66vcov, TavTa 
[i€T eKclva rjixlv XcKTeov. 

1 [fifWovTi . . . reXevT-fifffffeai'] bracketed by England. 

2 <ei> I add. 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

the man to kill father or mother, the very authors 
of his existence, even for the sake of sa\ing his 
own life, and will ordain that he must suffer and 
endure ever}i:hing rather than commit such an act, — 
in what other way than this can such a man be 
fittingly dealt with by law, and receive his due 
reward ? Be it enacted, therefore, that for the man 
who in rage slays father or mother the penalty is 
death. 

If a brother kill a brother in fight during a civil 
war, or in anv such way, acting in self-defence 
against the other, who first started the brawl, he 
shall be counted as one who has slain an enemy, and 
be held guiltless ; so too, when a citizen has killed 
a citizen in like manner, or a Stranger a Stranger. 
And if a citizen kill a Stranger in self-defence, or a 
Stranger a citizen, he shall be accounted pure in the 
same way. So likewise, if a slave kill a slave ; but 
if a slave kill a free man in self-defence, he shall be 
liable to the same laws as he that kills a father. 
And what has been said about remission of the 
charge in the case of the murder of a father shall 
hold equally good in all such cases — if any man 
voluntarily acquit any culprit of this charge, the 
purifications for the culprit shall be made as though 
the murder were involuntary', and one year of exile 
shall be imposed by law. 

Let us take this as an adequate statement re- 
specting murder-cases that involve \iolence, and are 
involuntary' and done in |)assion. Next to these we 
must state the regulations regarding such acts when 
\oluntarA- and involving iniquity of all kinds and 
premeditated, — acts caused by jielding to pleasure 
or lust or envy. 

253 



PLATO 

IC\. 'Op^ftJ9 \e7ef9. 

A0. I]d\iv St) 7rpo)Tov nepl tmv toiovtcov 
870 et9 hvvajxiv eiTroofiev OTrocra av elrj. ro fikv hi) 
fie'yi(TTOv eTndvfXia Kparovaa '^vx^'^ i^TjypicofievT)'; 
iiiro TTodcov. rovTO 5' earl pidXiara ivravda ov 
TrXetcrTo? re kclI Icrx^pojaro'; ifiepo^ wv rvy^dvei 
Tol<i TToWol';, ■)) TOiV XPVH'^'^^^ '^1^ dirXi^aTOV 
Kol cnreipov KTrja€co<; epcora^i ixvpiov<; evTLKTOvaa 
Bvvafit.<; Sia (jivaiv re kol diraihevaiav rrjV KaKtjv. 
T?}9 Se cLTraiBevalwi rfv ro KaKO)^ eTraivecaOai 
7r\ovrov alrla <^ripLr] ^ tt/jo? rcav '^Wy^viov re 
Kal ^ap^dpcov rrpSiTOV jap rcov dyadwv avro 

B irpoKpivovre'i rpirov ov rov<; r imyiyvo/jiepov^ 
XwjBoivrai koI tauTou?. to yap dXrjde^ XiyeaOai 
rrepl rov rr\ovrov Kara iroXei^; Tracra?, rravrcov 
KoXXiarov Kal dptarov, ft)9 evcKa (rdofiaro^; ecrri, 
Kol (joijxa ^vx^9 eveKa' dyaOwv /nev ovv ovrwv 0)v 
eveKa 6 7r\ovro<; elvau 7re(f}VKe, rpirov av evrj fiera 
awfiaro<; dperrjv Kal -v/ru^?}?. 8t8daKa\o<i ovv av 
6 \6yo<; ovro<i ylyvoiro &)? ov XPV rrXovrelv ^rjrelv 
rov evhaifxova eaop-evov, dWd 8iKaico<; rrXovrelv 

C Kal (T(0(f)p6v(0'i' Kal cf)6voi, ovrco^ ovk av yiyvoLvro 
iv TToXeai (jiovoa Seo/xevoi KadaipeaOai. vvv he, 
oirep dp^op-evoL rovroav elTTOfxev, ev p,ev rovr 
ecrri Kal p^eyiarov rroiel (f)ovov eKovavov xa? 
fxeyiara^ hiKa^' hevrepov he (piXori/xov '^vyrj'; 
€^t<i, (pd6vov<i evrLKrovaa, x^Xcttov^ ^vvolkov<; 

^ -^v rh . . . (prifiri: r; rov . . . (p-fi/xri MSS., edd. 

1 Cp. 697 B, 831 C ; Ar. Pol. 1323* 25 ff. ; Elh. N. 1098b 
13 ff. 

254 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

CLIN. You are right. 

ATH. First, let us ouce more state, as best we 
can, how many these causes are Ukely to be. The 
greatest is lust, which masters a soul that is made 
savage by desires ; and it occurs especially in con- 
nexion with that object for which the most frequent 
and intense craving afflicts the bulk of men, — the 
power which wealth possesses over them, owing to 
the badness of their nature and lack of culture, to 
breed in them countless lustings after its insatiable 
and endless acquisition. And of this lack of culture 
the cause is to be found in the ill-praising of wealth 
in the common talk of both Greeks and barbarians ; 
for by exalting it as the first of '• goods," ^ when 
it should come but third, they ruin both posterity 
and themselves. The noblest and best course of all 
in all States is that the truth should be stated about 
wealth, — namely, that it exists for the sake of the 
body, and the body for the sake of the soul ; so 
that, while the objects for which it really exists are 
"goods," yet wealth itself will come third, after 
goodness of body and of soul. So this law will 
serve as an instructor, to teach that the man who 
intends to be happy must seek not to be wealthy, 
but to be justly and temperately wealthy ; and if 
this were so, no murders that needed purging by 
murders would occur in States. But, as things now 
stand, this love of riches is — as we said ^ when we 
began this subject — one cause, and a very great 
cause, which produces the most serious of trials for 
wilful murder. A second cause is the tem|)er of 
the ambitious soul, which breeds envies that are 

2 831 C ; cp. Ar. Pol. 1271a 17. 

255 



PLATO 

fiaXiara /xev avrq) rq> KeKTrjfxivo) rov (pOovov, 
0€vrepoi<; Se roi<i apicnoi<i rcov iv rfj iroXei. 
rpirov 8e ol hetXol kol aBiKOi (po^oi ttoWoix; 
D Br) (povov; elalv i^eipyacr/jievoc, orav r] rep irpaTTo- 
fieva rj ireiTpa'yp^eva a /xrjSiva ^ovXovrai, (r(f)i(Ti 
^vveiBivai yiyvofxeva rj yeyovoTW tov<; ovv tovtmv 
fir)vuTa<; avaipovai davdroi';, orav aXkut [xrjBevl 

BvVCOVTUl TpOTTQ). 

TovTcov Br) TrdvTcov Trepi TrpooLfiia fiev elprj- 
fjLeva ravT ea-Tco, Kal tt/jo? Tovroi<i, ov kuI 
TToWol \oyov T(t)v ev rat? reXerai? irepX ra 
Toiavra iaTrovBaKorcop dKovovre<i crcpoBpa irei- 
dovrat,, TO roiv roiovrcov rlcrcv iv "AiBov yiyveaOat 
Kal TToXiv d<piKO/u.evoi<; Bevpo dvayKoiov elvat rr)V 
E Kara (j)vaiv BiKrjv eKTia-at,, Tr)v rov rraOovro^ 
direp avr6<i eBpaaev, vw dXXov roiavrr) jioipa 
reXevrrjaai rov rore ^iov. rreido/xevfo fxev Br) 
Kal Trdvrco^ (po^ov/xevm i^ avrov rov Trpooifiiov 
rr)v roiavrrjv BIkijv ovBev Bet rov irrl rovrw vopbov 
871 vpivelv, drreiOovvri Be vo/JiO'i oBe elprjcrOo) rfj 
ypa<py' ' O9 av ix irpovoia^; re Kal d8l,K(o<; 
ovrcvaovv r(ov e/j,(f)vXicov avr6')(eip Kreivr], irpoirov 
fiev ra)V vofil/J-cov elpyecrOw, fi-qre lepd firjre 
dyopdv /xrjre Xifievaf; p,r)re dWov Koivov ^vWoyov 
firjBeva /iiaLvcov, edv re ri<; dTrayopevrj ra> Bpd- 
cravri ravra dvd payrrcov Kal edv jxr)' 6 yap v6fio<; 
dirayopevei, Kal aTrayopeiKov virep irdar)^ rrj^ 
TToXect)? del (fiatverai re Kal (pavelrai. 6 Be fxr) eV- 

^ Cp. 722 D: whereas the law coerces, its "prelude" 
seeks to persuade. 

• This implies the (Pythagorean) doctrine of re-incar- 
nation : cp. 904 C, Hep. 614 E S., Tim. 90 E flf. 

256 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

dangerous associates for the man that feels the 
envy, in tlie first place, and dangerous also for the 
best citizens in the State. Thirdly, fears bred ot 
cowardice and iniquity have wrought many murders, 
— in cases where men do or have done things con- 
cerning which they desire that no one should share 
their secret ; consequently, if there are any who 
might expose their secret, they remove them by 
death, whenever they can do so by no other 
means. 

Concerning all these matters, the preludes men- 
tioned shall be pronounced, and, in addition to 
them, that story which is believed by many when 
they hear it from the lips of those who seriously 
relate such things at their mystic rites, — that 
vengeance for such acts is exacted in Hades,^ and 
that those who return again to this earth ^ are 
bound to pay the natural penalty, — each culprit the 
same, that is, which he inflicted on his victim, — and 
that their life on earth must end in their meeting 
a like fate at the hands of another. To him who 
obeys, and fully dreads such a penalty, there is 
no need to add to the prelude by reciting the law 
on the subject ; but to the disobedient this is the 
law which shall be stated in the written code : — 
Whosoever of deliberate intent and unjustly slays 
with his own hand any of the tribesmen shall, 
in the first place, be debarred from the lawful 
assemblies, and shall not defile either temples or 
market or harbours or any other place of meeting, 
whether or not any person warns off the doer of 
such deeds — for he is warned off by the law, which 
is, and alwavs will continue, warning him thus 
publicly, on behalf of the whole State ; and the 

257 



PLATO 

B e^ioDV Biov rj firj Trpoayopevcov eipyeadaL rcov ivTOf 
dveyJnoTrjToi;, 7rpo<; avSpwv re Kol jvvaiKMV irpocr- 
ijKcov T& TeXevrrjaavri,, irpSirov fiev to fjilao-fxa ei? 
avTov Kal TT]v tcov deoiv 6')(6pav Se^^otTO, co? r; 
rov vofiov dpa ttjv <f)tjfir]<;^ 'nporperceraL, ro he 
heinepov vTrohiKa tm edeXovri Tifiiopelv virep tov 
T€\€VT^aavTo<; yiyveaBco. 6 Be ideXojv rificopetv, 
TMV re iirl rovroi^ XovrpSiv (f)v\aKr]^ irepi Ka\ 
6a (ov av erepcov 6 ^eo9 Trepl ravra vofiifjLa 

C irapaBo), Trdvra diroTeXoiv koI rr)v Trpopprjatv 
Trpoayopevoov, tVo) dvayKci^cov tov hpdcravTa vtt- 
€X€iv Tr)v T^9 BiKT]<i IT pd^LV Kara vop.ov. ravra 8e 
on fiev yiyveadai j^^pecov ecrri 8id rtvcov €'7r€V')(a)v 
Kal 6v(TiS)v deol^ riaiv, ol<; rwv roiovrwv fieXei, 
<f)6vov<; firj yiyveaOai Kara iroXei'i, paBiov drro- 
<f)aivea0ai vopoOerj}' rive<i S' elaXv ol Oeol Kal rt? 
[6] ^ rpoTTO^ rcov roiovrcov Sik&v t^9 ei(Taya)yri<; 
opQorara 7rpo9 to delov av yiyvop.evo<i etrj, vop,o- 
(f)vXaK€<; per i^rjyrjrayv Kal p^dvrewv Kal rov 6eov 

D vo poderrja dpevoL raq BiKaf elaayovrcov ravra<;. 
SiKaard^ Be avrcov elvat rov<; avrov<; ovanep roi<i 
rd lepd avXaxri BiaBiKa^eiv epptjdi] Kvpi(o<i. 6 
Be 6(f)Xo}V Oavdrw ^r)p,iov(Tdo) Kal p,T) ev rf] rov 
TTa06vro<i %ftJ/3a daTrreaOo), dvatBeia<i evcKa tt/Oo? 
ra> dae^etv. (f)vyd)v Be Kal pr) ^deXrjaa^ Kpiaiv 
v'7roa')(elv <^evyeray deKpvyiav iav Be ri^ em^fj 

^ (^^/urjs : (p-fifit]" MSS., edd. 
" [6] bracketed by England. 



258 



» Cp. 877 C, D. " 855 C ff. 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

man who fails to prosecute him when he ought, or 
fails to warn him of the fact that he is thus de- 
barred, if he be of kin to the dead man on either 
the male or female side, and not further removed 
than a cousin,^ shall, fiist, receive ujxin himself the 
defilement and the wrath of the gods, since the 
curse of the law brings also upon him that of the 
divine voice, and, secondly, he shall be liable to the 
action of whosoever pleases to punish him on behalf 
of the dead man. And he that wishes to punish 
him shall duly perform all that concerns the ob- 
servance of the purifications proper therefor, and 
whatsoever else the god prescribes as lawful in these 
cases, and he shall recite the pronouncement of 
warning ; and thus he shall go and compel the 
culprit to submit to the execution of the penalty 
according to law. That it is necessary that these 
proceedings should be accompanied by certain in- 
vocations and sacrifices to those gods whose concern 
it is that murders should not occur in States, it is 
easy for the lawgiver to demonstrate : who these 
gods are, and what method for bringing such prosecu- 
tions would be the most correct in point of ritual, — 
this the Law-wardens, in conjunction with the inter- 
preters and seers and with the god, shall ordain ; 
and so they shall bring these prosecutions. And 
the judges in these cases shall be the same persons 
who form— as we described ^ — the final court of 
trial for robbers of temples. He that is convicted 
shall be punished by death, and he shall not be buried 
in the land of the victim, because of the shameless- 
ness as well as impiety of his act. If the culprit 
fiees and refuses to come up for judgment, he shall 
be exiled with an unending exile ; and if any such 

259 
s2 



PLATO 

rovTwv TTj^ Tov (^ovevOivTo^ ')(a)pa<i, 6 7rpoaTV')((ov 
TT/awTO? Tcov OLKeiwv TOV a7ro0av6vTO<i rj kuX TOiv 
E TToXtTcov dvuTl KTei,v€T(o Yj Bijawi Tot9 cip^ovai 
Twv Trjv Slktjv fcpivdprcov Kreipai irapahoTO). 6 
he ijricTKrjTrTo/jLevo'; afia /cal Kareyyvdro) tov qj 
av eTnaKrjirrrjrar 6 Be irape'^^eTU) jpelq ■"■ eyyvrj- 
Ta9 d^L6')(pe(i)^ , ou? av rj tmv irepl raina BiKacnwv 
dp^T) KpivTj, [rpet? eyyvr]rd<; d^io-x^peco^;] ^ irape^eiv 
iyyvo)/xevov<; et? Blktjv edv Be rj firj iOeXr} r) 
dBvvarj] Tt9 KaOiardvai, rrjv dp)^rjv napaXa- 
^ovcrav Byjaaaav (fivXarreiv koI Trapex^iv ei9 
872 TTjv Kpiaiv T779 BlKrjfi. edv Be avro^eip /lev firj, 
^ovXevarj Be ddvarov Tt9 dXXo<i erepo) koX rfj 
^ovXrjaei T€ Kal eirc^ovXevcret dTroKTeiva<i aiTio<; 
oiv Kol fiT] KaOap6<; rrjv yp-u^V^ tov (povov ev 
TToXei evoiKfj, yiyveadcov /cal tovtw Kara ravra 
al KpCa€i<; rovrcov irepi, ttXtjv Tr]<; eyyvr]<;, ra> Be 
o^XovTL ra(f)rj<; Trj<; ocKela^ e^ecTTO) Tvx^tv, rd Be 
dXXa Kara ravrd coaavTox; tw irpoadev prjdevTi 
irepl avrov yiyveaQw rd avrd Be earai ravTa 
^evoicri re 7r|0O9 ^evov'i Kal daTola-i Kal ^evoi<i 
B 7rpo9 dXX7]Xov<;, BovXoi<; re av 7rp6<i BovXov;, T7}9 
re avTo^eipia^ irepc Kal e7n/3ovXevaeo}'i, irXrjv Tr]<i 
iyyvT}<i' ravTrjv Be, Kaddirep etprjrai Tov<i avTO- 
'X^eipa<i Kareyyvdadai, tov [Be] ^ tt poayopevovTa 
TOV <f>6vov d/j.a Kareyyvav Kal tovtov^. eav Be 
BovXa eXevdepov eKcov, ecTe avT6')(eip etVe ^ov- 
Xevaa<i, dTroKTeivrj Kal 6(f)Xrj ttjv Blktjv, T779 

^ Tpe7s: rovs MSS., edd. 

^ [rpeis fyyvr)Tas o|iJxp<wsl I bracket (Hermann brackets 
the previous rovs iyyvnras a.^i6xpfO)s). 

260 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

person sets foot in the country of the murdered 
man, he of the dead man's relatives or of the 
citizens that first meets with him shall slay him 
with impunity, or else bind him and hand him over 
to those magistrates who have judged the case, to 
be slain. The prosecutor, in a murder-charge, must 
at once demand bail from the defendant ; and the 
latter shall provide three substantial securities — as 
approved by the court of the judges in such cases — , 
who guarantee to produce him at the trial ; and if a 
man be unwilling or unable to provide these sureties, 
the court must take, bind and keep him, and produce 
him at the trial of the case. If a man does not slay 
another with his own hand, but plots death for him, 
and after killing him by design and plotting resides 
in the State, being responsible for the murder and 
not innocent or pure of heart in respect of it, — in 
his case the prosecutions on this charge shall proceed 
in the same way, except in the matter of bail. And 
the person convicted shall be allowed to have burial 
at home ; but all else shall be carried out in his case 
in the same way as in the case last described. And 
these same regulations shall govern all cases where 
Strangers are at law with Strangers, or citizens and 
Strangers at law with each other, or slaves vrith 
slaves, in respect both of actual murder and of 
plotting to murder, except as regards bail ; and as 
to this, just as it has been said that the actual 
murderers must be secured by guarantors, so these 
persons too must provide security to the person 
who proclaims the murder. If a slave wilfully slay 
a free man, either by his own hand or by plotting, 
and be convicted at the trial, the public executioner 

• [S«] bracketed by England. 

261 



PLATO 

TToAeo)? KOLvo<i B7]/jLio<i dycov tt/jo? to fivrjfxa tov 
aiToOavovTO^;, 69ev av opd tov tvuBov, uaaTt- 
yw(Ta<i oTToaa^ av o eKcov irpoaTaTTTj, eavvep 
^1(0 7rai6/J.evo<; 6 (f)OV€v<;, OavaTCdaaTO). iav Be 
Tis 8ov\ov KTeivr) firjSev dSiKovvTa, (po^m 8e fir) 
/ji')]vvTT}<i ala^pcov epycov koX KaKOiv avTov ylyvrj- 
Ttti, 1] Tivo<; ev6Ka dXXov toiovtov, KaSdirep civ 
el 7ro\iTijv KTeiva<i virelx^ (f)6vov SiKwi, waavTw^ 
Kai tov toiovtov SovXov kutu to, avTCi uTroda- 
vovTO^ ovTco<i v'ire')(^eT(a. 

Eaj* he hrj yiyvrjTai e'^' olai koI vofxodeTelv 
heivov Kol ovhapbSi^ 7rpoa<f)i\e<;, fir} vofiodeTelv 
he dhvvaTov, ^uyYei'wt' avTO'^^^eipa'i (f)6vov<; ?; 

D 8i €7ri^ov\ev(X€(o<i yevofxevovi, eKovcriov^ re Kal 
dhvK0V<i TrdvTO)^, o'l to, fiev jroWa ev KaKS)<i 
otKovaai'i Kai Tpe^ofievai<i yiyvovTai TTokeai, 
yevoiVTO 5' dv ttov tl koI ev fj firj iroTe rt? av 
TTpoahoKriaeie -^copa, Xeyeiv fxev hi] ^pecbv av 
TrdXiv TOP efiirpocrde (rpL/cpo) prjdevTa \6yov, dv 
dpa Ti<i uKovcov r]fia)v olo<i dTToayecyOai yevrjrat 
fiaXXov €K(ov hia to, TOtavTa (povcov twv irdvTif} 
dvocncoTaTcov. o yap hr) fivdo^i fj \6yo<;, fj 6 ti 

E ■y^prj irpoaayopeveLv avTOv, eK naXaicov lepecov 
e'iprjTai aa(f)(b<;, (w? 77 tmv ^vyyevoiv alfiaTcov 
TifKopb^ hiKTi eiriaKoiTO'i vofiot ')(^pfjrai tw vvv hrj 
\e')(devTi Kal eTa^ev dpa hpdaavTi ti toiovtov 
iradelv TavTa dvayKaL(0<i direp ehpaaev el iraTepa 
direKTeive iroTe Tt9, avTov tovto vtto TeKvtov 
ToXfirjaai, ^ia Trda-'X^ovTa ev Ticri ')(p6voi<;, Kal ^ 

262 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

of the State shall drag him in the direction of the 
tomb of the dead man to a spot from which he 
can see the tomb, and there scourge him with as 
many stripes as the prosecutor shall prescribe ; and 
if the murderer be still alive after the beating, he 
shall put him to death. And if a man kill a slave 
when he is doing no wrong, actuated by fear lest 
the slave should expose his own foul and evil deeds, 
or for any other such reason, just as he would have 
been liable to a charge of murder for slaWng a 
citizen, so likewise he shall be liable in the same 
way for the death of such a slave. 

Should cases occur of a kind for which it is a formid- 
able and most unwelcome task to legislate, and yet 
impossible not to legislate, — such as murders of kins- 
folk, either by a man's own hand or by plotting, which 
are wholly wilful and wicked, — crimes that occur for 
the most part in States with bad organisation and 
nurture, but may occur at times even in a country 
where one would not expect them, — we must again 
recite the story we uttered ^ a moment ago, if 
haply anyone, on hearing us, may become more 
strongly disposed in consequence voluntarily to 
abstain from murders of the most impious kind. 
The m^-th or story (or whatever one should call it) 
has been clearly stated, as derived from ancient 
priests, to the effect that Justice, the avenger of 
kindred blood, acting as overseer, employs the law 
just mentioned, and has ordained that the doer of 
such a deed must of necessity suffer the same as 
he has done : if ever a man has slain his father, 
he must endure to suffer the same violent fate at 
his own children's hands in days to come ; or if he 

> 870 D, E. 

263 



PLATO 

el fir]T€pa, yeveadai re avrbv 0r]\€La<; ix€ra<T')(ovTa 
^ucrety? ava'yKatov <yev6fjLev6v re vrro twv yevvr}- 
devTtov \i7reiv tov ^iov ev 'X^povoi^; varepoi,'^' tov 
yap KOivov fitavdevTO<i ai/xaTO<i ovk elvai KaOapaiv 
aWr]v, ovSe eKirkvTov iOeXeiv yiyveadac to /xi- 
873 avdev irplv <})6vov (povtp o/xolo) 6p,oiov i] hpd(Ta(Ta 
"^^XV T^o'V /cal 7rdcn]<i T77? ^vyyeveia*; rov Ovfxov 
d<f>iXa(TafievT] Koifilarj. ravra 8t] irapd Oecov fiev 
Tiva (f)o^ov/jbevov rd^; Tifji,(opLa<; etpyeaOai 'X^prj Td<i 
TOiavTa^' el Be riva^ ovTa)<s ddXia ^vfitpopd 
KaTaXd^oi, ware 7rarpo<i rj p.rirpo<i rj d8eX(fiO)V 
7] reKvoiV €K rrpovoia<i eKOvalax; ^p•v^r]v roXfirj- 
aai drroarepelv crd)/iiaTO<;, 6 rrapd rov Ovtjrov 
vo/xodirov v6fio<; wSe Trepl rwv rotovTcov vofxoderel, 
■B irpopprjaei'i pev xa? irepX rwv vopLi'p^cov etpyeaOai 
Kal eyyva^ ra? avrdf; elvai, Kaddirep epp'^Otj 
TOt? ep^irpoaOev, edv he ri<i 6(f)\r] (f)6vov roiovrou 
rovrwv Krelva^ rivd, ol p-ev ra>v Si/caarcov vTrrjpe- 
rai Kol dp')(pvre<i diroKre[vavTe<i ei? reraypevijv 
rpiohov e^(o tt}? 7roA,etu9 cK^aWovrcov yupvov, ai 
he dpx^u Trdcrac virep o\7}<; rrjq 7roXe&)9, \idov 
€Kacrro<i (pepcov, iwl rr)v Ke^aXrjv rov veKpov 
^dXXwv d(f)oaiovra} rrjv ircrXiv oXrjv, perd he 
rovro el<i rd tt)? '^wpa'i opia (^epovre<i eK^aX- 
C Xovroov Tw v6p,<p dra(f)0v. rov he hrj iravrMv 
oiKeiorarov kol Xeyop^vov (f)vXrarov 09 dv d-wo- 
Kreivrj, ri '^pi] Tracr^etJ/ ; Xeyco he 09 dv eavrov 
Krelvr), rrjv ri)^ elp,appevrj^ ^ia dirocrrepcov polpav, 
p,-qre TToXewi ra^darj^; hiKr], p^-qre irepLwhwfp 
264 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

has slain his mother, he must of necessity come to birth 
sharing in the female nature, and when thus bom be 
removed from life by the hands of his offspring in 
afterdays ; for of the pollution of connnon blood there 
is no other purification, nor does the stain of |X)llution 
admit of being washed off before the soul which com- 
niitted the act pays back murder for murder, like for 
like, and thus by propitiation lays to rest the wrath of 
all the kindred. Wherefore, in dread of such 
vengeances from Heaven a man should refrain him- 
self; if, however, any should be overtaken by a 
disaster so lamentable that they have the audacity de- 
liberately and of free will to reave soul from body 
for father, mother, brethren or children, in such cases 
the ordinance of the law of the mortal lawgiver 
stands thus : — The warnings of exclusion from cus- 
tomary places, and the sureties, are the same as 
those prescribed for former cases ; and if any man 
be convicted of such a murder, and of haWng slain 
any of the persons named, the officers of the judges 
and magistrates shall kill him and cast him out 
naked at an appointed cross-roads outside the city ; 
and all the magistrates, acting on behalf of the 
whole State, shall take each a stone and cast it 
on the head of the corpse, and thus make atonement 
for the whole State ; and after this they shall carry 
the corpse to the borders of the land and cast it 
out unburied, according to law. 

Now he that slays the person who is, as men say, 
nearest and dearest of all, — what penalty should he 
suffer ? I mean the man that slays himself, — violently 
robbing himself of his Fate-given share of life, when 
this is not legally ordered by the State, and when he is 
not compelled to it by the occurrence of some intoler- 

265 



PLATO 

a<f>VKTa) irpoatreaovar) TV')(r] dvayKaa$€i<i, fiij^e 
ala-)(yvr)<i Tivb<i diropov koI dfilov fxejaXax^v, 
dpyia he koX di/avBpia<; BetXta eavTa> 8lki]v ahiKov 
eTTiO^. TovT(p Bi] TCI fiev aXXa deb'i otSev a ')(^pr] 

D v6fjiip,a jLjveadai irepl Kadap/u,ov<i re /cal Ta(f)d<;, 
oiv €^r]yr]Td<i re dpu koX rou<i irepX ravra v6/xov^ 
eiravepo/jievov^ XP^ tou? iyyvTUTU yivei iroielv 
avToiai Kara rd TrpoaraTTOfieva' Td(j)ov<i 8" elvat 
Tol<; ovTco <p6ap€iai irpcoTOV fiev Kara p,6va<; firjBe 
fied^ eVo9 ^vvTd(f)ov, elra iv to?? twv BcoBeKa opi- 
oicn p,ep5)v rojv oaa dpyd Kal dvcovvfxa, OaTrreiv 
dK\eel<i avTou<s, pr^re ar^jXai^; prjje ovbpaai hr]- 
XovvTa<i T0U9 Ta<^ou9. 

^Edv S' dpa VTTO^vyiov rj ^coov dXXo tc (povevar} 

E Tivd, ttXt/v TOiv oaa iv dycovi rcov Srjpoala Tid€p,eva>v 
ddXevovrd ti toiovtov hpaay, ine^ircocrap fikv ol 
7rpo(Tt]Kovr€<; rov^ovov t5> Kreivavri, BiaStKa^ovrcov 
Be Tcbv dypovopav olcnv dv Kal OTrocrot? Trpoard^r} 6 
irpocrrjKaiV, to Be 6(f)\ov e^o) tcov opcov t?;9 '^cbpa'i 
dTTOK'relvavTa<i BcopCcrai.. edv 6e d-^u')(ov rv i/''f%'}9 
dvdpwjTOV aTepr]crr], nXrjv oaa Kepavvo'i rj ti napd 
Oeov TOIOVTOV /3eXo9 lov, tcov Be dXXcov oaa tivo^ 
TrpoaireaovTo^, rj avTo epireaov KTeivrj Tivd, Bi- 
KaaTTjv p,ev avTw Kadc^eTco tmv yeiTovcov tov 
874 eyyvTara 6 irpoayjKcov yevei, d(f)oatovpevo<; virep 
avTov re Kal VTrep tT;? avyyeveia<i oXr}<;, to Be 
b(pXov i^opL^eiv, KaOdirep epprjOrj to T(av ^cbcov 
yevo<i. edv Be TeOveQ)<i pev av ti^ <^avfi, dBrfXa 
Be 6 KTeiva<i rj kuI p,rj dpeXcb^; ^rjTovaiv dv€vpeT0<; 
266 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

able and inevitable misfortune, nor by falling into some 
disgrace that is beyond remedy or endurance, — but 
merely inflicting u|x>n himself this iniquitous penalty 
owing to sloth and unmanly cowardice. In this 
case, the rest of the matters — concerning the rules 
about rites of purification and of burial — ^come within 
the cognizance of the god, and regarding these the 
next of kin must seek information from the inter- 
preters and the laws dealing with these matters, 
and act in accordance with their instructions : but 
for those thus destroyed the tombs shall be, first, in 
an isolated position with not even one adjacent, and, 
secondly, they shall be buried in those borders of 
the twelve districts which are barren and nameless, 
without note, and with neither headstone nor name 
to indicate the tombs. 

If a mule or any other animal murder anyone, — 
except when they do it when taking part in a public 
competition,— -the relatives shall prosecute the slayer 
for murder, and so many of the land-stewards as are 
appointed by the relatives shall decide the case, and 
the convicted beast they shall kill and cast out bevond 
the borders of the country. If a lifeless thing rob a 
man of life — except it be lightning or some bolt from 
heaven, — if it be am'thing else than these which kills 
someone, either through his falling against it or its 
falling upon him, then the relative shall set the 
nearest neighbour to jiass judgment on it, thus 
making atonement on behalf of himself and all his 
kindred, and the thing convicted they shall cast 
beyond the Iwrders, as was stated in respect of 
animals. 

If anyone be found evidently dead, and if 
his slayer be unknown and undiscoverable after 

267 



PLATO 

yLyvrirai, Ta<i fiev irpopprjaei'i tcl^ avTa<; yiyveaOai, 
KaOairep rot? aKKoi<i, irpoayopeveiv he rov (f)6vov 

B Tw opdaavTL Koi iiriBiKacrdfievov iv dyopd KTjpv^ai 
Tw KjeLvavri top koI top koI wcJjXtjkoti <f)6vov 
fit) eTTi^aiveiv lepSiv fJbrjSe oXr]<i ■)(^(opa<; t^? tov 
iradovTO'i, ft)9, av <f)avf] Kal yvtocrOi}, dirodavov- 
fxevov Kal e^w ttj<; tov TradovTo^ ■)(^(i)pa<i iK^Xr)- 
drjaofievov aTat^ov. ovTOf Brj v6fio<i e?9 r)fuv €(TT(o 
Kvpia)<i irepl <f>6vov KeLfievo';. 

Kal Ta fiev Trepl to, ToiavTa p-^xpi' tovtcov ovT(o<i' 
Siv Be 6 KTeiva^ e^' 6l<i re 6p6oi<i av KaOapo<; eh], TciS^ 
€(TTO). vvKTCop (f)wpa et? oiKtav elcriovTa iirl kXottjj 
'^prjfiaTtov idv eXwv KTecvrj Tf?, KaOapof ecTTO)' 

C Kol idv XtoTroSvTtjv dfivv6p,€Vo<; diroKTeivr], /ea- 
dapo<i €(TT(0' Kal idv iXevOepav yvvaiKa jSid^rjTai 
Tt? rj TraiBa irepl Td d^poBiaia, vrj-noivl TeOvaTO) 
VTTO T€ TOV v^ptadevTCi ^la Kal viro TraTpo<i rj 
dBeX^wv rj v'lewv. idv re dvrjp iiriTVXJ} ya/xeT^ 
yvvaiKi ^la^ofievrf, /CTCtVa? tov ^la^ojxevov ecTTCo 
Ka6apo<i iv tw vofxw. koI idv ti<; TraTpl ^orjOcov 
OdvaTOV, fxrjBev dvocriov BpwvTi, ktclvt) Ttvd, rj 
/xrjTpl rj T€KVOi<i rj dBe\(})oi<i rj ^vyyevvrjTopc 

D TCKvayv, TravTco^ Kadapo<i €<ttq). 

Td fiev Toivvv irepl Tpocfiijv re ^a)(Tr)<; '>|^i'%% 
Kal iraiBeiav, wv avTj] Tv^ovcrrj fiev ^kotov, 
aTV^Tjada-r} Be TovvavTLOv, Koi irepl davdTwv tS)v 
^laicov a? Bel Tip.fopia<; yiyveaOai, vevoixodeTrjaOo)' 
Ta Be irepl ttjv tS)v acofidTcov Tpo(pr)v fiev xal 
968 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

careful search, then the warnings shall be the same 
as in the other cases, including the warning of death 
to the doer of the deed, and the prosecutor, when 
he^^has proved his claim, shall give public warning 
in the market-place to the slayer of So-and-so, 
convicted of murder, not to set foot in holy places 
nor anywhere in the country of the victim, since, 
if he appears and is known, he shall be put to death 
and be cast out from the country of the victim 
without burial. So let this stand as one section of 
our code of law dealing with murder. 

Thus far we have dealt with crimes of the kind des- 
cribed ; in what follows we shall describe the cases and 
the circumstances under which the slayer will rightly 
be pronounced guiltless. If a man catch and slay a 
thief who is entering his house by night to steal 
goods, he shall be guiltless ; and if a man in self- 
defence slay a footpad, he shall be guiltless. The 
man who forcibly violates a free woman or boy shall 
be slain with impunity by the person thus violently 
outraged, or by his father or brother or sons. And 
should a man discover his wedded wife being violated, 
if he kills the violator he shall be guiltless before 
the law. And if a man slay anyone when warding 
off death from his father (when he is doing no 
wrong), or from his mother or children or brethren, 
or from the mother of his own children, he shall be 
wholly guiltless. 

Thus let it be laid down by law resp>ecting the 
nurture and training of living souls, — which when 
gained make life livable, but when missed, unlivable, 
— and respecting the punishments which ought to 
be imjxjsed in cases of violent death. The regula- 
tions regarding the nurture and training of the body 

269 



E 



PLATO 

TraiBeiav eip^jTai, to S' exofJ^^vov tovtcov, at ^iaioL 
7rpa^€i<; vtt ciWrjXcov aKovaioi re /cat €kov(tioi 
yiyvofievai hiopiaTeov ei<i Siiva/xiv ai re ei'crt koli 
oaai, KOI o)v civ Tvyx('wovaac ri/xa)p/]aeo)v to 
Trpoacpopoi/ e^oiev av eKaa-raf ravra /xer' eKelva, 
609 eoiKev, 6p0a)<i av vof^odeTolro. 

Tpavp-ara 8t] koI Trrjpcoaet*; ck rpav/xuTcov rd ye 
Sevrepa p,era 6avdrov<i koL 6 (^avXoraro^ av rd^eie 
T(ov iirl vo/jLcov Tperrofievcov <Td^iv>.^ ra 8r) rpav- 
fiara, Kaddirep ol <f>6voL dt-ppijvro, hiatpereov, rd fxev 
aKOvaia, rd Se dufiw, ja he (f)6l3cp, rd he oirocxa Ik 
7rpovoLa<i eKovcria ^v/j,^aiv€c yiyvofieva. irpoppr]- 
reov hrj Tt Trepl irdvrcov tmv tolovtcov rotovhe, ft)9 
dpa v6/jL0V<; dv0pd)7rot^ dvayKalov TiOeadat ical 
^7]V Kara v6/j,ou<i, rj fiTjhev hia<^epeiv TOiv ttuvti] 
875 dypKordroyv BrjpioiV. rj he alria tovtcov -tjhe, oti 
(f>vai<; dvOpciiTTcov ovhevo^ tKavrj cf)V€Tai ooare 
yvoivai re rd av/xcpepovTa dvd pciiiroL^ ei? 7ro\i- 
relav Kai yvovaa to ^ekTiaTov del hvvaadal re 
Kal eOeXeiv irpaTTeiv. yvcovai fiev yap rrrpcoTov 
^aXeTTOi' OTi iroXiTiKfj xal dXrjdel rexyp ov to 
thiov dWd TO Koivov dvdyKi] jxeXeiv — to pev ydp 
Koivov ^vvhel, TO he ihiov hiacnra ra? Tr6\ei<; — Kal 
OTC ^Vficfiepei tco koivm re Kal Ihicp, toIv dp^olv, 
rjv TO KOIVOV TidPjTai KaXcbf; pdWov rj to ihiov 
B hevTepov he, edv dpa Kai to yvcavai Ti<? otl Tavra 
ovtcjo 7re(f)VKe \d^rj iKavcb'i ev Te^vr), pberd he 
TOVTO dvv7revdvv6<i re Kal avTOKpaTcop ap^jj 
TToXety?, ovK av ttots hvvano epp,elvai TOVTcp tm 
hoypaTi Kal hia^icovai to pev koivov rjyovpbevov 

^ v6fjLwv . . . (ra^ivy : vofiwv MSS. : v6/xoi> Zur., vulg. 
(Winckelmann adds Ta^iv before Tpeirofjiivaiv). 
270 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

have been stated ^ : but what comes next, namely, 
violent actions, both voluntary and involuntary, done 
by one against another, — these we must define as 
clearly as we can, stating their cliaracter and number 
and what jjunishment each duly deserves : sucli 
enactments, as it seems, will rightly follow on the 
foregoing. 

Next in order after cases of death even the 
least competent of those who essay legislation would 
place cases of wounds and maiming. Wounds, just 
like murders, must be classed under several heads, — 
the involuntary, those done in passion, those done in 
fear, and all those that are voluntary and deliberate. 
Concerning all such cases we must make a prefatory 
pronouncement to this effect : — It is really necessary 
for men to make themselves laws and to live accord- 
ing to laws, or else to differ not at all from the most 
savage of beasts. The reason thereof is this, — that 
no man's nature is naturally able both to perceive 
what is of benefit to the civic life of men and, 
perceiving it, to be alike able and willing to practise 
what is best. For, in the first place, it is difficult to 
perceive that a true civic art necessarily cares for the 
public, not the private, interest, — for the public 
interest bind States together, whereas the private 
interest rends them asunder,— and to perceive also 
that it benefits both public and private interests alike 
when the public interest, rather than the private, is 
well enacted. And, secondly, even if a man fully 
grasps the truth of this as a principle of art, should 
he afterwards get control of the State and become 
an irresponsible autocrat, he would never prove able 
to abide by this view and to continue always fostering 

1 813 D ft 

271 



PLATO 

Tpe<f}<ov €v rfj TToXei, to Be tBiov eTrofi^vov rw 
KOtvS), aW cttI TrXeove^iav kol ISiOTrpajLav i) 
dvr]Tr) (f)v(rc<; avrov opfirjaec aei, (f)6vyovaa /nev 

C 0X070)9 rrjv XvTTrjv, hicoKOvaa he ri]v ijSovtjv, rov 
oe oLKaiorepov re koX afieLvovo<i eTTLTrpoaOev a/x(f)(o 
TOVTQ) 7rpo<TTr)(T€rai, Kal (tk6to<; arrepya^o/xevr} ev 
avrff vdvTcov ku/cmv efxirXriaei trpo'i to reXo? 
avTTjv Te Kai Tr)v iroXiv oXijv eVet TavTU et Trore 
T<9 av6 pdaiTdiv <f)vcTet iKavo^, Oeia p^oipa yevvrjOet'i, 
irapaXa^elv 8vvaTo<i etr}, vo/xcov ovSev av heoLTO 
TOiv dp^ovTcov eavTOu' eir ktt rjfxri^ yap ovTe voficj 
ovTe Ta^t? ovSe/jLLa KpetTTatv, ovBe d€/xi<; ecrrt vovv 
ovB€vo<; VTrrjKoov ovhe BovXov aXXa irdvTwv 

D ap-)(ovTa elvai, edvirep dXrjdivo^; eXev9ep6<i re 
ovTw^ 7} KUTO, <})vcnv. vvv he — ov yap eaTLV 
ovBa/jLov ouSa/iW?, dXX' rj kuto, ^pa')(y' 816 Brj to 
BevTepov alpeTeov, tu^lv Te Kal v6p,ov, a Brj to 
fiev ft)9 €7rl TO TToXv 6 pa Kal ^XeTrei, to S" eirl irav 
dBvvaTel. TavTU Br} tmvBc eXveKa ei'/jr/Tat* vvv 
7;/i€i9 Ta^ofiev tl )(pT) tov TpcoaavTa rj ti ^Xdyjrav- 
Ta €T€pov aXXov Tradelv rj diroTiveiv. irpo^eipov 
Brj TravTL trepl travTO'i VTToXa^elv opdw^, 'Vov tl 

E TpcoaavTa rj Tiva tj irco^ rj TTore Xeyei^ ; fivpia 
yap eKacTTd ecrxi tovtcov Kal TrdpiroXv Bia(f)epovTa 
dXXTjXcov. TavT ovv Brj BLKa(TT)]pioi<i iinTpeTreiv 
Kpiveiv TrdvTU rj puTqBev dBvvaTov. ev pev yap 
KaTCL TrdvTWV dvayKolov eTnTpeireiv Kplvai, to 

1 Cp. Protag. 352 Bf. ; Ar. Eth. N. 11453 24 ff. 
272 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

the public interest in the State as the object of first 
importance, to which the private interest is but 
secondary ; rather, his mortal nature will always 
urge him on to grasping and self-interested action, 
irrationally avoiding pain and pursuing pleasure ; 
both these objects it will prefer above justice and 
goodness, and by causing darkness within itself it 
will fill to the uttermost both itself and the whole 
State \nth all manner of evil^ Yet if ever there 
sjjould arise a man competent by nature and by a 
birthright of divine grace to assume such an office, 
he would have no need of rulers over him ; for no 
law or ordinance is mightier than Knowledge,^ nor is it 
right for Reason to be subject or in thrall to anything, 
but to be lord of all things, if it is really true to its 
name and free in its inner nature. But at present 
such a nature exists nowhere at all, except in small 
degree ; wherefore we must choose what is second 
best, namely, ordinance and law, which see and 
discern the general principle, but are unable to see 
every instance in detail. ^ 

This declaration has been made for the sake 
of what follows : now we shall ordain what the 
man who has wounded, or in some way injured, 
another must suffer or pay. And here, of course, 
it is open to anyone, in regard to any case, to 
interrupt us, and quite properly, with the question 
— '• What wounds has the man you speak of inflicted, 
and on whom, and how and when ? For cases of 
wounding are countless in their variety, and they 
differ vastly from one another." So it is imjx)ssible 
for us either to commit all these cases to the law 
courts for trial, or to commit none of them. Yet in 
regard to them all there is one point that we must 
of necessity commit for decision, — the question of 

273 

VOL. II. T 



PLATO 

TTorepov iyevero rj ovk iyevero eKuarov rovroiv 
876 TO Se fiTjSev iirirpeiTeiv av irepl rov rl Bel ^tjfii- 
ovaOai Kal irdcr^eLv ri ^pecbv tov aht,Ki']aavra tov- 
Twv ri, dXV avTov nepl TrdvToyv vofioOcTTjcrac 
apLiKpSiv KoX fieyaXodv, a^'^Bov dhvvarov. 

KA. Tt9 ovv 6 fi€Ta rovrov \0709 ; 

A0. ' OBe, OTi TO. jxev eTriTpeTrreov BiKaarijpioi^, 
ra Be ovk eirLTpefTTeov, a)OC avrw vofioOenjreov. 

KA. Hoia Brj vop.odeTi]Teov re kuI Trola dnoBo- 
reov Kpiveiv rot? BiKa(rTT]pLoi<; ; 

A0. TdBe Br) [xera ravra opdoTUT av elireiv 
B €ci], ft)9 iv TToXei iv y BiKaarrjpia (^avKa koX 
d(f)a>va KketTrovra Td<; avrcov B6^a<i upv^Brjv rd<i 
Kpiaei^ BiaBiKd^ei, koI tovtov Beivorepov, orav 
fiTjBe aiywvra dWd Oopv^ov /xeard, Kaddirep 
deuTpa, eiratvovvTd re ^ofj Kal y^eyovra twv 
prjropfop eKdrepov iv fiepei Kplvrj, -^^aXeTrov rore 
irddoi; 6\r] rfj rroXei yiyveaOat (ptXel. rot? ovv 
Brj TOiovroc<; BiKaarrjpioi<i vofioderetv vtto tivo<; 
dvdyKri<i Xrj^Oevra ovk evTVX^f M^^v, o/itw? Be i^ 
dvdyKt]<i eikt)[i,p,evov on irepl cr/xiKporaTa iTrirpe- 
C TTTeov avTol^ rdzreiv rd<i ^7}fj,La<i, rd Be irXelara 
avTov vo/xoOereiv Biappr'jBtjv, dv rt? dpa roiainr) 
TToXirela vopoderfj irore. ev rj Be dv irdXet Bi- 
Kacrrripta 6t<? Bvvap.iv 6pdoi<i KaOearcara fj Tpacpev- 
Twv re ev r(ov p.eW6vTcov Bixd^eiv BoKi/Maadevrcov 
T€ Bid rtdarjfi uKpi^ela^, evravda opdov Kal e'X^ov 
ev Kal Ka\(o<i rd iroWd eirirpeTTeiv Kpiveiv Tol<; 
roiovTOi<; BiKaaTal<; tu>v 6(f)\6vTa)v irepi, rt "X^prj 
274 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

fact, M'hether or not each of the alleged acts took 
place ; and it is practically impossible for the lawgiver 
to refuse in all cases to commit to the courts the 
question regarding the proper penalty or fine to be 
Inflicted on the culprit, and himself to pass laws 
respecting all such cases, great and small. 

CLIN. What, then, is to be our next statement ? 

ATH. This, — that some matters are to be com- 
mitted to the courts, while others are not to be so 
committed, but enacted by the lawgiver. 

CLIN. What are the matters to be enacted, and 
what are to be handed over to the law courts for 
decision ? 

ATH. It will be best to make the following state- 
ment next, — that in a State where the courts are 
poor and dumb and decide their cases privily, secret- 
ing their own opinions, or (and this is a still more 
dangerous practice) when they make their decisions 
not silently but filled with tumult, like theatres, 
roaring out praise or blame of each s|)eaker in turn, 
— then the whole State, as a rule, is faced with a 
difficult situation. To be compelled by some neces- 
sity to legislate for law courts of this kind is no happy 
task ; but when one is so comj)elled, one must com- 
mit to them the right of fixing penalties only in a 
very few cases, dealing oneself with most cases by 
express legislation — if indeed one ever legislates at all 
for a State of that description. On the other hand, 
in a State where the courts have the best jiossible 
constitution, and the prosjiective judges are well- 
trained and tested most strictly, there it is right, 
and most fitting and proper, that we should commit 
to such judges for decision most of the questions 
regarding what penalties convicted criminals should 

275 
t2 



PLATO 

Trdcr^eiv avTOv<; t) airoTiveLV. rjfilv Br) ra vvv 
D dve/jiearjTOV to fir) vofioderelv avTOi<i ra fxijiaTa 
KoL irXelara, a Kal (f)av\or€pco<i dv TreiratSeu- 
fievoL SiKaaral hvvaivTO KariSelv Kal irpoaaTTTeiv 
e/cacTTft) tS>v dfiapTtj/xdrciiv rrjv d^iav tov irddovi 
T€ Kal 7rpd^€(i)<i' CTreiSr) 8k oU rj/j,€i<i vofioderovfiev, 
ovx riKiaja ififieXeif; avTOv<; olo/iied^ dv rSiv 
roiovTwv 'yi'yvecrOaL Kpnd'i, iiriT percTeov hr) rd 
irXelara. ov /jLT)v dXV oTrep 7roWdKi<; ei-nofiev 
re Kal iBpdaafiev ev rfj tmv e/jLirpocrdev vop,o- 
E deTTjcrei voficov, to TTepi<ypa(^i)v re Kal tov<{ Tvirovi 
TUiv TifioypLOiv elirovTa^ Sovvac ra 7rapa8ei'yp,aTa 
Tolai hiKaGTal<i tov ixrjiroTe ^aiveiv e^tw Trjq 
SiKt)<i, T0T6 T€ ^v opdoTaTa e^Oi/ Kal Bt) koI vvv 
toi/t' avTO 7rocr)Teov, i7rave\66vTa<; 1)81) ndXiv 
irrl T0v<i v6p.ov<;. 

'H hr) ypaipr) irepl Tpavp.aT0<i wSe r)[uv Kelcrdo). 
idv Tt9 SiavorjdeU tt) ^ovXrjaet KTeivai Tiva 
(piXiov, TrXr)v oiv 6 v6fio<; i(j)i,T)(n, Tpcocrr) fxiv, 
diroKTelvai Se dSwaTijar], tov hiavorjOevTa re 
877 Kal TpcoaavTa ovtw; ovk d^iov eXeeiv, ovBe 
al8ovp,evov dWo)<i rj Kaddirep diroKTeivavTa 
virex^i'V TTjV 8t,Ki]v (f)6vov dvayKa^etw Tr)V 8e ov 
TravTairaai KaKrjv tv^V^ avTov cre^ofievov Kal 
TOV 8aip,ova, 09 avTov Kal tov TpcodevTa iXer)aa<i 
aTToTpoTTO? avTol<i iyevCTO fir) tw fiev dviaTov 
eXKo<i yeveadai, Ta> Be eirdpaTov tv^W /^^^ 
^vp(f)opdv, TOVTM 8i] X^'P^^ '^V BaifJLOVi 8i86vTa 
Kal fir) ivavTCOvpevov tov pev ddvaTOv dipeXeiv 
TOV TpuxxavTO'i, fi€Td(TTa<riv Be et<; Tiva ^ yeiTova 
1 fts Tiva H. Richards : eU tV MSS., edd. 

1 Cp. 770 B, 846 B, 0. 
276 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

suffer or pny. On the present occasion we may well 
be pardoned if we refrain from ordaining for them 
by law the points that are most imjwrtant and most 
numerous, which even ill-educated judges could 
discern, and could assign to each offence the penalty 
merited by the wrong as suffered and committed ; 
and seeing that the people for whom we are legis- 
lating are themselves likely, as we supjwse, to 
become not the least capable of judges of such 
matters, we must commit most of them to them. 
None the less, that course which we frequently 
adopted^ when lapng down our former laws, both 
by word and action — when we stated an outline and 
typical cases of punishments, and gave the judges 
examples, so as to prevent their ever overstepping the 
bounds of justice, — that course was a perfectly right 
one then, and now also we ought to adopt it, when 
we return again at last to the task of legislation. 

So let our written law concerning wounding run 
thus : — If any man purposing of intent to kill a friendly 
j)erson — save such as the law sends him against, — 
wounds him, but is unable to kill him, he that has 
thus puqx)sed and dealt the wound does not deserve 
to be pitied ; rather he is to be regarded exactly as 
a slayer, and must be compelled to submit to trial 
for murder ; yet out of respect for his escape from 
sheer ill-fortune and for his Genius * — who in pity 
alike for him and for the wounded man saved the 
wound of the one from proving fatal and the fortune 
and crime of the otherfrom proving accursed, — ingrati- 
tude to this Genius, and in compliance therewith, the 
wounder shall be relieved of the death-penalty, but 

* For "daemon" in this sense of "tutelary Genius" or 
"Guardian-angel, " cp. 732 C, Jtep. 619 D, E. 

277 



PLATO 

B TToKiv avTW 'yi'yveaOac Bia /3lov, Kapirovfievov 
airaaav rrjv avrov KTrjaiv. /3Xa/3o9 Be, el xare- 
^Xayjre rbv rpoidevra, CKTCvecv ra> fi\a(f)0€i>Tt' 
Ti/.iav Be TO BtKaa-rrjpLov oirep av ttjv Blk^iv Kpivrj' 
Kptveiv Be oXirep av lov (jiovov iBiKaaav, el eVe- 
XevTYjaev ex t^<? Tr\r)yrj<{ rov rpavfiaro^. 

Tovea^ B av 7rac<; rj Bov\o<; BeairoTTjv oiaauTcos ck 
TTpovoLai; Tpoiarj, Odvarov elvai Ti]v ^ij/xlav. Kal eav 
aBe\(po<i aB€\<f)6v rj dBeX(f)T}V rj d8€\(f)T} dBe\(f)ov rj 

C dBe\(f}i]v fo)crauTW9 rpwarj, Kal ofpXr] rpavparo<i 
eK 7rpovoLa<i, ddvarov eivai rrjv ^rjpiav. jwrj Be 
dvBpa eavTrj<i i^ eiri^ovXr)^ tov diroKTetvai 
Tpcoaaaa, rj dvrjp rrjv eavrov yvvaiKa, (jievyeTw 
deLcpvyLuv Trjv Be KTrjaiv, edv /xev viei<; ?; dvya- 
Tepe<i avrol<i Men TralBe^ en, rov<; eimpoirovi 
eimpoTTeveiv Kai &)<? opcpavcov rcov TraiBcov eVt- 
peXeicrdai, eav Be dvBpe<i rjBij,^ e7rdvayKe<i eaTco 
Tpefpeadai rov (f}evyovra vtto rcov eKyoi'wv, rrjv 
Be ovatav [eai/] avTov<; KeKTrjcrdai, aTrat? Be 
oari^ av Toiavrai<; ^vp(f)opai<; Trepnrear], tou? 

D avyyevec<i (7vveXd6vTa<i P'^xpt dveyjricbv iralBoiv 
TOV 7re(pevyoTO<; dpcpoTepcoOev, irpo^ re dvBpoiV 
Kal 7rpo<i yvvaiKwv, KXi]pov6pov eh tov oXkov 
TOVTov TTJ TToXec TeTTupaKovTaKaiTrevTaKta'X^iXioa- 
Tov KaTaaTTJaai ^ovXevopevovs peTo, vop,o<f)v- 
XdKMv Kal lepeoiv, Biavor]6evTa<; Tpoiro) Kal Xoyw 
TOirpBe, CO? ovBeU oIko'^ t5>v TCTTopuKOVTa Kal 
7revTaKi(T)(^tXlcov tov evoiKOvvT6<i ecrTiv ovBe ^vp- 
travTO'i TOV yevov<i ouTQ)<i 609 Trj<; TroXew? Br)p6ai6<i 

E T€ Kal cBio^. Bel Brj TrjV ye noXiv tou? avTi)<i 
ocKOv^ 0)9 oaicoTaTov^ re Kal evTV)(e(TTdTov<i 
KCKTrjcrOai KaTa Bvva/xiv. otuv ovv Tt9 apa 
278 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

shall be deported for life to a neighbouring State, 
enjo\ing the fruits of all his own possessions. If he 
has done damage to the wounded man, he shall pay 
for it in full to him that is damaged ; and the damage 
-hall be assessed by the court which decides the case, 
which court shall consist of those who would have 
tried the culprit for murder if the man had died of 
the wound he received. 

If in like manner, dehberately, a son wound his 
parents or a slave his master, death shall be the 
jjenalty ; and if a brother wound in like manner a 
brother or sister, or a sister wound a brother or 
sister, and be convicted of wounding deliberately, 
death shall be the penalty. A wife that has 
wounded her husband, or a husband his wife, 
with intent to kill, shall be exiled for life : if 
they have sons or daughters who are still children, 
the guardians shall administer their property, and 
shall take charge of the children as orphans ; but if 
they be already grown men, the offspring shall be 
compelled to support their exiled parent, and they 
shall jjossess his property. If any person overtaken 
by such a disaster be childless, the kinsfolk on both 
sides, both male and female, as far as cousins* 
children, shall meet together and apf>oint an heir for 
the house in question — the 5040th in the State. — 
taking counsel >vith the Law-wardens and priests ; 
and they shall bear in mind this principle, that no 
house of the 50-tO belongs as much, either by private 
or public right, to the occupier or to the whole of his 
kindred as it belongs to the State ; and the State 
must needs keep its own houses as holy and happy as 
possible. Therefore, whenever any house is at once 

* iifSpts *f8»i, Jernstedt, England : irSpts, /lii MSS. 

279 



PLATO 

Bv(TTV')(^7](Tr) ^ Kul aae^rjdfj tmv oiko)V, ware top 

KeKTij/jLcvov €v uvTO) TTatSa? f^ev firj KaraXiTreiv, 

-qWeov he rj xal yeyafn^Kora uTracSa reXevrrjaaL 

<f)6vov 6(f)\6vTa eKOvaiov rj Tivo<i dfiapri]fiaTO<i 

dWov roiv irepl deov<; rj TroXtra?, lou av ddvaTO<i 

iv tS> vo/jLfp ^?]fi[a Ziappt]8t]v fj Keifievrj, r) /cat ev 

aei(j)V>yia ri^ (pevjrj rwv dvSpMV djrai^, rovrov 

nrpMTOv fiev Kadrjpaadai koX aTToSiOTTOfjiTrtjaaadat 

Tov oiKOv -^pecDV earw Kara vop-ov, eirena avveX.- 

878 dovra^, KaOdirep eiiropLev vvv Sij, rov<i oiKeiov<i ap.a 

vo/jLO(f)v\a^i a-Kiyfraadai <y€vo<i o ti Trep av y tcop 

iv rfj TToXet evSoKijuLcoraTOv tt^o? dperr^v Ka\ afia 

euTu^e?, iv oS dv 7rai8e<; 76701/0x69 coai TrXetou?* 

odev €va TO) tov rekevTijcravro'i irarpl koI TOL<i 

dv(o TOV <y€Vov<i vlov w<i iKelvmv ela-iroiovvTa'i, 

<f)i]/jir}<; €V€Ka iirovopbd^ovTa'i, y€Vv/]ropd xe avTol<i 

Kal iariov-^ov Kal depaTrevrijv oalcov re Kal lepwv 

iir* dfielvocn ru^at? jiyvecrdai tov Trar/jo? tovtm 

B TW rpoTTfp iirev^ap,ivov^ avTov KXrjpovopov Kara- 

(TTrjcraL kuto, v6/j,ov, tov 8' i^ap^aprovra dvcovv- 

fiov idv Kal diraiha Kal djxoipov KetaOai, oirorav 

avTOV KaTaXd^cocriv al Toiavrai ^vp^opai. 

"E<xTt 8e ov irdvTcov, d)^ eoiKC, rcov ovtcov opo<} 
dpw TTpoa-pbi'yvvf;, dX)C oh icTTi pbedopiov, tovto iv 
p,6(T(iy dpo)v irpoTelvov ^ iKarepco irpoa^aWov 
f^L'yvoiT dv dp,(^olv fiera^v. Kal Br) Kai twv 
aKOvaicov re Kal eKOVcriwv to Ovfiat yijvop,evov 

^ Si/o-TuxTitr?? H. Richards : Svffrvxri^v MSS. 
" vpoTuvoy : TrpSrepov MSS., edd, 
280 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

unhappy and unholy, in that the owner thereof 
leaves no children, but — being either unmarried or, 
though married, childless — dies, after having been 
convicted of wilful murder or of some other offence 
against gods or citizens for which death is the 
penalty expressly laid down in the law ; or else if 
any man who is without male issue be exiled for life ; 
— then they shall be in duty bound, in the first 
place, to make purifications and expiations for this 
house, and, in the next place, the relatives, as we 
said just now, must meet together and in consulta- 
tion with tlie Law-wardens consider what family 
there is in the State which is pre-eminent for good- 
ness, and prosperous withal, and containing several 
children. Then from the family selected they shall 
adopt one child on behalf of the dead man's father 
and ancestors to be a son of theirs, and they shall 
name him after one of them, for the sake of the 
omen — with a prayer that in this wise he may prove 
to them a begetter of offspring, a hearth-master and 
a minister in holy and sacred things, and be blest 
with happier fortune than his (official) father ; him 
they shall thus establish legally as lot-holder, and 
the offender they shall suffer to lie nameless and 
childless and portionless, whenever such calamities 
overtake him. 

It is not the fact, as it would seem, that in the case 
of all objects lx)undary is contig^ious with boundary ; 
but where there is a neutral strip, which lies 
between the two boundaries, impinging on each, it 
will be midway between both. And that is pre- 
cisely the description we gave ^ of the passionate 
action as one which lies midway between in- 

» 867 A. 

281 



PLATO 

€(f)afi€v elvai roiovrov. Tpau/.idTO)V ovv earo) tmv^ 
opyf] yevofievcov iav 6<p\r} ti<;, irpoarov fiev riveiv 

C Tov ^\d^ov<i T-qv hnrkaaiav, av to rpavfia 
Idcrifiop diro^f), rwv he dvidruiv rrjv rerpcv- 
irXaaiav. iav he Idcniiov /xer, aia^vmjv Be p-eydXrjv 
rivd Trpoa^dWj] ro) Tpoidivrt, koX eTTOveihiaTOV, 
Trjv TpnrXaaiav ^ eKriveiv. oaa he tl<; Tpwcra^ 
TLva p,7] p,6vov ^XdiTTT] TOV iradovTa, dWa /cat 
Ti]V iroXiv, 7roii]a-a<i dhvvajov rfj Trarpihi tt/jo? 
TroXe/j,L'ov<; ^orjdelv, tovtov he fierd roiv dWayv 
^r]p,i(ov eKTLveiv Kal rfj vroXet ttjv ^\d^r}v 7rp6<; 
yap Tai<f avrov arpareiai^ Kal inrep tov dhvva- 
TOvvTO<i aTpaTeveaOo) Kal rd^ virep eKevvov iroXe- 

D p.i.Kd<; raTTeadu) Td^ei<;, rj /xrj hpoiv ravTa V7r6ht,KO<i 
T(p eOeXovTL Tj}? d(TTpaTeia<; yiyveaBw Kara v6p,ov. 
Ti]v he hrj T^9 ^Xd^rjf; d^lav, etre hnrXfjv etre 
rpnrXrjv etre Kal tct pairXaalav, oi Kara-^r^^itrd- 
fjLevoL hiKacnal TarrovTfov. iav he 6p6yovo<; 
6p,6yovov TOV avTov Tpoirov tovtw Tpcoar], tou? 
yevv^Ta<i Kal Tovf avyyevel<;, P'^XP'' dveyjntbv 
iraihwv TTpo<i yuvaiKMV kuI dvhpcov, yvvacKd'i re 

E Kal dvhpa<i avveXd6vTa<;, KpivavTa^ rrrapahihovac 
Ttpdv Tot9 y€VV7]aaai Kara ({)vaiv' idv he dp<^La- 
^>]Ti]cnpo<; 7] rip,T]cn<; yiyvi]Tai, TOu<i 7r/J09 avhpcov 
eivat Tip.o)VTa<i KVpiov<q' idv he dhwaTcoaiv avTOi, 
Tol'i vop,o(^vXa^i TeXevTbiVTa<i iiriTpeTreiv. iK- 
y6voi<i he 7rp6<; yovea<i elvai twv toiovtcov rpav- 
p,dTcov hiKaa-rdf p,ev tov^ virep e^'JKOvra errj 

^ (ffTos tSiv MSS. : ivtffTunaiv Zur. vulg. 

* Tpnr\a<jiav Sydenham, Orelli : TtrpairKaaiav MSS. 

282 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

voluntary and voluntary actions. So let the law 
stand thus respecting woundings committed in 
anger : — If a j>erson be convicted, in the first place 
he shall pay double the damage, in case the wound 
prove to be curable, but four times the damage in 
case of incurable wounds. And if the wound be 
curable, but cause great shame and disgrace to the 
wounded j>arty, the culprit shall pay three times the 
damage. And if ever a person, in wounding anvone, 
do damage to tlie State as well as to the victim, by 
rendering him incapable of helping his country 
against its enemies, such a person, in addition to the 
rest of the damages, shall pay also for the damage 
done to the State : in addition to his own military 
service, he shall do service also as a substitute for the 
incapacitated man, and carry out his military duties 
in his j)lace, or, if he fails to do so, he shall by law be 
liable to prosecution for shirking military service, at 
the hands of anyone who pleases. The due pro|>or- 
tion of the damage payable — whether two, three, or 
four times the actual amount — shall be fixed by the 
judges who liave voted on the case. If a kinsman 
wound a kinsman in the same wav as the person just 
mentioned, the members of his tribe and kin, both 
males and females, as far as cousins' children on both 
the male and female side, shall meet together and, 
after coming to a decision, shall hand over the case 
to the natural parents for assessment of the damage ; 
and if the assessment be disputed, the kindred on 
the male side shall be authorized to make a binding 
assessment ; and if they prove unable to do so, they 
shall refer the matter finally to the Law-wardens. 
When woundings of this kind are inflicted by children 
on parents, the judges shall be, of necessity, men 

283 



PLATO 

jeyovoTa^ iTrdvayKa, 0T9 av 7ratSe<? fxr] iroirjrol 

d\r)0ivol Be coaiv av Be Tf9 0(l>\r}, rifidv el 

reOvdvai ■)(^pr) tov toiovtov etre ti fiel^ov erepov 

rovTOV Trda^etv tj koI fXTj iroWo) afxiKpoTepov' 

Kai tS)V ^vyyevwv tov Bpdcravro<; firjBeva BiKd^eiv, 

879 /JirjB^ edv yeyovcbii y rov 'X^povoi^ oaov 6 v6/xo^ 

e}'pi]K€. BovXo^ S' edv xf? eXevOepov opyfj rpooar], 

TrapaBoTQ) tov BovXov 6 KeKTrjfievo'; tw TpcoOevTi 

^prjaOai o ti av ideXj)' edv Be firj TrapaBtBuf, 

avTO<i TTjv ^Xd^rjv e^idaOco. edv Be ex avvd^KT]^ 

aiTidTai TOV BovXov koI tov TpwdevTa /j-r}'y^avr]v 

elvai Ti<i to yeyov6<;, dfKJjccr^ijTTjcrdTQ)' edv Be firj 

eXrj, TpcnXaaiav eKTiadTW Trfv ^Xd^rjv, eXoov Be 

dvBpairoBia fjbov vttoBlkov e^^eray tov Te^^vd^ovTa 

B fjiCTa TOV BovXov. 09 B* dv aKwv dXXo<; dXXov 

TpdxTT}, TO jSXd^o^ dirXovv aTTOTiveTco' TVXV^ y^P 

vofj,oOeTrj<: ovBel<; iKuvb^ dp')(eiv' BiKacTToX Be 

ovTcov o'Cirep toi<; eKy6voi<i 7rp6<i tov<; yevv'^Topa<; 

epprj6r](Tav, Kol ti/jlcovtoov ttjv d^iav Trj<i /3Xay9r/9. 

Btata jxev Btj irdvO' ri/xiv to- irpoeipr^fieva irdOrj, 

^iaiov Be Ka\ to T7}9 alKLa<i irdv yevo<;. &)Be ovv 

XP^ nepl t5)V toiovtwv ttuvtu dvBpa kuI iraiBa 

Kul yvvatKa del Biavoeicrdai, to irpecy^vTepov 0)9 

ov (TfMiKpa) tov vecoTepov ecrTt Trpecr^evop.evov ev re 

deoloTL Koi ev dvffpcoiroi^ T0t9 fieXXovcri crM^ea-dai 

Kal evBaifiovetv. avKiav ovv irepl irpea^vTepov 

ev TToXei yevo/ievTjv vno veeoTepov IBelv ala^pov 
284 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

over sixty years of age who have genuine^ and not 
merely adopted, children of their own ; and if a 
person be convicted, they shall assess the penalty — ■ 
whether such a person ought to be put to death, or 
ought to suffer some other punishment still more 
severe, or }X)ssibly a little less severe : but none of 
the relatives of the culprit shall act as a judge, not 
even if he be of the full age stated in the law. If a 
slave wound a free man in rage, his owner shall hand 
over the slave to the wounded man to be dealt with 
just as he pleases ; and if he do not hand over the 
slave, he shall himself make good the damage to the 
full. And if any man alleges that the deed was a 
trick concocted by the slave in collusion with the 
wounded party, he shall dispute the case : if he fail 
to win it, he shall j)ay three times the damage, but 
if he win, he shall hold liable for kidnapping the 
man who contrived the trick in collusion with the 
slave. Whoever wounds another involuntarily shall 
pay a single equivalent for the damage (since no law- 
giver is able to control fortune), and the judges shall 
be those designated to act in cases of the wounding 
of |)arents by children ; and they shall assess the due 
pro|K)rtion of damage payable. 

All the cases we have now dealt with are of suffer- 
ing due to violence, and the whole class of cases of 
" outrage " involve violence. Regai'ding such cases, 
the view that should be held by everyone, — man, 
woman and child, — is this, that the older is greatly 
more revered than the younger, both among the gods 
and among those men who propose to keep safe and 
happy. An outrage perpetrated by a younger 
against an older person is a shameful thing to see 
happening in a State, and a thing hateful to God : 

285 



PLATO 

Kal Oeo/j,iae<;' eoiKC Be veq) ttuvtI vtto yepovro'i 
7r\y]y€vri paOvfiw^i opyrjv vrrocjiepeiv, avro) ride- 
fievo) rifir)v ravTTfv ei? <yP]pa<;. coBe ovv ecrroy 
7ra<f j]/xlv aiBeiaOo) top eavrou irpea^vrepov epyo) 
re Kal eirw top Be 7rpoe)(^ovTa e^Koaiv rjXi/cia^; 
€T€(Tiv, appeva rj dPjXvv, vo/xt^cov o)? irarepa i] 
/jLyjrepa BievXa^eiado}, koI 7rd(T7)<{ Trj<i BvvaTT]<i 

D ^XiKiWi avTov (f>iTV(Tai /cal reKelv a'!re')(oiTO ael dewv 
yeveOXicov ■^(^dpiv o)? B' avTco<i Kal ^evov aTreip- 
yoiTo, eiTe irdXai ivoiKovvro<i eire veijXvBo<; 
acpijfMevov fiiJTe yap virdpy^wv p-i]Te dp,vv6p,€vo<i 
TO irapaTTav ToX/iartu TrXr)yai<i tov toiovtov 
vovOeielv. ^evov Be av ucreXyaivovTa koX dpaavvo- 
fievov, eavrbv TVirrovra, oirfTai Beiv KoXaaOrjvai, 
Xa/3(ov 7rpo<} Trjv cip'x^rjv tmv darvvofKov dirayeTM, 
TOV TVTTTeiv Be elpyeadco, 7va TToppio yiyvTjjai tov 

E TOV eTTi^copiov av ToXfirjcraL iroTe TraTd^ai. ol 8^ 
dcTTVvo/jLoi irapaXa^oPTe^ re Kal dvaKpLvavT€<;, 
TOV ^eviKov av deov evXa^ov/xevoi, iav dpa 
dBiK(o<i BoKTj 6 ^evo^ TOV e7n)(^(opLov tvittciv, t^ 
fxdcTTiyi TOV ^evov, 6aa<; av avT6<; TraTd^rj, Toaav- 
ra? B6vTe<; T?y? 6pacrv^evia<i iravovTcov edv Be firj 
uBiKTJ, direiXTjCTavTe^ re Kal 6veiBLaavT€<; tu> dira- 
yayovTt, fxeOievTcov d/j,(f)Q). rjXi^ Be rjXiKa <j;> ^ 
Kal TOV diraiBa irpoe)(^ovTd jjXiKca eaviov edv 
880 TVTTTT}, yepcov T€ yepovTa, Kal eav veo<; veov, 
dfivveado) KaTo, (fiucriv dvev ^eXov<; 'yfriXai'; Tai<; 

^ <fl> added by Ast, Surges. 

^ For the respect due to Strangers as a religious diitv, cp. 
729 E e. 

886 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

when a young man is beaten by an old man, it is 
meet that, in every case, he should quietly endure 
his anger, and thus store up honour for the time of 
his own old age. Therefore let the law stand thus : — 
Everyone shall reverence his elder both by deed and 
word ; whosoever, man or woman, exceeds himself in 
age by twenty years he shall regard as a father or 
a mother, and he shall keep his hands oft that person, 
and he shall ever refrain himself, for the sake of the 
gods of birth, from all the generation of those who 
are potentially his own bearers and begetters. So 
likewise he shall keep his hands off" a Stranger, be he 
long resident or newly arrived ; neither as aggressor 
nor in self-defence shall he venture at all to chastise 
such an one with blows. If he deems that a Stranger 
has shown outrageous audacity in beating him and 
needs correction, he shall seize the man and take him 
before the bench of the city-stewards (but refrain 
from beating him), so that he may flee the thought 
of ever daring to strike a native. And the city- 
stewards shall take over the Stranger and examine 
liim — with due respect for the God of Strangers ; ^ 
and if he really appears to have beaten the native 
unjustly, they shall give the Stranger as many strokes 
of the scourge as he himself inflicted, and make him 
cease from his foreign frowardness ; but if he has 
not acted unjustly, they shall threaten and reprove 
the man who arrested him, and dismiss them 
both. If a man of a certain age beat a man of his 
own age, or one above his own age who is childless, 
— whether it be a case of an old man beating an 
old man, or of a young man beating a young man, 
— the man attacked shall defend himself with 
bare hands, as nature dictates, and without a weajxin. 

287 



PLATO 

'^epaiv. 6 8e virep reTrapaKovra <y€yova}<; err) eav 
ToXjxa Tft) p,d')(^eadai eXre ap^cov etVe d/xvv6^ej'o<;, 
aypoiKO<; koX dvekevdepo^i av Xeyofievo^i avSpawo- 
B(i)8i]^ T€, Blk7}<; av eTTOvecBiaTov Tvy)(^dva)v to 
irpeirov e^oi. /cal eav pev Ti? toiovtoi^ irapapv- 
0ioi<i euTret^j)? ycyvijTat, €vr]Vto<; av eirj' 6 Be 
Bu(T7rei6r)<i Kal p^rjBev rrpooipiov (ftpovTC^cov Be^^oir 

B av Tov roiovBe eroipoi^; v6p,ov' idv xi? tvtttt} rov 
•npeafivrepov eiKOcriv erecriv rj Tr\ei,ocnv eavrov, 
irpoiTOV p,ev 6 irpoaTuyxdvoiv, idv pt) rfkL^ pi]Be 
veoirepo<i ^ [rcov p^a^opevcov^,^ BteipyeTco ?) KaKo<i 
ecrrci) Kara vopov eav Be ev ttj tov irXrjyevTO'i 
y'jXiKLa y eTi vediT€po<;, dpvveT(o co? d8e\(f>a) rj iraTpl 
rj en dvcoTepo) tw dBiKovpevm' irpo^ B cti Bi/crjv 
vire^eTco rfj<; alKia<i 6 tov irpea^vTepov, co? etprf- 
rai, ToXp,y'](Ta<; TvrcTeiv, Kal idv ocfiXrj ttjv Blkijv, 

C BeBeaOco /.itjBev iviavTov (TpiKporepov' idv Be ol 
BiKaaTal Tipj'jaayai •nXeiovo'i, eaToo Kupio<i o riprj- 
Bel'i avTUi ^povo^. idv Be ^ivo<; y rcov peTo'iKcov 
Tf9 TVTTTr] TOV TTpecf^vTepov eixocTiv eTcaiv ?/ 
TrXeioaiv eavrov, irepi pev ratv rrapayevopevrnv 
Trj<i ^OJjdeia^ 6 avrb<; v6po<i exerei) rrjv avri]V 
Bvvapiv, 6 Be TT)v roiavrrjv Blktjv i)TTTf}dei<i, ^evo^ 
p,ev oiv Kal prj ^vvoiKO<i, Bvo eri] BeBepevo^ iKTivera) 
ravnjv avrr/v rrjv BlKrjv, 6 Be peroLKo^; re o)v Kal 
direidodv rot? v6poi<i rpia errj BeBeaOw, idv prj to 
BiKaarripiov 7rXeiovo<i avrS> ')(^p6vov rip^crrj rrjV 

D BiKrjv. ^r/piovado} Be Kal 6 7rapayev6p,evo^ orwovv 
Tovrcov Kal pr] ^or}Orjaa<; Kard vopov, o pev peyi'cr- 
Tov Tiprjparo'i (ov pvd, Bevrepov Be a)V 7revTi']K0vra 

^ [tuv laax^ofitvwv] I bracket. 

2.88 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

But if a man over forty ventures to fight, whether as 
aggressor or in self-defence, he shall be called a knave 
and a boor, and if he finds himself incurring a 
degrading sentence, he will be getting his deserts. 
Any man who lends a readv ear to such exhortations 
will prove easy to manage ; but he that is intractable 
and pays no regard to the prelude will hearken 
readily to a law to this effect : — If anyone beats a 
person who is twenty or more years older than him- 
self, in the first place, whoever comes upon them, if 
he be neither of equal age nor younger, shall try to 
separate them, or else be held to be a coward in the 
eyes of the law ; and if he be of a like age with the 
man assaulted or still vounger, he shall defend him 
who is wronged as he would a brother or a father or 
a still older progenitor. Further, he that dares to 
strike the older man in the way described shall be 
liable also to an action for outrage, and if he be 
convicted, he shall be imprisoned for not less than a 
year ; and if the judges assess the penalty at a longer 
period, the period so assessed shall be binding on him. 
And if a Stranger or a resident alien beat a man older 
than himself by twenty or more vears, the same law 
regarding help from bystanders shall be equally 
binding ; and he that is cast in a suit of this kind, if 
he be a non-resident Stranger, shall be imprisoned for 
two years and fulfil this sentence ; and he that is a resi- 
dent alien and disobeys the laws shall be imprisoned 
for three years, unless the court assess his penalty at 
a longer period. And the man who is a bystander in 
any of these cases of assault, and who fails to give help 
as the law prescribes, shall be penalised — by a fine of 
a mina, if he be a man of the highest property-class ; of 
fifty drachmae, if he be of the second class ; of thirty 

289 

VOL. II. U 



PLATO 

SpaxfJLat'i, rpirov he rpidKovra, uKocn he tov 
Terdprov. hiKaaTrjpiov he yiyviaOa) T0t9 roiov- 
TOiai (XTpaTTjyol Kol ra^lap^oc (^vkapxoi re Koi 
Xrmrap'x^oL. 

No/xot he, ws eoiKCv, ol p,ev rSiv 'X^prjaroiyp 
E dvOpcoTTCov eveKU jtyvovTai, St8a^% X^P^^ "^^^ 
TLva rpoTTOV 6[jLi\ovvTe<i dWri\oi<i av (l>i\o<^p6- 
v(o<i OLKolep, oi he rwv tt)v TracheCav hia<f)vy6pT(ov, 
drepd/jLOVi ^/atu/iei'wi' rivl (f)vaei koI pLTjhev rey- 
XdevTwv, ware p,rj ovk iirl irdaav levai KdKijv. 
ovroi Tovf /xeWovTa<; X6yov<{ prjdrjaeadai ireiroL- 
7]K6r€<i dv elev ot? hrf TOV<i v6p,ov<; e^ dvdyKr]<; 
6 vopoderrf^ dv vofioderoi, ^ov\6pevo<; avroiv 
pLr)h€7roT€ XP^^^^ yiyveadai. Trarpo? yap rj /xt/t/so? 
7j TOVTCOP €Ti TTpoyovcov 6(TTi<; ToXfirjcTei d^jruadai 
TTore ^ia^6fievo<; alKia rtvl, /xrjre rSiv di>co heicra^ 
deS)v p^TjVLV /jL^Te tcov vtto 7^9 riptopwv ^ Xeyofievcov, 
881 dXXa cJ? elh(o<; d fiTjhap-w^ olhe, KaTa(f) popcov rcov 
TraXaicov Kal vtto ttuvtcov elprj/Mevcov Trapavopei, 
TOVTO) hei Tivo<; dTroTpoTrfj^ eaxdrr/^. 6dvaT0<; 
fjLev ovv OVK eariv ecr^aroi', ol he ev " Aihov 
rovroKTi Xeyofxevot ttovoi en re tovtov ^ elal 
fidXkov ev eaxdrot^, Kal d\7)6eaTara \eyovTe<i 
ovhev dvvrovai rat? TOiavTai<i yfruxai^ dTrorpoTrrj^i' 
ov yap dv eyiyvovro irore fitjrpaXolai re Kal tS)v 
B dWiov yevvijTopcov dvoaioi TrXijycov roXfiai. hei 
hr) Ta9 evddhe Ko\daei<i irepl rd Toiavra rovroiai, 

1 Tifi'jipuy Wiuckelmann : rtfutpiup MSS. 
290 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

drachmae, if of the third ; and of twenty drachmae, 
if of the fourth class. And the court for such cases 
shall consist of the generals, taxiarchs, phylarchs, and 
hipparchs. 

Laws, it would seem, are made partly for the 
sake of good men, to afford them instruction as to 
what manner of intercourse will best secure for them 
friendly association one with another, and jiartly also 
for the sake of those who have shunned education, 
and who, being of a stubborn nature, have had no 
softening treatment^ to prevent their taking to all 
manner of wickedness. It is because of these men 
that the laws which follow have to be stated, — laws 
which the lawgiver must enact of necessity, on their 
account, although wishing that the need for them may 
never arise. WTiosoever shall dare to lay hands on 
father or mother, or their progenitors, and to use out- 
rageous violence, fearing neither the wrath of the gods 
above nor that of the Avengers (as they are called) of 
the underworld, but scorning the ancient and world- 
wide traditions (thinking he knows what he knows 
not at all), and shall thus transgress the law, — for 
such a man there is needed some most severe deter- 
rent. Death is not a most severe j^enalty ; and the 
punishments we are told of in Hades for such 
offences, although more severe than death and 
described most truly, yet fail to prove any deterrent 
to souls such as these, — else we should never find 
cases of matricide and of impiously audacious assaults 
upon other progenitors. Consequently, the punish- 
ments inflicted upon these men here in their lifetime 

» Cp. 853 D. 

* TovTov my conj. (so too Burges) : rointtv MSS., edd. 

291 
U 2 



PLATO 

Ta? iv rw ^fjv firjSev tcov iv " Ai8ov XeiTreadai 
Kara Bvvafiiv. earo) 8r) Xeyofxevop rb fiera rovro 
TJjSe' 09 av roX^rjar] irarepa rj /nrjTepa r; rovroyv 
Traxe/aa? r] firjrepa^ Tvineiv /jltj p,aviai<i ij^o/xevo^, 
TTpMTOv fxev •7rpoarvy')^dv(ov Kaddtrep iv rot? 
efiTTpoadev ^OTjOeLTO), Koi 6 jiev fieTOLKo<; [rj] ^ f evo? 
et9 irpoehpiav rcov dycovoov Kokeiaday ^orj6oiv> 
p,7] ^or]07]aa<i Be deK^vytap ex t^9 %<wpa9 

C ^evjero)' o Be fit} pieTOiKO<i ^otjdcov fiev eTraivov 
i')(eTQ}, p.T} ^orjOayv Be ^fr6yov' BovXo<i Be ^or]dr)aa<; 
fiev eXevOepo<i yLyvea-do), fir] ^or]6i]aa<i Be TrXrjjdi; 
eKarov ry fidtXTiyt Tvmeadoi, ev dyopd pev av 
yiyvrjTai to 'yi'yv6p,evov, vir^ dyopavop^cov, edv B 
e/CT09 dyopd<i iv daTei, tmv daTVv6p,cov KoXd^eiv 
Tov iinBripiovvra, idv Be Kar dypoix; t^9 '^copa^ 
TTOV, Toi'9 Tcov dypovop^cov dp^ovTa<;. idv 5' eVt- 
'X^(opio<; 6 TrapaTvyxdvoov j} Ti9, idv tc 7rat9 idv t€ 
dvrjp idv t' ovv yvvt], dp,vveT(o Trd<; rov dvoaiov 

D iTTovop-d^cov 6 Be p,i] dp.vva>v dpd eVe^^^ecr^o) Af09 
op.oyviov Kol irarpcpov Kara vopov. idv Be Tf9 
6(f)XT] Blkijv alKia<i yovewv, irpoijov p-ev <^evyej(ti 
deKpvylav i^ dareo<; €i9 tt]v dXXrjv '^((iypav kol 
TrdvTiov lepSyv elpyecrdo)' p,T) Be elpyop-evov KoXa^ov- 
rmv avTOv dypov6p,oi 7rXr}yal<i koI 7rdvT(o<; a)9 dv 
ideXcoar KareXdtov Be Oavdrat ^r)p,i,ovcrdco. idv 
Be Tt9 TO) TOiovTO) ocroL iXevOepoi avp^cpdyr] t] 
avpLTTir} ff Tiva Toiavrrjv dXXrjv Koivaviav koivco- 

* [^] bracketed by England. 
292 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

for crimes of this kind must, so far as possible, fall in 
no way short of the punishments in Hades. So the 
next pronouncement shall run thus : — Whosoever 
shall dare to beat his father or mother, or their 
fathers or mothers, if he be not afflicted with mad- 
ness, — in the first place, the bystander shall give 
help, as in the former cases, and the resident Stranger 
who helps shall be invited to a first-row seat at the 
public games, but he who fails to help shall be 
banished from the country for life ; and the non-resi- 
dent Stranger shall receive praise if he helps.and blame 
if he does not help ; and the slave M-ho helps shall be 
made free, but if he fails to help he shall be beaten 
with 100 stripes of a scourge by the market-stewards, 
if the assault occur in the market, and if it occur in 
the city, but outside the market-place, the punish- 
ment shall be inflicted by the city-steward in 
residence, and if it occur in any country district, by 
the officers of the country-stewards. And the 
bystander who is a native — whether man, woman, or 
boy — shall in ever}' case drive off the attacker, 
crying out against his impiety ; and he that fails to 
drive him off shall be liable by law to the curse of 
Zeus, guardian-god of kinship and parentage. And 
if a man be con\icted on a charge of outrageous 
assault upon parents, in the first place he shall be 
banished for life from the city to other parts of the 
country, and he shall keep away from all sacred 
places ; and if he fails to keep away, the country- 
stewards shall punish him with stripes, and in any 
other way they choose, and if he returns again he 
shall be punished with death. And if any free man 
voluntarily eat or drink or hold any similar intercourse 
with such an one, or even give him merely a greet- 

293 



PLATO 

E vrjarj, rj koX fiovov ivTuy)(^dvcov ttov TrpoadTrrrjTai 
€K(ov, fij]T€ ei? lepov eXOr) firjBev fxrjT elf dyopav 
firjT eh TToXiv oX.&)9 irporepov rj KaO-^prjrai, 
vofxi^wv KeKOiVfovrjKevac aXiTtjpicoSov^; tv^V^' ^^^ 
he aweidSiv vo/xm iepd koI ttoXiv fiiaivr] irapa- 
v6/x(o<;, o? dv TOiV dp)(6vTa)v aladojievo^; jxr) 
€7rdyr} h'tKrjv rm toiovtm, ev evOvvaa eo"T&) rdv 
KaTi]yopr)/j,dT(ov twv fieyLaTwv ev tovto ^ avTw. 
882 idv 8e av 8ovXo<; Tvinrj tov eXevdepov, eiV ovv 
^evov ehe dtrrov, ^orjBeirw fiev 6 tt pocnvy^^^dvuiv 
r) Kara to rliMtjfia ttjv elprj/jbevrjv ^ijfiiav diroTiveTco, 
(TVvBr](TavTe<; Be ol 'jrpo(nvy)(dvovre^ fierd tou 

B irXrjyevro^ irapahovrmv ra> dhiKOVjxevto' o he irapa- 
Xa^cov, hr)(ra<^ ev ireSat^; koI ixaaTiydoaa^i oirocra^ 
dv edeXrj, firjSev /SXaiTTCOV tov heaTroTrjv, irapa- 
BoTO) eKCLvq) KeKTrjaOai Kara vo/jlov. 6 Be vo/xo'i 
ea-TM' '^O? dv eXevOepov BovXo<; wv Tinrrrj fir) twv 
dp)(^6vT0)v KeXevovTcov, irapaXa^MV o KeKTT]p,evo<i 
irapd TOV 7rXrjyevT0<; BeBe/nevov avTOv firj Xvajj 
Trptv dv 6 BovXo<; irelar) tov TrXrjyevTa a^ia etvai 
C TOV \eXvp,€vo<; ^fjv. Ta avTa Be yvvai^i re etrTco 
Trpb<i dXXr]Xa<; irepl irdvTwv tmv toiovtwv v6fjii/xa, 
Kot 7r/J09 dvBpa<i yvvai^l koX dvBpdai tt/Oo? 
yvvalKa<;. 

^ tv TOVTO Bekker: iv tout^ MSS., Zur. 



?94 



LAWS, BOOK IX 

ing when he meets him, he shall not enter any holy 
place or the market or any part of the city until he 
be purified, but he shall regard himself as having 
incurred a share of contagious guilt ; and should he 
disobey the law and illegally defile sacred things and 
the State, any magistrate who notices his case and 
fails to bring him up for trial shall have to face this 
omission as one of the heaviest charges against him 
at his audit. If it be a slave that strikes the free 
man — stranger or citizen — the bystander shall help, 
failing which he shall pay the penalty as fixed 
according to his assessment ; ^ and the bystanders 
together with the person assaulted shall bind the 
slave, and hand him over to the injured person, and 
he shall take charge of him and bind him in fetters, 
and give him as many stripes with the scourge as he 
pleases, provided that he does not spoil his value to 
the damage of his master, to whose ownership he 
shall hand him over according to law. The law shall 
stand thus : — Whosoever, being a slave, beats a free 
man without order of the magistrates, — him his owner 
shall take over in bonds from the person assaulted, 
and he shall not loose him until the slave have 
convinced the person assaulted that he deserves 
to live loosed from bonds. The same laws shall hold 
good for all such cases when both parties are women, 
or when the plaintiff is a woman and the defendant 
a man, or the plaintiff a man and the defendant a 
woman. 

1 Cp. 880 D. 



295 



884 A0. Mera Se ra? alKia<i irepl iravro'i ev 
elprjaOco roiovBe ti v6/j,ifjiOV ^lalav iripi' twv 
aWoTpiwv fir]heva firjBev (f>epeiv /xrjSe dyeiv, firjS' 
av 'X,p^o^6ai fitjSevl tcov tov iTi\a<s, iav fir) TreLo-ij 

TOV K€KTr)p,6V0V' €K jap Sj} TOV TOIOVTOV TTUVTU 

■qprrjfieva to, eiprj/jLeva Ka/ca 'yiyove Kai iari koX 
earai. fieyicra he Brj rtav XoLirSiv al tcop vewv 
aKoXaaiat re koX v^p€i<i' 619 ixkyiara he, orav 
et? lepa ylyucovTat, Kal hia^ep6vr(o<; av fieydXa, 
orav el<i hrj/ioaia Kal dyia rj Kara /lepij Koivd 
(f}v\er(ov rj rivcov aX\(ov rotovra>v KeKoivaivrjKorwv 
et? lepa he ihia Kal Td(})ov<i hevrepa Kal heurep(i)<;. 

885 et9 he yopia<i rpira, %a)/>t9 twv ep,irpoadev elprjfie- 
vcov orav v^pi^j] Tt<?. rerapTOv he yevo<i v^peox;, 
orav d(j>povTi(TTa)V Tt? TWf dp^ovTcov dyr] rj (f)eprj 
V XPV'^'^'^ '^'^' "^^^ eKeivwv firj Tretcra? avTOvi' 
TrefxiTTov he to ttoXltlkov av etr) eKaarov tS)v 
TToXiTMV v^pia-dev hiKrjv einKakov}ievov. ol<; hrj 
hoTeov el<i Koivov v6/xov e/cacrroj?. iepoavXia fiev 
yap etprjrai ^vWrj^hrjv, ^iaio^ re koI Xddpa eav 

B yiyvrjTai, Tt 'x^pr) Trdax^iV oaa he Xoyw Kal 



296 



1 Cp. 868 C ff., 877 B flf., 930 E S. 
* Cp. 941 D, E. 
« Cp. 854 B ff. 



BOOK X 

ATH. Next after cases of outrage we shall state 
for cases of violence one universally inclusive prin- 
ciple of law. to this effect : — No one shall carry or 
drive off am-thing which belongs to others, nor shall 
he use any of his neighbour's goods unless he has 
gained the consent of the owner : for from such 
action proceed all the evils above mentioned — past, 
present and to come. Of the rest, the most grave 
are the licentious and outrageous acts of the young ; 
and outrages offend most gravely when they are 
directed against sacred things, and thev are especially 
grave when they are directed against objects which 
are public as well as holy, or partially public, as 
l>eing shared in by the members of a tribe or other 
similar community. Second, and second in |x>int of 
gravity, come offences against sacred objects and 
tombs that are private ; and third, offences against 
parents, when a person commits the outrage other- 
wise than in the cases already described.^ A fourth ^ 
kind of outrage is when a man, in defiance of the 
magistrates, drives or carries off or uses any of their 
things without their own consent ; and a fifth kind 
will be an outrage against the civic right of an 
individual private citizen which calls for judicial 
vindication. To all these severally one all-embrac- 
ing law must be assigned. As to temple-robbing,* 
whether done by open violence or secretly, it has 
been already stated summarily what the punishment 
should be ; and in respect of all the outrages, whether 

297 



PLATO 

oaa epyw Trepl 6€ov<} v/3pl^ei rt? Xiymv rj irpdr- 
rmv, TO 7rapap,vdiov VTrode/jLevo) prjreov a Bel 
'irda')(eiv. eaTco 8t) ToBe' 0€ov^ T)yovfj,€vo^ elvat, 
Kara v6fiov<; o^Set? TrcoiroTe ovre epyov acre/9e9 
elpydaaro eKoov ovre \6yov dc^rjKetf dvofiov, dXXd 
€v Bi] Tfc T<ov rpimv 7rda)(^cov, rj tovto ojrep elrrov 
oux riyovfievo^;, rj to Sevrepov ovra^ ov cf)pov7L^€iv 
dv9 pdiirwv , rj rplrov €V7rapap,vOrJTOV<; elvai 0V(riai<; 
re Kal eti^^ai? Trapayop,ivov<;. 
C KA. Tl ovv Bt] Bpwpev av rj Kal Xeyoi/xev tt/do? 
avTov<: ; 

Ae. 'n ^yaOe, eTraKOvcTco/jiev avrcov irpcoTOv a 
TO) Kuracppovelv rjfioov 7rpocnrai,^ovTa<i avTOv<; 
Xeyeip fxavreuofiai. 

KA. Iloca 8i] ; 

A0. Tavra rd^ o,v epecr\rp^ovvre<i eiTToiev, 'H 
^eve ^AOrjvace Kal AaKcSaifiovie Kal Kvdxrie, 
dXrjOi] Xeyere. rjp,S)v yap ol p,ev to irapd-rrav 
Oeov^i ovSafjb6i)<i vo/xi^opev,^ ol Se [/ly^Sev rjficov 
<f)povTl,^€iv, ol hk ev-)(^al<i Trapdyeadai,^ o'iov<; vpei<i 
Xeyere. d^iovp.ev hrj, Kaddnep vfieif rj^icoKare 
D ire pi vopcov, irplv cnrei'Xelv r)p,iv aK\rjpS)<i vpd<i 
•nporepov iircx^eipelv ireiOeiv Kal hihdaKeiv eo? 
etcrt deol, TiKprjpia Xeyovra^ iKUvd, Kal on 
^eXTiovi rj irapd to Blkuiov vtto rivtov 8(i)p(ov 
iraparpeTreaOat. KrfKovpevoi. vvv fiev yap ravra 
dKovovri<i re Kal roiavd^ erepa roiv Xeyo/xevcov 
dptaTcov elvat TronjTMV re Kai pr^ropwv Kai 
fidvreeov Kal lepecov Kal dXXwp /MvpidKi<; ^ fivpicop 
ovK eTrl TO fir) Spdv rd dSiKa rpeirop-eda oi 



398 



^ voixl(ofif V MSS.: vofilCovfftv Z\1T., vulg. 
2 fivpiiKis MSS. : iroKKaKis Zur. , vulg. 



LAWS, BOOK X 

of word or deed, which a man commits, either by 
tongue or hand, against the gods, we must state the 
punishment he should suffer, after we have first 
dehvered the admonition. It shall be as follows : — 
No one who believes, as the laws prescribe, in the 
existence of the gods has ever vet done an impious 
deed voluntarily, or uttered a lawless word : he that 
acts so is in one or other of these three conditions of 
mind — either he does not believe in what I have 
said ; or, secondly, he believes that the gods exist, 
but have no care for men ; or, thirdly, he believes 
that they are easy to win over when bribed by 
offerings and prayers.^ 

CLIN. What, then, shall we do or say to such 
people ? 

ATH. Let us listen first, my good sir, to what they, 
as I imagine, say mockingly, in their contempt for 
us. 

CLIN. What is it ? 

ATH. In derision they would probably say this : 
" O Strangers of Athens, Lacedaemon and Crete, 
what you say is true. Some of us do not believe in 
gods at all ; others of us believe in gods of the kinds 
you mention. So Ave claim now, as you claimed in 
the matter of laws, that before threatening us harshly, 
you should first try to convince and teach us, by 
producing adequate proofs, that gods exist, and that 
they are too good to be wheedled by gifts and turned 
aside from justice. For as it is, this and such as this is 
the account of them we hear from those who are reputed 
the best of poets, orators, seers, priests, and thousands 
upon thousands of others ; and consequently most of 
us, instead of seeking to avoid wrong-doing, do the 

1 Cp. Sep. 364 B fif. 

299 



PLATO 

TrXeiaroi, hpdcravre^ S' i^UKelaOai Treipm/neOa. 
E irapa he Br) vofioOeroiyv (paaKovrcov elvai fxr) 
dypicov dWd rj/iepcov, d^iovfiev ireidol irpSirov 
%/o^cr^at 7r/t)09 rifid<i, el f^rj ttoWm ^eXrico twv 
dWo)v \e<yovTa<i irepl Oecov ox; elcriv, dX)C ovv 
/SeXrLco ye irpof; dXrjOeiav Kol rd-^a Treed oifxed^ 
dv t(Tco<i v/jLiv. dW' €7n^eipecT€, et tl fxerpiov 
Xeyofjiev, elirelv a TrpoKaXov/xeda. 

KA. OvKovv, 0) ^eve, Boxel pdStov elvai dXyjOevov- 
886 Tttf Xeyeiv d)<i elal 6eoi ; 

A0. II(M9 ; 

KA. Wpdrov fxev yy) /cat i'}Xio<; darpa re to, 
^vfiTravra koX rd tmv otpSyv BiaKeKoafjLrjfieva 
KaX6)<i ovTCO<;, iviavrot'i re Kal fiijcrl BieiXr}p,p.eva' 
Koi OTi 7rdvTe<i "EXXT)i'e<; re koX ^dp^apoi 
vo/xi^ovaiv elvai Oeov<;. 

A0. ^o/3ovfjLal ye, co [xaKdpie, rov<; /j,0'X^6rjpov<;, 
ov yap 8^ TTore eliroifi dv &<; ye al8ov/j,ai, fiij 
7r&)<f rj/jLwv Kara<^povr}(Twaiv. v/jbet'i fxev yap ov/e 
la-re uvtmv irepi rrjv rri<; Bca<f>6opd';^ alriav, dXX! 
yyelade dKpareia ^ [xovov tjBovmv re Kal eiridv- 
B ixLWV errl rov dae^rj ^iov 6pp,dcr6ai Td<i ■\^v)(a<i 
avTCOv. 

KA. To Be Ti 7rpo<; rovroi^ airiov dv, co ^eve, 
eit] ; 

A0. S^eSw o TravrdTTucnv v/x€t<i e^w ^(t)VTe<; 
ovK dv eiBeirjre, dXXd vfjLd<i dv Xavddvoi. 

KA. Tt Br] TOVTO (f)pd^€i<} rd vvv ; 

A©. ^AfjLadia ti<; fidXa '^^aXeirr) BoKovaa elvai 
ixeyicrrr} <^p6vr}cn<i. 



^ Sia<})6opas Cornarius : Sta<popas MSS. 
^ aKpareltf MSS. : 5»' anpaalav Zur. 



300 



LAWS, BOOK X 

wrong and then try to make it good. Now from law- 
givers like you, who assert that you are gentle 
rather than severe, we claim that you should deal 
with us first by way of persuasion ; and if what 
you say about the existence of the gods is superior 
to the arguments of others in point of truth, even 
though it be but little superior in eloquence, then 
probably you would succeed in convincing us. Try 
then, if you think this reasonable, to meet our 
challenge." 

CLIN. Surely it seems easy, Stranger, to assert 
with truth that gods exist ? 

ATH. How so ? 

CLIN. First, there is the evidence of the earth, 
the sun, the stars, and all the universe, and the 
beautiful ordering of the seasons, marked out by 
years and months ; and then there is the further 
fact that all Greeks and barbarians believe in the 
existence of gods. 

ATH, My dear sir, these bad men cause me alarm 
— for I will never call it •' awe " — lest haply they scoff 
at us. For the cause of the corruption in their case is 
one you are not aware of; since you imagine that it 
is solely by their incontinence in regard to pleasures 
and desires that their souls are impelled to that 
impious life of theirs. 

CLIN. What other cause can there be, Stranger, 
besides this ? 

ATH. One which you, who live elsewhere, could 
hardly have any knowledge of or notice at all. 

CLIN. What is this cause vou are now speaking 
of? 

ATH. A verj" grievous unwisdom Mhich is reputed 
to be the height of wisdom. 

301 



PLATO 

KA. nw9 X€yei<i ; 

A©. Etlalv 7] flip ip ypdfxfxaai \6yoi Kelfiepoi, o'l 
Trap vfiip ovK elal 8t' dperrjp iroXiTeia^, ax; iyoo 

C fUlpdaPCO, oi fUP €P TLCn fl€TpOl^, 01 Se Kul dp€v 

fi€Tpa>p, \€<yopr€<i rrepl Oecop, ol fiep TrdXaioraroi, 
ft)? yeyopep i) TrpcoTij ^vai^i ovpavov tcop re dXXwp, 
7rpoioPT€<i Se t?)? dp')(7)<i ov iroXv deoyopiap hi- 
e^ep-^opjai, fyepofiepol re (w? Trpo? dWijKovi o)/j,i- 
Xrjaav. a T0t9 aKovovcrip el fiep et? dWo ri 
KaX(t)<i 7) fiT) Ka\(t)<; e')(^ei, ov paBiop eTTcri/xap 
•ira\aco2<i ovaip, eU fieproi yopeoop re depaireia'i 
KoL rtfxd<i OVK dp eycoyi irore iiraipajp ecTroifii 
ovTe ft)9 o)<f)€Xi/jLa ovre ft)9 to Trapdirap oprax; 

D etprjTai. rd fiep ovp hrj twp dp')(aia>p irepi p-edei- 
adoi Kal ')(aipeTa>, koX otttj deolcn (ftiXop Xe<yeado) 
Tavrrj' rd 8e tcop pewp rjplp koX ao<f)<op alrLadi'jTai 
oirrj KUKCOP aiTia. ToSe ovp ol tuip toiovtcop 
i^epyd^oPTai Xoyoi. ep,ov ydp kuI aov, orap 
T€Kp,^pia Xeytofiep 009 elal deol, ravTa avjd 
7rpo(f>epopre<;, ijXiop re Kal aeXrjPT^v Kal darpa 
Kal yrjp ft)9 Oeovs Kal Beta opra, viro rtop ao<f>(OP 
TovTcop dpaTTeTreKTfiepoi dp Xiyoiep 0)9 7V "^^ 

E Kal Xldovs opra avrd Kal ovSep tq)P dvd poiireiwp 
7rpay/J,dTQ)P (fypopri^eip Bvpdp,epa, Xoyoiat 8e ravra 
ev 7rft)9 «9 TO TTidapop irepnreTreixp.epa. 

Ki\. ^aXeirop ye Xoyop, w ^epe, elpr}Kco<; rvy- 
'j(^dp€i<;, €i ye eh r]p /jlopop' pvp 8e ore TrdfnroXXoi 
Tvy)(^dvov<Tip, en ■x^aXerrcorepop dp eirj. 



^ By Hesiod, Pherecydes, etc. 

* Materialists such as Democritus. 



302 



LAWS, BOOK X 

cuN. What do you mean ? 

ATH. We at Athens have accounts ^ preserved in 
writing (though, I am told, such do not exist in your 
country, owing to the excellence of your polity), 
some of them being in a kind of metre, others with- 
out metre, telling about the gods : the oldest of 
these accounts relate how the first substance of 
Heaven and all else came into being, and shortly 
after the beginning they go on to give a detailed 
theogony, and to tell how, after they were born, 
the gods associated with one another. These 
accounts, whether good or bad for the hearers in 
other respects, it is hard for us to censure because 
of their antiquity ; but as regards the tendance and 
respect due to parents, I certainly would never praise 
them or say that they are either helpful or wholly 
true accounts. Such ancient accounts, however, we 
may pass over and dismiss : let them be told in the 
way best pleasing to the gods. It is rather the 
novel views of our modern scientists ^ that we must 
hold responsible as the cause of mischief. For the 
result of the arguments of such people is this, — that 
when you and I try to prove the existence of the 
gods by pointing to these very objects — sun, moon, 
stars, and earth — as instances of deity and divinity, 
people who have been converted by these scientists 
will assert that these things are simply earth and 
stone, incapable of paying any heed to human affairs, 
and that these beliefs of ours are speciously tricked 
out Hith arguments to make them plausible. 

CLIN. The assertion you mention. Stranger, is 
indeed a dangerous one, even if it stood alone ; but 
now that such assertions are legion, the danger is 
still greater. 

303 



PLATO 

A0. Tt ovv Btj ; Tt Xeyofiev ; rt '^prj hpav 
T]/xd<i ; TTorepov aTroXoyrjacofieda olov KaTrjyo- 
prjaavTO'i rivo<i iv acrejSiaiv dv6p(t)7roi<; ^/xoov, 
887 [(fyevyovai irepX tt}? vop^odeaia*;, Xiyovcriv] ^ to? 
Seiva ipya^ofieda vofj.oderovPTe'? £09 ovtcov deoiv ; 
rj '^aipeiv idcravTe'? eVt tou9 v6fiov<; rpeTToofxeOa 
rrrdXiv, p,rj koI to TrpooCfiiov rjiuv fiaKporepov 
jiyvijraL tmv vofieov ; ov <ydp ti ^pw^^v^ 6 \0709 
eKradel<; av yiyvono, el rotaiv eTriOvpiovcnv 
dae^elv to, fiev dirohei^aiixev fi€Tpco)<; Tot9 \6<yoi<;, 
S)v €(f)pa^ov Selv irepi Xeyeiv, rcov Se et9 (po^ov 
rpiylrai/xev, rd Be Sva^epaLveiv 'ROir)(TavTe<i, oca 
irpeTTei fierd raina rjSrj vo/jioBeTOi/j£v. 
B KA. 'AW', 0) ^eve, iroWaKi^; fiev 0)<i ye iv 
okiyw ■^p6v(p rovT avrb elpjjKa/jiev, &)9 ovSev ev 
TO) irapovTL hel Trporifiav ^pa')(y\oyiav fidWov rj 
fifJKO^i' ovSelf; yap 77/1.59, to Xeyofievov, e-neiywv 
SicoKei' yeXolov Br] kuI ^avXov to irpo tS)V ySeX-TtV- 
TOiv TO. /3paxvTepa alpoupLevovi (palveaOai. Bta- 
^epet S' ov afxiKpov d[X(a<i ye 7r<u9 TTidavoTtjTd 
TLva Tov<; \6yov<; rjp,(t)v ey^etv, 0)9 6eoi t elal koX 
dyadoi, BiKrjv TLfia)VT€<; BiaipepovTco^ dvdpcoTTOov 
C a^eBov yap tovto rj/xlv virep dirdvTwv tS)V voficov 
KdWccTTOv TC Kal dpicTTOv TTpoolp^Lov dv etrj. 
pbrjBev ovv Bva')(epdvavTe^ p,r]Be iireL'xOevTe'i, rjvTivd 
iroTe e')(pixev Bvvaficv el<; ireiOcb twi' tolovtwv 

* {ipfvyovai . . , Xtyovan/] I bracket. 



LAWS, BOOK X 

ATH. What then? What shall we say? What 
must we do ? Are we to make our defence as it 
were before a court of impious men, where someone 
had accused us of doing something dreadful by 
assuming in our legislation the existence of gods? 
Or shall we rather dismiss the whole subject and 
revert again to our laws, lest our prelude prove 
actually more lengthy than the laws ? For indeed 
our discourse would be extended in no small degree 
if we were to furnish those men who desire to be 
impious with an adequate demonstration by means of 
argument concerning those subjects which ought, as 
they clamied, to be discussed, and so to convert 
them to fear of the gods, and then finally, when we 
had caused them to shrink from irreligion, to proceed 
to enact the appropriate laws, 

CLIN. Still, Stranger, we have frequently (con- 
sidering the shortness of the time) made ^ this very 
statement, — that we have no need on the jjresent 
occasion to prefer brevity of speech to lengthiness 
(for, as the saying goes, " no one is chasing on our 
heels ") ; and to show ourselves choosing the briefest 
in preference to the best would be mean and ridicu- 
lous. And it is of the highest im{X)rtance that our 
arguments, showing that the gods exist and that they 
are good and honour justice more than do men, 
should by all means }K)Ssess some degree of j)ersuasive- 
ness ; for such a prelude is the best we could have in 
defence, as one may say, of all our laws. So without 
any repugnance or undue haste, and with all the 
capacity we have for endowing such arguments with 

* Cp. 701 C, D ; 858 A ff. : all this discussion is supposed 
to have taken place on one and the same day, — hence the ref. 
to " shortness of time." 

VOU II. X 



PLATO 

XoyodV, firjBev aTToBi/xevoi 8ie^eX0o)/jL€v elf to 
Svvarop Ikuvw^;. 

A&. ^v'^rjv fxot SoKel TrapaxaXelv 6 \€y6/j,epo<i 
VTTO aov vvv X.0709, iireihrj irpodv^od'; avvr€Lvei<i' 
jxeWeiv he ovKeri iyxfopei \eyeiv. (fiipe 8^, ttw? 
dv Tc<i fit] 6vp,S> Xeyoi irepX deSiv &>? eiaiv ; avdyKi) 
yap Br) ^^aXeTTO)? (fiepeiv koX fxiaelv eKeivowi o't 

D TovTcov Tjfuv acTioc rSiv Xoycov yeyevrjvTai kol 
ylyi'ovTai vvv, ov ireiOo/xevoc roU fivdoL<i, ou? e« 
vecov TraiScov en iv ydXa^i rpe(^6p,evoi Tpo(f>(ov 
re I'jKQVov Koi fi'qrepoov, olov iv eTT(ohai'i fierd re 
'!rai,Bid<i Kal fierd airovBrjf; Xeyofievoyv, kui fiera 
Ovaioiv iv €V)(^ai<; avTOv<; aKovovTet re, koI oy\rei<i 
opcovra eTTO/jLevwi avTol<i a? rfhiara 6 ye f€o? opa 
re Kal d/covec TTparTOjxeva'i Ovovrwv, iv aTTOvhrj 
■<CjTe^ ^ T^ jxeyicnr} Tov<i avrSiv yovea<i virep 
avTwv re Kal eKeivcov icnrov8aK6Ta<i, <iKal^ ^ 
oiq on fidXiara ovai 0eoi<i ev^^aU TrpoarScaXeyo- 
fxevov; Kol iK€reiac<;, dvareXXovTot re -qXiov kul 

E (TeXi]v7]<{ Kal 7rpo<i 8vafid<i l6vr(ov irpoKvXiaei'i 
dp.a Kal irpoaKvvrjcrei'i dKOvovre<i re Kal opoivra 
'EiXXrivwv re Kal ^ap^dpoov irdvrwv iv crv^^opalf 
7ravrolai<i i)(^o/j,eva>v Kal iv ev7rpayiai<;, ov^ ^f 
OVK ovrcov, aXV a)9 on fidXiara ovrcov Kal ovSa/jLTJ 
VTToyfrLav ivSiSovrtov to? ovk elac deot, — rovrcov 
St] irdvroav oaoi Kara(f)povrjaavre<i ovSe i^ e/09 
iKavov Xoyov, to? <pat€V dv ocrot, Kat a/niKpov vov 
KeKrrjvrai, vvv dvayKd^ovaiv rjp,df Xeyeiv a 
888 Xeyofiev, ttw? rovrovf dv rc<i iv npaeai Xoyoi<i 



1 <Tt> added by W. R. Paton, England. 
* <Ka\> added b}' Ast, England. 



306 



LAWS, BOOK X 

persuasiveness, let us expound them as fully as we 
can, and without any reservation. 

ATH. This speech of yours seems to me to call 
for a prefatory jirayer, seeing that you are so eager 
and ready ; nor is it possible any longer to defer 
our statement. Come, then ; how is one to argue 
on behalf of the existence of the gods without 
passion ? For we needs must be vexed and indignant 
with the men who have been, and now are, re- 
sponsible for laying on us this burden of argument, 
through their disbelief in those stories which they 
used to hear, while infants and sucklings, from the 
lips of their nurses and mothers — stories chanted to 
them, as it were, in lullabies, whether in jest or in 
earnest ; and the same stories they heard repeated 
also in prayers at sacrifices, and they saw sjiectacles 
which illustrated them, of the kind which the young 
delight to see and hear when performed at sacrifices ; 
and their own parents they saw showing the utmost 
zeal on behalf of themselves and their children in 
addressing the gods in prayers and supplications, as 
though they most certainly existed ; and at the 
rising and setting of the sun and moon they heard 
and saw the prostrations and devotions of all the 
Greeks and barbarians, under all conditions of ad- 
versity and prosj>erity, directed to these luminaries, 
not as though they were not gods, but as though 
they most certainly were gods beyond the shadow 
of a doubt — all this evidence is contemned by these 
people, and that for no sufficient reason, as ever^-one 
endowed with a gi*ain of sense would affirm ; and so 
they are now forcing us to enter on our present 
argument. How, I ask, can one pjossibly use mild 
terms in admonishing such men, and at the same 

307 
x2 



PLATO 

BvvaiTO vovOeTMV ajia 8i8dcrK€ip irepl deS>v trpSi- 
Tov tt)9 elai ; roX/xrjriov Si' ov yap dfj.a ye 8el 
fiavijvai tou? /xev vttq \ai/xapyLa<i r)hovri<i rjfxoyv, 
rov<i 8' VTTo rov Ov/xovcrOat rot? TOiovTOi<i. 

"Ito) Br) 7rp6ppr]ai<; rouiSe Tt9 ddu/jLO<i toI<{ ovtco 
TTjv Sidvoiap 8ie(f)dapfievoi<i, koX Xeyeofxev Trpda)<i, 
a^eaavre<i rov 6vp,6v, o)? evX BiaXeyofievoi tcjp 
ToiovTcov, 'n Trat, veo<i el' Trpoioov Se ae o ')(p6vo<; 

B iroirjaei, iroXXd oiv vvv So^d^eif fiera^aXovra eVi 
rdvaviia rlOeaOai. Treplfieivov ovv et? rore 
KpiTT]<; irepl rfav p.eyiaTwv yiyvecrdai' /xeyicrTOv 
Be vvv ovBev rjyel av, to irepX Tov<i 6eov^ 6pO(o<i 
BtavorjdevTa ^fjv KaX(b<i ff pufj. irpwTOV Be irepX 
avrSiv ev ri p,eya aoL p,rjvvQ)v ovk dv irore (j>aveiriv 
■y^evBrjf;, to TOiovBe' ov av fj,6vo<i ovBe oi arol 
(fiCXot TTpooroi KoX TTpwTOv TavTTjv Bo^uv irepl 
OeSiv €a')(^€Te, yiyvovTUL Be del 7rXeLov<i rj eXdrrovi 
ravrrjv ttjv voaov e^oi/TC?. ToBe toivvv aot irapa- 
yeyov(o<; avrcov TToXXoiat <f)pd^oip,^ dv, to p,r)Beva 

C TTfOTTOTe Xa^ovra ck veov ravTijv rrjv Bo^av irepl 
deoiv, o)? OVK elai, BiareXeaai tt/jo? yfjpa<i p,eiv- 
avra ev ravrrj rfj Biavorjaei' ra Bvo fievToi irddri 
irepl deov<; fielvai, itoXXoi(tl p.ev ov, fieivai Be 
ovv rial, to Toy? 6eov<i elvai fiev, (^povri^eiv Be 
ovBev TMV dvdpoiirivcov, koX to fMerd tovto, to? 
(ppovTi^ovai /xev, €virapap,vOT}Toi B elal dvpuai 
Koi ev")(^ai<i. to Br) tra^e? dv yevo/MCvov aoi irepl 
308 



LAWS, BOOK X 

time teach them, to begin with, that the gods do 
exist ? Yet one must bravely attempt the task ; for 
it would never do for both parties to be enraged at 
once, — the one owing to greed for pleasure, the 
other with indignation at men like them. 

So let our prefatory address to the men thus corrup- 
ted in mind be dispassionate in tone, and, quenching 
our passion, let us speak mildly, as though we were 
conversing with one particular person of the kind 
described, in the following terms : " My child, you 
are still young, and time as it advances will cause 
you to reverse many of the opinions you now hold : 
so wait till then before pronouncing judgment on 
matters of most grave importance ; and of these the 
gravest of all — though at present you regard it as 
naught — is the question of holding a right view 
about the gods and so living well, or the opposite. 
Now in the first place, I should be saying what is 
irrefutably true if I pointed out to you this signal 
fact, that neither you by yourself nor yet your friends 
are the first and foremost to adopt this opinion about 
the gods ; rather is it true that people who suffer 
from this disease are always springing up, in greater 
or less numbers. But I, who have met with many 
of these people, would declare this to you, that not 
a single man who from his youth has adopted this 
opinion, that the gods have no existence, has ever 
yet continued till old age constant in the same view ; 
but the other two false notions about the gods do 
remain — not, indeed, with many, but still with 
some, — the notion, namely, that the gods exist, but 
pay no heed to human affairs, and the other notion 
that they do pay heed, but are easily won over by 
prayers and offerings. For a doctrine about them 

309 



PLATO 

avTwv Kara BvvafMiv B6yfj,a, av ifiol ireiOr], -jrepi- 
jxevel^; dvaa-KOTToov eire ovtco^ etre dXX(o<i e;^cf, 
D TTVvOavofievo'i irapd re rwv aXXcov Kal St) Kal 
fiaXiara Kav irapa rov vofioOerov. ev Se 8t} 
rovrfp ra> '^povm firj roX/ji^ar]<i rrepl deov^ firjSev 
aaeBrjcrai. rreipareov yap tco rov<; vo/jlov; aot 
ridevri vvv Ka\ €i<; avdi<i StSdaKecv Trepl avr<av 
rourcou &)? e^ei. 

KA. KdXXio-0^ r}fiii>, 0) ^€V€, fiexpt y€ rov vvv 
eiprjrai. 

A0. YlavrdiratTi /lev ovv, w MeYtXXe re Kal 
K.XeiVLa' XeXrjOafiev 5' r]fji,a<i avrov<i et9 davfiaa- 
rov Xoyov efiTrewrayKore^. 

KA. Tov TTolov Bt) \e7et9 ; 
E A0. Tov irapa rroXXol'; Bo^a^ofievov elvai 
ao(f)Q)raTov dirdvrcov Xoywv. 

KA. <t>/)a^' 'in (Taf^earepov. 

A0. . Aeyovai ttov riv€<; to? rrdvra icrrl ra 
TTpdy/iara yiyvofieva Kal yevofxeva Kal yevqcro- 
jxeva rd fiev (f)V(T€i, rd Be Tv^y, Ta Be Bid 

T€')(^Vr]V. 

KA. OvKOVV KaXM'i ,' 

A0. EtVo9 ye roi ttov ao^ov<i dvBpa<; opdoyi 
Xeyeiv. eTTOfievoi ye fxrjv avroc<i (TKe\{r(o/ji,eOa roix; 
889 eKeldev, ri irore Kal rvy^dvovcri, Biavoovfievoi. 

KA. T[dvrco<i. 

A0. "EiOiKC, <^acn, rd /u,€V fieyiara avrwv koI 
KdXXicrra direpyd^eadai (jyvcriv Kal rv^vv, rd Be 
(TfiiKporepa rexvrjv, rjv Brj irapd (f)V(Teco<i Xafi^d- 
vovcrav rrjv rcov fxeydXwv Kal irputrcov yeveaiv 
epywv rrXdrreiv Kal reKraivecrdai rrdvra rd (r/j.i- 
Kporepa, d Brj re^viKd Trdvre'} irpoa-ayopevofiev. 
310 



LAWS, BOOK X 

that is to prove the truest you can possibly form 
you will, if you take my advice, wait, considering 
the while whether the truth stands thus or other- 
wise, and making enquiries not only from all other 
men, but especially from the lawgiver ; and in the 
meantime do not dare to be guilty of any impiety 
in respect of the gods. For it must be the en- 
deavour of him who is legislating for you both now 
and hereafter to instruct you in the truth of these 
matters. 

CLIN. Our statement thus far. Stranger, is most 
excellent. 

ATH. Very true, O Megillus and Clinias ; but we 
have plunged unawares into a wondrous argument. 

CLIN. What is it you mean ? 

ATH. That which most people account to be the 
most scientific of all arguments. 

GUN. Explain more clearly. 

ATH. It is stated by some that all things which 
are coming into existence, or have or will come into 
existence, do so j^artly by nature, partly by art, and 
partly owing to chance. 

CLIN. Is it not a right statement ^ 

ATH. It is likely, to be sure, that what men of 
science say is true. Anyhow, let us follow them up, 
and consider what it is that the people in their camp 
really intend. 

CLIN. By all means let us do so. 

ATH. It is evident, they assert, that the greatest 
and most beautiful things are the work of nature 
and of chance, and the lesser things that of artj — 
for art receives from nature the great and primary 
products as existing, and itself moulds and shapes all 
the smaller ones, which we commonly call " artificial." 

3" 



PLATO 

KA. lift)? Xeyei'i ; 

B A0. 'fl8' €Ti (Ta<^eaT€pov ipw. irvp Koi vBwp 
Kai yt]v Kal aepa (jivaei iravra elvai teal tv^tj 
(pacTi, rex^j] Se ovSev tovtcov' koX to, jxera ravra 
av (Tcofiara, yr]<; re koI rfkiov Kal crekrjvrj'i aa- 
Tpav T€ Trepi, Sia tovtcov yeyovivat 7ravT€\(i!)<; 
ovTwv a-y^v^oyv tv^J) ^e (f)€p6/j,€va ttj 7^9 Bvvd- 
/ie&)9 eKacTTa eKciaTcov, y ^v/xTreTTTcoKev apfioTTOVTa 
olKei(o<i TTbi^, depixa yfrvxpoc<i rj ^rjpa tt/oo? vypa 

C Kal fiaXaKa TTyoo? aKXrjpd, Kal irdvTa oiroaa Tjj 
TOiv ivavTicov Kpdaei Kara tv^W i^ dvdyKrjii 
avv€Kepdadr], Tavrr) Kal Kara TavTa outm yeyev- 
vrjKevai rov re ovpavov oXov Kal irdina oiroaa 
KaT ovpavov, Kal ^wa av Kal <f)VTd ^vfnravTa, 
6)poiv Traacov ck tovtwv yevofiivwv, ov Bid vovv, 
(f)acrLV, ovBk Btd Tiva Oeov ovBe Bid Te^yr^v, dWd 
o Xeyofiev, (pvaei Kal tu^t;. Ti^vrjv Be varepov 
€« TOVTWV vcTTepav yevofievrjv, avTrjv OvrjTrjv ck 
OvrjTOiv, vaTepa yeyevvrjKevai TTaiBid<; Tiva<; dX'q- 

D deia<i ov a<j>6Bpa fxerexovcra^, dXXd el'SwX' aTTa 
^vyyevi) eavTwv, oV rj ypatfxKt] yevva Kal fiovaiKr) 
Kal ocrai TavTai<i elcrl avveptdoi Te^vai. at Be 
Tt Kal (TTTOvBaiov dpa yevvMcri twv tcxvmv, elvat 
TavTa<i OTToaai ttj (f)va-€i eKoivaxiav Trjv avrwv 
Bvvafiiv, olov av laTpiKt) Kal yecopyiKt] Kal yvp,- 
vaaTiKTj. Kal Br) Kal Tt]V ttoXitiktjv apuKpov tl 
/xepo<i elvai <f)aai Koivcovovaav^ <f)V(r€t, Te^yj] Be 
TO TToXv' ovTco Be Kal TTjv vofioOeaiav irdaav ov 

E (jyvaei, Te^yxi Be, 179 ovk dXrjdel<i elvai Ta9 6e<7ei<;. 

^ Koivwvovffav : koivwvovv MSS. (t^s iroXiTi/c^j H. Richards, 
England). 

312 



LAWS, BOOK X 

CLIN. How do you mean ? 

ATH. I will explain it more clearly. Fire and 
water and earth and air, they say, all exist by 
nature and chance, and none of them by art ; and 
by means of these, which are wholly inanimate, the 
bodies which come next — those, namely, of the earth, 
sun, moon and stars — have been brought into ex- 
istence. It is by chance all these elements move, 
by the interplay of their resp)ective forces, and 
according as they meet together and combine fit- 
tingly, — hot with cold, dri' with moist, soft with 
hard, and all such necessary- mixtures as result from 
the chance combination of these opposites, — in this 
way and bv these means they have brought into 
being the whole Heaven and all that is in the 
Heaven, and all animals, too, and plants — ^after that 
all the seasons had arisen from these elements ; and 
all this, as they assert, not owing to reason, nor to 
any god or art, but owing, as we have said, to nature 
and chance.^ As a later product of these, art comes 
later ; and it, being mortal itself and of mortal birth, 
begets later plaviihings which share but little in 
truth, being images of a sort akin to the arts them- 
selves — images such as painting begets, and music, 
and the arts which accompany these. Those arts 
which really produce something serious are such as 
share their effect with nature, — like medicine, agri- 
culture, and gATnnastic. Politics too, as they say, 
shares to a small extent in nature, but mostly in art ; 
and in like manner all legislation which is based on 
untrue assumptions is due, not to nature, but to art. 

* This is a summary of the doctrines of the Atomists 
(Leucippus and Democritus) who denied the creative agency 
of Reason. Similar views were taught, later, by Epicurus 
and Lucretius. 



PLATO 

KA. Tlax; \€y€i<; ; 

A0. %€ov<i, w /xaKapie, elvai irpooTov (pacriv 
ovTOi TexvT}, ou (f)va€i d'XXd rcai v6/J,oi<i, koL tov- 
TOV<i dWov<; dWrj, otttj eKaarot eavTolcn ^ avv- 
(OfxoXoyrjaav vo/jLoderovfxevoi' koX hrj koX to. Ka\a 
i^vcrei fiev dWa elvai, v6/ji(p 8e erepa' rd he Brj 
hiKaia ouS' elvai to irapaTrav (f)V(T€i, aW' 
afjL(f)ia^r]TovvTa<; StareXeiu ttX\?;Xo«9 Koi jiera- 
Tide/xevov^ del Tavra' a 8' dv fierddcovTai Kal 
890 orav, rore Kvpia exaara elvai, •yi'yvofieva re)(yr] 
Kat, rot<; vo^oi<i, dX\! ov Srj rivt, <^vaei. ravr 
ea-Tiv, w (plXoi, diravTa dvhpoyv aocpcov irapd veoi'i 

dvdpd)7rOl<s, IBlCOTCOV T€ Kal TTOLrjTUiV, (^acTKOVTWV 

elvai TO hiKaiorarov 6 rl t/9 dv viko, 0ca^6/jb6vo<;, 
odev dae^eiai re dvOpwiroi^ e/jLTrcTrrovcn veoi^, 
ft)9 ovK ovTcov deSiv o(ov<; 6 v6fio<; irpoardTTet 
hiavoelcrdai Beiv, (ndcyei^ re Bid ravra, eXKOvrwv 
7rp6<; rov Kara (f)V(Tiv opdov j3lov, o? eari rfj 
dXrjdeia Kparovvra ^fjv rS)v aXKwv Kal firj 
hovKevovra krepoiai Kara vofiov. 
B KA. Oiov Bie\'q\v6a<;, Si ^eve, Xojov Kal ocrrjv 
Xw/Si-jv dvOpdoTTWv vecov hrjfiocria rroXecrl re Kal 
ihioi<i oiKoi<i. 

A0. *AXr}6r} fievroi Xeyei<i, (o KXeivia. ri ovv 

* kavToiffi MSS. : (Kaarois Zur. 



1 A view ascribed to Critias. 

2 Cp. Ar. Eth. N. 1094'> 14flF. 

^ This antithesis beCween "Nature" ((pv<ris) and "Con- 
vention " (v6ft.os) was a familiar one in ethical and political 
discussion from the time of the Sophists. The supremacy of 
" Nature," as an ethical principle, was maintained (it is said) 



LAWS, BOOK X 

CLIN. What do you mean ? 

ATH. The first statement, nay dear sir, which 
these people make about the gods is that they exist 
by art and not by nature, — by certain legal con- 
ventions ^ which differ from place to place, according 
as each tribe agreed when fonning their laws. They 
assert, moreover, that there is one class of things 
beautiful by nature, and another class beautiful by 
convention ^ ; while as to things just, they do not 
exist at all by nature, but men are constantly in 
dispute about them and continually altering them, 
and whatever alteration they make at any time is 
at that time authoritative, though it owes its ex- 
istence to art and the laws, and not in any way to 
nature. All these, my friends, are views which 
young people imbibe from men of science, both 
prose-writers and poets, who maintain that the 
height of justice is to succeed by force ; whence it 
comes that the young people are afflicted with a 
jjlague of impiety, as though the gods were not 
such as the law commands us to conceive them ; 
and, because of this, factions also arise, when these 
teachers attract them towards the life that is right 
"according to nature," which consists in being master 
over the rest in reality, instead of being a slave to 
others according to legal convention.' 

CLIN. What a horrible statement you have de- 
scribed. Stranger ! And what widespread corruption 
of the young in private families as well as publicly 
in the States ! 

ATH. That is indeed true, Clinias. What, then, 

by Hippius and Prodiciis : that of " Convention," by Prota- 
goras and Gorgias : Plato goes behind both to the higher 
principle of Reason {vovs}, cp. Inlrod. p. xiv. 



PLATO 

otei ')(prjvai Bpav rov vo/xoOerijv ovrw rovrmv " 
TToKat TrapecTKevaa-fxevfov ; rj fiovov aireiKeiv 
ardvra iv rfj iroXei ^v/jbiraai T019 dv6p(OTroi<;, 
ft)9 €1 fiT] i^rjCTOVcnv elvat deov'i kuI hiavor^O rjaovrai 
Bo^d^ovT€<; roiovTOvq o'iovi (f)r)<xlv 6 v6fio<i' Ka\ 
•Kepi KoXoyv KaX SiKai'oyp xal Trepl dirdvTtov tmv 

C p,€<yicrTO}v 6 avTO<; \0709, ocra Stj ^ tt/jo? dper-qv 
TeCvei Kal KUKiav, &><? Set ravra oina> irpdrreiv 
8iavooupivov<i OTrrjirep av vofioOerrjf; v<f>r]yi](Tr)Tai 
>ypd(j)(ov' 09 8' av pt] napi^rjrac eavrov rot? 
v6poi<i evireidij, rov pev Selv reOvdvai, top Be 
riva Tr\7jyai<i koI BeapoU, rov Be dTipiai<;, dWov<; 
Be TTeviai<i /eoXd^ecrOai koX (pvyai'i' ireido) Be toc<; 
dvdpcoiroi^;, dpa riOevra avTol<i tou? v6pov<i, 
prjBepiav edeXeiv ^ toc'? \6<yot<i irpoadTTTOVTa eh 
Bvvapiv Tjpepovv ; 

D KA. M7;8a/iW9, w ^eve, dX)C el'irep rvy^dvei 
ye ovaa kuI apiKpd ireiOd) Td irepi ra roiavTa, 
Bel prjBapf] Kdpveiv rov ye d^iov koI trpiKpov 
vopodeTrjp, dWa irdcrav, to Xeyopevov, ^covrjv 
levra tw irdXaiw [vopo)] ' errriKovpov ylyveaOai 
Xoyo), d)<i elcrl 6eo\ koI 6a a vvv Brj Bi,rjX0€<i av, 
KoX Brj Kol v6p(p avTW ^orjdijaat /cat rexvr), ox; 
earov (jivaei r) <^vaeu><i ovx, ijttovi,^ eiirep vov 
ye eari yevvrjpaTa Kara Xoyov opOov, to?" av 
re Xeyeiv pot <f)ai,vet koI eyd) aoi Triarevo) ra vvv. 
A0. 'fi irpoOvpborare KXeivia, ri B'; ov ')(^aXe'Trd 

* 5^ Apelt : 5« MSS. 1 t« Zur., vulg. 

* iQ(\fiv: ex*'" MSS., edd. (susp. England). 

* [v6iJi(f] bracketed by Winckelmann, Englan 



316 



v. ex*'" J>1SS., edd. (susp. Jingiandj. 
, J bracketed by Winckelmann, England. 
* ^TTovi Hermann : t)ttov MSS. 
a»j Stallbaum : %v MSS. 



LAWS, BOOK X 

do you think the lawgiver ought to do, seeing that 
these people have been armed in this way for a long 
time past ? Should he merely stand up in the city 
and threaten all the people that unless they affirm 
that the gods exist and conceive them in their minds 
to be such as the law maintains ; ^ and so likewise 
\^-ith regard to the beautiful and the just and all 
the greatest things, as many as relate to virtue and 
vice, that they must regard and perform these in the 
way prescribed by the lawgiver in his writings ; and 
that whosoever fails to show himself obedient to the 
laws must either be put to death or else be punished, 
in one case by stripes and imprisonment, in another 
by degradation, in others by poverty and exile? 
But as to persuasion, should the lawgiver, while 
enacting the |)eople's laws, refuse to blend any 
l^ersuasion with his statements, and thus tame them 
so far as possible ? 

CLIN. Certainly not. Stranger ; on the contrary', 
if persuasion can be applied in such matters in even 
the smallest degree, no lawgiver who is of the 
slightest account must ever grow weary, but must 
(as they say) "leave no stone unturned" ^ to reinforce 
the ancient saying that gods exist, and all else that 
you recounted just now ; and law itself he must also 
defend and art, as things which exist by nature or 
by a cause not inferior to nature, since according to 
right reason they are the offspring of mind, even as 
you are now, as I think, asserting ; and I agree ^tith 
you. 

ATH. What now, my most ardent Clinias ? Are 

1 Cp. 634 D, K ; 859 B, al. 

* Literally, " utter every voice " (leave nothing unsaid). 

3«7 



PLATO 

E Te e<7Tt ^vvaKokovdelv Xoyoif ouTeo? et? 7r\r]6r] 
Xeyofieva, [irjKT] re av K€KTr)Tai SifoXvyia ; 

KA. Tt hai, CO ^ev€ ; Trepl fiedrjii fiev Kal 
fWvaiKrj'; ovro) fiUKpa \€yoi>Ta<; tjfid^ avTOVi 
irepie/xeLva/jbev, Trepl Oecov Se koI tS)v roiovreov 
ovx VTTopevovpev ; Kal p.rjv kol vopodeaLa ye 
ecTTL TTOV rfi pera (ppov^aeco^ p,eyL<TTri ^oijOeia, 
891 SioTi ra irepl vopov^ 7rpoaTdyp,ara ev ypdppacn 
Tedevra, co? Swaovra et? irdvTa ')(^p6vov eXey^^^ov, 
TTaPTco'i rjpep^el, coare ovt el ^aXcTra kut^ dp^dt; 
aKoveiv ecrrl (^o^'qreov, a 7' earai Kal r5> 
hvapaOel 7roXXdKc<; eiravLovn aKOirelv, ovre el 
p£LKpd, oo(f}eXipa Be' Bid ravTU Xoyov ovBanfj 
e^et ovBe oaiov €p,oiye elvai <^aiverai to prj ov 
^orjOelv TOVTOi^ rol<; X6yoi<i irdvra dvBpa Kara 
Bvvapbiv. 

ME. "ApiaTU, Si ^eve, BoKei poi Xeyeiv K.X€ivia<;. 

B A0. Kal pdXa ye, w MeytWe* Troirjreov re to? 
\eyet. Kal yap el p,r) Kareairapp^evoi rjaav 01 
roiovTot Xoyoi ev rol'i irdaiv ct)9 e7ro<? elTreiv 
dvdpcoTroi<;, ovBev av eBec TOiv eirapvvovvrwv 
Xoycov &)9 elcrl deoi' vvv Be dvdyKrj. v6poi<i ovv 
Bia(\)6eipop.euoi<i rot? peyiaToi<i viro KaKcav dvdpco 
TTcov TLva Kal p,dXXop vpoaijKei ^orjdeiv 17 vop.o- 
BeTTjv ; 

ME. OvK eaTiv. 

Ae. 'AXXa Br) Xeye p,oi nrdXiv, KXeivla, Kal 

C (TV' Koivtovov yap Bet cre elvai rSiv Xoycov 



' In Books I and II. 
« Cp. 811 D. 



318 



LAWS, BOOK X 

not statements thus made to the masses difficult for 
us to keep up with in argument, and do they not 
also involve us in arguments portentously long? 

CLIN. Well now. Stranger, if we had patience 
with ourselves when we discoursed at such length 
on the subjects of drinking and music,^ shall we 
not exercise patience in dealing with the gods and 
similar subjects? Moreover, such a discourse is of 
the greatest help for intelligent legislation, since 
legal ordinances when put in writing remain wholly 
unchanged, as though ready to submit to examination 
for all time, so that one need have no fear even if 
they are hard to listen to at first, seeing that even 
the veriest dullard can come back frequently to 
examine them, nor yet if they are length)^, provided 
that they are beneficial. Consequently, in my 
opinion, it could not possibly be either reasonable 
or pious for any man to refrain from lending his 
aid to such arguments to the best of his jx)wer.2 

MEG. What Clinias says. Stranger, is, I think, 
most excellent. 

ATM. Most certainly it is, Megillus ; and we must 
do as he says. For if the assertions mentioned had 
not been sown broadcast well-nigh over the whole 
world of men, there would have been no need of 
counter-arguments to defend the existence of the 
gods ; but as it is, they are necessary. For when 
the greatest laws are being destroyed by wicked 
men, who is more bound to come to their rescue 
than the lawgiver ? 

MEG. No one. 

ATH. Gjme now, Clinias, do you " also answer 
me again, for you too must take a hand in the 
argument) : it appears that the person who makes 



PLATO 

KivSvpevec yap 6 \eyoiv ravra irvp koX vScop 
Kul yijv Kol aepa jrpcoTa rjyeladai twv Trdvreov 
eivai, Koi tijv (^vatv ovofid^eiv ravra avrd, 
"^^XV^ Se e'/c TOvTcov varepov. eoiKe he ov 
Kivhvveveiv, dWa oVto)? arjfiaLvetp ravra rjpZv 
rat \6ya), 

KA. Hdvv fiev ovv. 

A@. 'Ayo' ovv Trpo<; Ato? olov rrrjyrjv riva 
dvoj'irov B6^q<; dv€vpt]Kap.ev dvOpooirccv oTzoaoi 
trcoTrore rdv rrepl ^vcr€(o<; iifiTjyjravro ^rjrrjfidrcov ; 
aKOTrei irdvra \6yov i^erd^MV ov yap Brj 
D afiiKpov ye to Biacpepov, el <^avelev oi Xoytov 
dirrop.evoi dae^SiV dWoi^ re e^dp')(ovre<i firjSe 
€v Tot9 \6yoi<i a\X,' €^7]fjiaprr]/j,eva}<i ')(p(o/jievot. 
BoK€i roivvv fioi ravra ovra)<i e^^^eiv. 

KA. Ei5 \e7ef9' aXV oTrrj, rreipS) (f>pd^€cv. 

Ae. "KoiKe roivvv drjOearepcov dirreov elvai 
Xoycov. 

KA. OvK OKvtjriov, St ^eve. fiavOdvco yap o)? 
vofioOeaia^ exro^ olrjaeL ^aiveiv, idv rS)v roiovrav 
aTrruifieda Xoyoov. el Be ecrri firjBafijj erep(i)<; 
avfx<f>(i)vri<Tai roc<; vvv Kara vofiov \eyofievoi<: 
E [^eo4<f] ^ &)9 6pd(A)<i exovcriv r} ravrrj, XeKreofi, w 
Oavfidaie, Koi ravrrj. 

Ae. Aiyoifi dv, o)<? eoixev, tjBtj axeBov ovk 
eltoffora \6yov riva rovBe. b irpStrov yeveaeo)^ 
Ka\ <f)Oopd<i alriov dirdvrcov, rovro ov rrpSirov 
dWa varepov d'n-€(f>i]vavro elvai yey ovo<i oi rrjv 

* [eeois] bracketed by Stallbaum, Zur. 
320 



LAWS, BOOK X 

these statements holds fire, water, earth and air to 
be the first of all thhigs, and that it is precisely 
to these things that he gives the name of " nature," 
while soul he asserts to be a later product there- 
from. Probably, indeed, he does not merely " appear " 
to do this, but actually makes it clear to us in his 
account. 

CLIN. Certainly. 

ATH. Can it be then, in Heaven's name, that now 
we have discovered, as it were, a very fountain-head 
of irrational opinion in all the men who have ever 
yet handled physical investigations ? Consider, and 
examine each statement. For it is a matter of no 
small importance if it can be shown that those 
who handle impious arguments, and lead others 
after them, employ their arguments not only ill, 
but erroneously. And this seems to me to be the 
state of affairs. 

CLIN. Well said ; but try to explain wherein the 
error lies. 

ATH. We shall probably have to handle rather 
an unusual argument. 

CLIN. We must not shrink. Stranger. You think, 
I perceive, that we shall be traversing alien ground, 
outside legislation, if we handle such arguments. 
But if there is no other way in which it is possible 
for us to speak in concert with the truth, as now 
legally declared, except this way, then in this way, 
my good sir, we must speak. 

ATH. It appears, then, that I may at once proceed 
with an argument that is somewhat unusual ; it is 
this. That which is the first cause of becoming and 
perishing in all things, this is declared by the argu- 
ments which have produced the soul of the impious 

321 

VOL. II. Y 



PLATO 

TOiv aae^wv '^v^rjv airepyacrdfievoi \6yoi, h be 
vcTTepov irporepov, odev r)p,apTi]fcaai irepl deSiv 
rf]<; ovTWi ovaCat. 
892 KA. OuTTftj fiavOdvo). 

A0. '^v')(^r]V, Si eralpe, ijyvorjKevai /civBvvevovat 
fiev oXiyov ^vp,7ravTe<; olov re ov rvy^dvei, koX 
Svva/J-iv rjv e%6t, rSyv re aWcav avrri<; rrepi koI 
Br} Kol y€V€creo)<;, co? iv irpiaroL'i earl awp^drtov 
ep-TTpocrOev Trdvrcop yevofievrj, kuI fieTa^oXr]<; re 
aiiroiv Koi p-eraKocr jirjaew^ dtrdar}^ ^PX'^'' '"'ai'TO? 
juaXXov. €t Be icrri TavTU ovrco^, ap ovk i^ 
dvdyKTj^ TO, "^v^fj^; avyyevr) irpojepa av etr) 
yeyovoTa to)V acofiari irpoa'qKoinwv, ov(rr)<; y 

B avTrjf; ^ 7rpea^VT€pa<i rj acofxaro^ ; 
KA. 'AvdyKtf. 

A&. Ao^a Br) Kal iirt/jbeXeia Kal vov<; xal Te^J^V 
Koi v6p,o<i aKXrjpSiv kol fiaXaKwv Ka\ ^apecov fcal 
/cov(f)Qiv Trporepa av eXr}' koI Brj kuI to, fieydXa 
Kal TTpcoTa epya Kal irpd^ei^ 'Te')(vr]<; av yiyvono, 
ovra iv irpoiroi^, ra Bi (pvaei kuI <f)vcn<;, tjv ovk 
6pdSi<i iiTovofjud^ovaiv avTO tovto, varepa Kal 
dp^opLGva av ex rex^V'* ^"v '^'^^ ^ov. 

C KA. ITco? OVK 6p9Q)<i ; 

A0. ^vaiv fiovXovrai Xeyeiv yeveaiv rrjv irepl 
TO, TTpoira. el Be (f)avT]aeTai "^v^^r] Trpcorov, ov 
TTvp ovBe di)p, '^v^rj S" iv irpMTOi^ yeyevrjfievrj, 
(j-'X^eBov opSorara Xeyoir av elvai Bia(f>ep6vTa,<i 
(f>vcrei. ravT ead^ outo)? exovra, dv y}rv')(^r'}v Tt<; 
eTTiBel^D npea-^vrepav ovaav adijJLajO'i, dXXo)^ Be 
ovBafj,a><>. 

1 y ouTfis Burnet (after Euseb.): toutjjj MSS. 
322 



I 



LAWS, BOOK X 

to be not first, but generated later, and that which 
is the later to be the earlier ; and because of this 
they have fallen into error regarding the real nature 
of divine existence. 

CLIN. I do not yet understand. 

ATH. As regards the soul, my comrade, nearly 
all men appear to be ignorant of its real nature and 
its fjotency, and ignorant not only of other facts 
about it, but of its origin especially, — how that it is 
one of the first existences, and prior to all bodies, 
and that it more than anvi:hing else is what governs 
all the changes and modifications of bodies. And if 
this is really the state of the case, must not things 
which are akin to soul be necessarily prior in origin 
to things which belong to body, seeing that soul 
is older than body ? ^ 

CLIN. Necessarily. 

ATH. Then opinion and reflection and thought 
and art and law will be prior to things hard and 
soft and heavy and light ; and further, the works 
and actions that are great and primary will be those 
of art, while those that are natural, and nature 
itself, — which they wTongly call by this name — will 
be secondary, and will derive their origin from art 
and reason. 

CLIN. How are they wrong ? 

ATH. By " nature " they intend to indicate 
production of things primarv- ; but if soul shall be 
shown to have been produced first (not fire or air), 
but soul first and foremost, — it would most truly be 
described as a superlatively "natural" existence. 
Such is the state of the case, provided that one can 
prove that soul is older than body, but not otherwise. 

1 Cp. Tim. 34 D. 

y2 



PLATO 

KA. ^A\r}6e<rTara Xeyet?. 

A0. OvKOvv TO, fiera ravra eV avro 8r) tovto 
(TTeWcofjieda ; 

D KA. Ti fii]v ; 

A0. ^vXaTTfOfiev Brj iravTaTraatv airaTrjXov 
Xoyov, /xi] irrj irpea^vTa^ rifid^; ovra^ veoTvperrr)^ 
cbv irapaTTeiar} koI Bia<f>vya)v KarayeXdaTOV'i 
TTOirjar), kol So^cofxev fiel^ova i-m^aWofievoi koI 
Twv a/xiKp(bv a'iroTV)((S.lv. axoTrelre ovv el /eaO- 
dvep TTOTUfiov T)/J,d<i eBei rpet? ovTWi hia^alveiv 
piovra a(f)68pa, vedoTaro^; B' eycD TVj^dviov rjfiwv 
icaX TToWcov e/i7ret/909 pevfxaTfov elirov on irpoiTov 

E e'/ze y^prjvat ireipadijvai xar ifiauTov, KuraXc- 
TTOvra vfid^ iv da(f)aX€i, crKeyfracrdai el Sia^aro^ 
earL •npea^VTepoi'i ovai Kal vpuv, rj ttco? e)(^et, 
Kal <f)avevro<i fiev ravrrj KaXeiv vfid<i Tore kuI 
crvvSia^i^d^eiv ifnreipLa, el Se d/3aro<i ^v a)? 
vixlv, iv ifiol rov klv8vpov yeyovevai, fierpLoy^; av 
ehoKOVV Xiyeiv. Kal 8t] koI vvv 6 pAXXoiV earl 
X6yo<; (T(f)o8p6Tepo<i Kal a'X^eSov tao)^ d^aTO<i q)<; 
rfi (r<pa>v pdtpir]' p-rj 8r] aKoroBiviav tXiyyov re 
vp,lv e/jLTTonjaT] irapat^epop.evo^ re Kal epcorcov 
893 d7}6ei<; 6vra<i drroKpiaecov, elr dcry^rip^oaiwriv dirpe- 
TTeidv re ivreKt) di]8rj, 8oKei 87] p,oi ^pfjvai, noielv 
ovrooal rd vvv epe, dvepwrdv rrpcorov epuivrov 
aKovovrcov vp,cov iv aa(f)aXel, Kal p,era ravra 
aTTOKpivaadat rrdXiv ipe, Kal rov Xoyov diravra 
ouro) 8ie^eX6elv, p^e'^pcTrep dv '^vxv'* "Jrepi 8ia- 
Trepdvrjrai Kal 8ei^rj irporepov ov yjrv^rjv adtpMro^. 



Cp. 886 B. 
Cp. 896 B, C. 



324 



LAWS, BOOK X 

OWN. Most true. 

ATH. Shall we then, in the next place, address 
ourselves to the task of pro\ing this? 

CLIN. Certainly. 

ATH. Let us guard against a wholly deceitful argu- 
ment, lest haply it seduce us who are old with its 
specious youthfulness, and then elude us and make 
us a laughing-stock, and so we get the reputation 
of missing even little things while aiming at big 
things. Consider then. Suppose that we three had 
to cross a river that was in violent flood, and that 
I, being the youngest of the party and ha\ing often 
had experience of currents, were to suggest that the 
projier course is for me to make an attempt first by 
mvself — lea\'ing you two in safety — to see whether 
it is possible for you older men also to cross, or how 
the matter stands, and then, if the river proved to 
be clearly fordable, I were to call you, and, by 
my experience, help you across, while if it proved 
impassable for such as you, in that case the risk 
should be wholly mine, — such a suggestion on my 
part would have sounded reasonable. So too in the 
present instance ; the argument now in front of us 
is too violent, and probably impassable, for such 
strength as you possess ; so, lest it make you faint 
and dizzy as it inishes past and poses you with 
questions you are unused to answering,^ and thus 
causes an unpleasing lack of shapeliness and seem- 
liness, I think that I ought now to act in the way 
described — question myself first, while you remain 
listening in safety, and then return answer to my- 
self, and in this way proceed through the whole 
argument until it has discussed in full the subject 
of soul, and demonstrated that soul is prior to body.^ 

325 



PLATO 

KA. "Api(TT, 0) ^eve, 8oK€L<; rifilv elprjKevai, 
TToiei re to? Xeyet?. 

B A0. "Aye B^, deov etiroTe TTapaKXrjTeov y'j/xlv, 
viiv eaTco rovro ovtq) yevofxevov' eVi ye airoSeL^iv 
ft)9 elcrl TTjv avTMV cnrovhfj Trdat} irapaKetckrjcrdwv' 
exofJ'evoi he w? tivo^ a(T(^aXov<i ireiapiaTO'i iireia- 
^aivoyfiev et? tov vvv \6yov. kui /xoi e\eyx,^p,ev(p 
irepl TO, Toiavra ipayrtjaea-iToiaiaSe da(f)a\eaTara 
diroKpiveadaL (^aiverai Kara rdSe' 'f2 ^eve, 
QTTorav (f}r] Tt9, apa ecrrijKe fiev iravra, Kivelrai 
he ovhev ; rj rovrw irav rovvavriov ; rj rd fiev 

C avrcbv KLvelrai, rd he fiepec ; Ta fiev Kivelrai 
irov, (j>i](TQ), rd he p-evei. Mwi^ ovv ovk ev %ai/3a 
rivt rd re earcora ea-rrjKe kuI rd Kivovfxeva 
Kivetrai ; TiS)^ ydp ov ; Kai rd fiev ye ev fiia 
eh pa irov rovro dv hpanj, rd he ev TrXeioai. Ta 
rrjv rSiv ecrrcorcov ev fiecra) XapL^dvovra huva/xiv 
\eyei<;, (p^a-o/jiev, ev evl KivetaOac, KaOd-nep r) rwv 
• ecrrdvai Xeyojxevcov kuk\q)v arpiiperai 7repi(f>opd ; 
'NaL fiavdavofxev he ye to? ev ravrrj rfj TrepKpopa 
rov fieyicrrov Kal rov afiiKporarov kvkXov dfia 
irepidyovcra rj roiavrrj KLvrjai'i dva \6yov eavrrjv 

D hiavefiei afxiKpol^ re Kal /xei^oaiv, eXdrroiv re 
ovaa Kal TrXeiwv Kard \6yov. hio hrj rwv 6av- 
fiaarcjv aTrdvrcov Trrjyr) yeyovev, djxa fieyaXoif 
Kal (TfiiKpoi<i kvkXoi<; ^pahvrr)rd^ re Kal rd')(r^ 
OfioXoyov/xeva iropevovaa, dhvvarov cb? dv ri<; 
iXTTLcreie yiyveadai irddo^. ""AXrjOea-rara Xeyei^;. 
Ta he ye Kivovfieva ev 7roXXol<i cftaivet fxoi Xeyeiv 
oaa ^opa Kivelrai fiera^aivovra et? erepov dei 

1 Cp. Soph. 255 flF. ; Tim. 57 S. 



LAWS, BOOK X 

CLIN. Your suggestion. Stranger, we think ex- 
cellent ; so do as you suggest. 

ATH. Come then, — if ever we ought to invoke 
God's aid, now is the time it ought to be done. 
Let the gods be invoked with all zeal to aid in 
the demonstration of their own existence. And let 
us hold fast, so to speak, to a safe cable as we 
embark on the present discussion. And it is safest, 
as it seems to me, to adopt the following method 
of reply when questions such as this are put on these 
subjects ; for instance, when a man asks me — " Do 
all things stand still, Stranger, and nothing move ? 
Or is the exact opposite the truth ? Or do some 
things move and some remain at rest ? " My answer 
will be, "Some things move, others remain at 
rest." ^ " Then do not the standing things stand, 
and the moving things move, in a certain place ? " 
" Of course." " And some will do this in one 
location, and others in several.'' " You mean," we 
•will say, "that those which have the quality of 
being at lest at the centre move in one location, 
as when the circumference of circles that are said 
to stand still revolves?" "Yes. And we perceive 
that motion of this kind, which simultaneously turns 
in this revolution both the largest circle and the 
smallest, distributes itself to small and great pro- 
portionally, altering in proportion its own quantity ; 
whereby it functions as the source of all such maivels 
as result from its suppUing great and small circles 
simultaneously with harmonizing rates of slow and 
fast speeds— a condition of things that one might 
suppose to be impossible." " Quite true." " And 
by things moving in several places you seem to me 
to mean all things that move by locomotion, con- 



PLATO 

rovov, Kol roT€ fxev eariv ore ^dcriv ev6<i KeKrrj- 
E ^leva Tt.vo'i Kevrpov, Tore Se irXeiova T(h irepi- 
KvXivhelcrdat. Trpoarvy^dvoi'Ta 8' eKciaroTe 
€KdaToi<;, Toi'i earaxri fiev Biaa-)(^i^€Tai, rot? 6' 
aXX.oi<i i^ evavria^ cnravroicri koI <^epoixevoL<; €i<? 
ev 'yLyvoiJ.eva fxeaa re koi /xera^v twv tolovtoov 
(TvyKpiveTai. Aeyco yap ovv tuvtu ovrco<i e)^ovTa 
O)? av Xeyeti;, Kat /j,i]v koI avyKpivofieva p.ev 
aii^dveraL, SiaKpivopeva Be (^diveu totc otuv j) 
KadearvKvla eKdarcov e^t9 Biafievr)- pLrj fj,€vovarj<; 
8e avrP]<; 8i dfju^orepa uTroXXvTai. ylyverat Brj 
894 irdvTOJv y€uecn<i, t^vlk av rt irddo<; rj ; BrjXov 0)9 
OTTorav dpxh Xa^ovaa av^iju eh rrjv Bevrepav 
eXOr) /x€Td^ao-iv Kal dno Tavrrj<i et9 rrjv irXrjcriov, 
Kal f^€-)(pi rpiMV eXdovaa al'trdijaiv crxv '^"^'^ 
alcrOavofievoi<i. /nera^dXXov fiev ovv ovrw Kal 
peTttKivovfievov yiyverai. ttclv eart Be 6Vt&)? ov, 
oTTorav fievT)- /xera^aXov Be eh dXXrjv e^iv 
Bi6(f)dapTai TTavTeXc!)^. ap* ovv Kivrjcrei^ Trdaa^ 
elpr'jKafiev w? ev eiBecn Xa^elv p^er dpidpov, ttX^v 
B ye, 0) (piXoi, Bvoiv ; 
KA. Yloiaiv Brj ; 

A0. X^eBov, 0) ^yaOe, eKeivacv, wv eveKa irdaa 
rjplv ecrrXv rj aKey^i<i ra vvv. 

^ i.e. with a forward gliding motion, as opposed to rolling 
forward (like a car wheel). 

^ i.e. as solid, liquid, or gaseous substance. 

^ This account of the derivation of the sense-world from 
the "starting-principle" (apxri) is obscure. It is generally 
interpreted as a "geometrical allegory," the stages of de- 
velopment being from point to line, from line to surface, 
from surface to solid, — this last only being perceptible by 
the senses (cp. Ar. de An, 404*^ 18 fF.). 

* The 8 kinds of motion here indicated are— (1) circular 
328 



LAWS, BOOK X 

tinually passing from one sjx»t to another, and 
sometimes resting on one axis ^ and sometimes, by 
revolving, on several axes. And whenever one 
such object meets another, if the other is at rest, 
the moving object is split up ; but if they collide 
with others moving to meet them from an opposite 
direction, thev form a combination which is midway 
between the two." '"'Yes, I affirm that these things 
are so, just as you describe." " Further, things in- 
crease when combined and decrease when separated 
in all cases where the regular constitution ^ of each 
persists ; but if this does not remain, then both 
these conditions cause them to perish. And what 
is the condition which must occur in ever\i:hing to 
bring about generation ? Obviously whenever a 
starting-principle receiving increase comes to the 
second change, and from this to the next, and on 
coming to the third admits of perception by per- 
cipients.^ Everything comes into being by this 
process of change and alteration ; and a thing is 
really existent whenever it remains fixed, but when 
it changes into another constitution it is utterly 
destroyed." Have we now, my friends, mentioned 
all the forms of motion, capable of numerical 
classification,^ save only two ? 

CLIN. What two ? 

ATH. Those, my good sir, for the sake of which, 
one may say, the whole of our present enquiry was 
undertaken. 

motion round a fixed centre ; (2) locomotion (gliding or 
rolling) ; (3) combination ; (4) separation ; (5) increase ; 
(6) decrease ; (7) becoming ; (8) peri.shing. The remaining 
two kinds (as described below) are — (9) other-affecting 
motion (or secondary causation); and (10) self-and-other- 
affecting motion (or primary causation). 



PLATO 

KA. Keys (Ta(f)€aTepou. 
A0. '^v)(^r]<; rjv eveicd irov ; 

KA. JIdvV fl€V ovv. 

AS. "EcTTft) Toivvv rj fiev CTepa Svva/jLevt] Kivelv 
Kt,prjcri<i, eavrrjv Be dBwarovcra, del /xia Ti<i, rj Se 
eavTr)V r del kuI erepa hvvafxevTj Kurd re 
avyKpiaei'i ev re BiaKpiaeaiv av^ai<; re koI rm 
evavrio) koI yeveaecn kol (f)dopaL<i dWr] fita Tt? 
C av Twv iracrSiv Kivrjaecov. 

KA. "Raro) yap ovv. 

A0. OvKovv TTjV fxev erepov del KLvovaav koI 
fieTa^aWofievrjii v(fi erepou 6i](TO/j,ev evdrrjv av, 
r7]V 8e eavrrjv Kivovaav kuI erepa, evap/LLOTTOvaav 
•ndcn p.ev iroiripuai, irdai Be Tradtj/JLacri, kuXov- 
fievTjv re^ oVtg)? tmv ovtcov Trdvrwv pLera^oXrjv 
Kal KivTjaiv, ravrT]v Br] ^ BcKdrrju (T)(^eBbv epovfiev. 
D KA. Uavrdiraai fiiv ovv. 

A0. Twy Brj BeKa p-dXicrja rjfilv Kivqaeatv riv 
av TrpoKpLvaifxev opdorara iracrSiv epp(op,eve(ndTrjv 
re elvai Kal rrpaKriKrjv Bia^epovrw^ ; 

KA. Mf/)t« dvdyKT) rrov cf)dvai Bta(f)epeiv rrjv 
avrrjv avrr)v Bvva/xevrjv Kivecv, rd<; Be dWa^; Trdaa<i 
varepa<;. 

A0. Fjv Xeyei'!:. dp* ovv rj/xlv rS)v vvv ovk 
6pdoi<i pr]6evro}v fxeradereov ev rj Kal Bvo ; 

KA. Hola (f)7j<; ; 

Ae. To T^9 BeKdrr](; prjdev <T')(eBov ovk 6p6a)<; 
eipijrai. 

KA. n^ ; 

A0. Upcarov yeveaei r earl Kal pcop,r) Kara 



1 T« England : Se MSS. 

« 5)j : 5e MSS. (bracketed by England) 



33° 



LAWS, BOOK X 

CLIN. Explain more clearly. 

ATH. It was undertaken, was it not, for the sake 
of soul ? 

CLIN. Certainly. 

ATH. As one of the two let us count that motion 
which is always able to move other things, but lui- 
able to move itself; and that motion which always is 
able to move both itself and other things, — by way 
of combination and separation, of increase and 
decrease, of generation and corruption, — let us count 
as another separate unit in the total number of 
motions. 

CLIN. Be it so. 

ATH. Thus we shall reckon as ninth on the list 
that motion which always moves another object and 
is moved by another ; while that motion which 
moves both itself and another, and which is har- 
moniously adapted to all forms of action and passion, 
and is termed the real change and motion of all that 
really exists, — it, 1 presume, we shall call the tenth. 

CLIN. Most certainly. 

ATH. Of our total of ten motions, which shall we 
most correctly adjudge to be the most jx)werful of 
all and excelling in effectiveness ? 

CLIN. We are bound to affirm that the motion 
which is able to move itself excels infinitely, and 
that all the rest come after it. 

ATH. Well said. Must we, then, alter one or two 
of the wrong statements we have now made ? 

CLIN, which do you mean ? 

ATH. Our statement about the tenth seems 
wrong. 

CLIN. How ? 

ATH. Logically it is first in point of origin and 

33» 



PLATO 

\6yov TO hk fi€7a tovto e^OfJi^v tovtov hevrepov, 
E apTi pTfOev aT07r&)9 evarov. 

KA. IIw? Xe7€t9 ; 

A0. 'fiSe. orav erepov aWo ri/xiv fieTa^aXr} 
KOI TOVTO aWo CTcpov ael, twv toiovtwv apa 
k(TTai TTore ti irpSiTov fJbeTa^dXkov ; koX irw^, 6 
7' civ ^ utt' aXkov KCvrjTai, toOt' ecrrat Trore tmv 
aWoiovPTcov irpoiTov ; dBvvaTov yap- aXA,' OTav 
apa avTO avTO Kivrjaav eTcpov dWoicoat], to 6' 
CTepov dWo, Ka\ ovtco Bt) '^IXi.a eVt p,vpioi<; 7/7- 
895 1*77 rat to, KivrjOevTa, p,MV dp~)(rj rt? avTcov ecrrat 
T>}9 Kivqaeoif; dtrdari^ dWrj irXrfv rj t^? avTi]<; 
avTTjv Kivi]ad(rr]<; fxeTa^oXt] ; 

KA. KttA,X,io-Ta etTre?, (TvyxoyprjTea re rouTOt?. 

A0. "Et* S^ Kal T^Se elirayp-ev, Kal diro/cpt- 
vm/xeda irdXiv rjfjLip avToiaiv. el (JTairj Trtw? tcl 
irdvTa op-oi) yevopieva, Kaddirep ol irXeiaToi tmv 
TOiovToov ToXpLwcTi Xejctv, TLV dpa iv aUTOfc? 
dvdyKT] TrpcoTTjv Kivr^aiv yevecrdac tmv elprjpevcov ; 

TrjV ^ <aVTT}V> ^ aUTTjV 81] TTOV KlVOVCaV VTT 

dXXov yap ov jirjiroTe efiirpocrdev fieTaTrecrr], 
B p^rjBefitdf ye iv avTol<i ovar)<i ep.irpoadev peTa- 
7rTCi)aeQ)<;. dp'xrjv dpa Kivqaewv Traawv Kal 
irpwTrjv ev re eaTcoai yevopeviiv Kal iv Kivovp,€voi<i 
ovcrav Trjv avTrjv Kivovaav ^rjffopev dvayKaico^ 
elvai TTpea^VTdTTjV Kal KpaTia-Trjv peTa^oXrjv 
TraaSiV, ttjv he dXXoiov pbevrjv v<ji CTepov, Kivovadv 
T€ * €Tepa BevTepav. 

* 7' hy Apelt, England : Srav MSS. 

* T^v . . . nfTairrJxrfws is assigned to Clin, by Zur. and 
most edd. I follow Hermann and Burnet. 

' <avr^v> added by Euseb., Burnet. 

« T€ Ast : 8^ MSS. 

332 



LAWS, BOOK X 

power ; and the next one is second to it, although 
we absurdly called it ninth a moment ago. 

CLIN. What do you mean ? 

ATH. This : when we find one thing changing 
another, and this in turn another, and so on, — of 
these things shall we ever find one that is the prime 
cause of change ? How will a thing that is moved 
by another ever be itself the first of the things that 
cause change ? It is impossible. But when a thing 
that has moved itself changes another thing, and 
that other a third, and the motion thus spreads pro- 
gressively through thousands ujK)n thousands of 
things, will the primary' source of all their motions 
be anything else than the movement of that which 
has moved itself? 

CLIN. Excellently put, and we must assent to 
your argument. 

ATH. Further, let us question and answer our- 
selves thus : — Sup{X)sing that the Whole of things 
were to unite and stand still, — as most of these 
thinkers^ venture to maintain, — which of the 
motions mentioned would necessarilv arise in it first ? 
That motion, of course, which is self-moving ; for it 
will never be shifled beforehand by another thing, 
since no shifting force exists in things beforehand. 
Therefore we shall assert that inasmuch as the self- 
moving motion is the starting-point of all motions and 
the first to arise in things at rest and to exist in things 
in motion, it is of necessity the most ancient and potent 
change of all, while the motion which is altered by 
another thing and itself moves others comes second. 

* ^.3. Aiiaxagoras, who taught, originally, " all things were 
together {dfiov); " and the Eleatic School (Parmenides, etc.) 
asserted that the Real World [rh 6y) is One and motionless ; 
cp, Theaet. 180 E. 

353 



PLATO 

KA. ^A\r]0€<TTara \ey€i<;. 

A®. 'Orrore Brj roivvv ivravdd icr/xev tov Xoyov, 
C roSe uTToicpLvooiieda. 

KA. To TTolov ; 

A0. 'Eai/ tSco/xev ttov ravrrjv yevofievy^v ev t&) * 
7?;iV«i> rf ivv8p(p rj irvpoeihel, Ke^wpiafievo) rj kuI 
^v/xfiiyei, Tt TTore <f)ijaop,€V ev t&) toiovto) ttuOo^ 
eivai ; 

KA. M.biv dpa /xe e/Jtwra? el ^rjv avTO irpoa- 
epovfxev orav avTo avTo kivtj ,• 

Ae. Nat. 

KA. 2ifjv' iTO)<i <ydp 01) ; 

A0. Tt Sat ; oTTOTav "^vx^rjv ev Tcaiv opoopev, 
ficov aXXo rj ravrov tovto) ; ^fjv ofioXoyrjTeov ; 

KA. OvK dXko. 
D A0. "E;T^e hrj irpb'i Afo?' a/j' ov/c dv edeXoi^ 
irepl eKacTTov Tpia voelv ; 

KA. Il&)9 Xeyet? ; 

A0. '^Ey /tiei* T^i' ovcriav, ev Be tt}? ovaia^; tov 
Xoyov, ev Be to ovofxa. koX Brj koI ep(OTi]aei<; elvai 
irepl TO ov dirav Bvo. 

KA. n&)9 Bvo ; 

A0. Tore /xev rjfxwv eKacTTOV Tovvopia irpo- 
leivofievov avTO tov Xoyov diraLTelv, tutc Be tov 
Xoyov avTov TrpoTeivo/xevov epcoTuv av Tovvofia. 

KA.^ ^Kpd ye TO TOiovBe av ^ovXop^eOa vvv 
Xeyeiv ; 

A0. To TTOCOV ; 

■ T(p England : r^ MSS. 

2 I follow Schneider and England in the assignment of the 
next eight lines (Zur., al., give only Th iro7ov ; and Hal to 
Clin. ). 

314 



LAWS, BOOK X 

cuN. Most true. 

ATH. Now that we have come to this point in our 
discourse, here is a question we may answer. 

CUN. VVhat is it ? 

ATH. If we should see that this motion had arisen 
in a thing of earth or water or fire, whether separate 
or in combination, what condition should we say 
exists in such a thing ? 

CLIN. What you ask me is, whether we are 
to speak of a thing as "aUve" when it moves 
itself? 

ATH. Yes. 

CLiN. It is alive, to be sure. 

ATH. Well then, when we see soul in things, 
must we not equally agree that they are alive ? 

CLIN. We must. 

ATH. Now stop a moment, in Heaven's name ! 
Would you not desire to observe three points about 
ever}- object ? 

CLIN. What do you mean ? 

ATH. One point is the substance, one the defini- 
tion of the substance, and one the name ; ^ and, 
moreover, about ever}-thing that exists there are two 
questions to be asked. 

CLIN. How two ? 

-ATH. At one time each of us, propounding the 
name by itself, demands the definition ; at another, 
propounding the definition by itself, he demands the 
name. 

CLIN. Is it something of this kind we mean now 
to convey? 

ATH. Of what kind ? 

1 Cp Epist. 7, 342 A, B. 

335 



PLATO 

E KA. "Eo-Tt TTov Bi^a Staipovfievov iv aWoif re 
Kai ev apidjxu). rovTot hrj tm kut dpidfiov ovofia 
fiev apriov, X0709 8e dpid/jLOf 8iaipovfjLevo<; et? 
laa Buo P'ipT), 

Ae. Nat. TO TOtOVTOV <f)pd^(0. /H(OV ovv ov 

ravTOV e/carepoxi npoaayopevo/xev, dv re rov Xoyov 
epcoTQifievoi tovvo/jm diroScBcofiev, dv re rovvofia 
TOP Xoyov, dpTiov ovofiari koI Xoycp, Bi^a Biai- 
povfj,€vov dpidfjLov, 7rpocrayopevovre<i ravrov ov ; 

KA. Uavrd-rraa-i jxev ovv. 

Ae. Hi hrj y\rv)(ri Tovvofia, Tt? rovTOv X070? ; 
896 exop'iv dWov irXrjv rov vvv Br) prjOivra, Tr)v Bvva- 
fievrjv avTT}v avrrjv Kivelv Kcvrjaiv ; 

KA. To kavTO KLvelv <pr/q \6yov e')(€Lv rr]v 
avrrjv oixriav rfvirep rovvofia Brj irdvre^ 'y^v')(r}v 
TTpoaayopevofiev ; 

A0. ^TjfML ye. el 8' ccrri tovto ovtco^; e^ov, dpa 
€Ti TTodovfiev /XT) iKavM'i BeBei^Oai yfrvx,^^ tuvtov 
ov Kal rrjv TrpcoTijv yeveaiv koI Ktvijaiv riov re 
ovTcov Kal yeyovoTiov Kal iao/xevoyv Kal iravrcov av 
B r(t>v ivavTLcov tovtoi<;, eTreiBij ye dv€(f)dvrj fiera- 
/SoX?}? T€ Kal Kt-vrjaeu)^ aTrdarj'i alrla diraaiv ; 

KA. OvK, dWa iKavMTara BeBeiKrai ^jrv^rj 
rcov 7rdvT(ov irpea^vrdTr], yevo/xev^j ye dp^r) 

KLVrj(Te(i><i. 

A0. 'A/9' OVV ovx V ^*' ^T^pov iv dWay yiyvo- 
fievr) KLV'rj(Ti<;, avro Be ev avrat fj,r]Be7roTe irapexovaa 
Kiveladai /xrjBev, Bevrepa re Kal oiroacov dpi$p,cov 
336 



LAWS, BOOK X 

CLIN. We have instances of a thing di\'isible into 
two halves, both in arithmetic and elsewhere ; in 
arithmetic the name of this is "the even," and the 
definition is "a number divisible into two equal 
parts." 

ATH. Yes, that is what I mean. So in either 
case it is the same object, is it not, which we 
describe, whether, when asked for the definition, 
we reply by gi\'ing the name, or, when asked for 
the name, we give the definition, — describing one 
and the same object by the name '• even," and by 
the definition '* a number divisible into two halves " ? 
CLIN. Most certainly. 

ATH. What is the definition of that object which 
has for its name " soul " .'' Can we give it any other 
definition than that stated just now^ — '• the motion 
able to move itself" .'' 

CLIN. Do you assert that "' self-movement " is the 
defijiition of that verj' same substance which has 
" soul " as the name we universally apply to it '' 

ATH. That is what I assert. And if this be really 
so, do we still complain that it has not been suffi- 
ciently proved that soul is identical with the prime 
origin and motion of what is, has been, and shall be, 
and of all that is opposite to these, seeing that it 
has been plainly shown to be the cause of all change 
and motion in all things? 

CLIN. We make no such complaint ; on the con- 
trary, it has been proved most sufficiently that soul 
is of all things the oldest, since it is the first principle 
of motion. 

ATH. Then is not that motion which, when it 
arises in one object, is caused by another, and which 
never supplies self-motion to anjiiliing, second in 

337 

VOL. II. Z 



PLATO 

^ovXoLTo av Tf9 apiOfielv avrrjv TroWocrrrjV, 
rocrovToav, adoixaTO^ ovaa 6vTQi<; a\frv')(^ov /xera- 
^o\rj ; ^ 

KA. 'Opdm. 

A0. ^Opd(o<i apa Kol Kvpi(t)<i aXrjdecnaTd re Kal 
C TeXecoTara elpr]K6Te<i av elfiev '^v)(r)v jxev Trporepav 
yeyovivai croifiaTOf; rjfilv, aoijxa he Bevrepov re koI 
varepov yp'U)(^fj<; dpxovarj<; dp')(opevov Kara ^vcriv. 

KA. ^ AXr^Oearara fiev ovv. 

A0. Mefiv7]p,€dd ye p.T]v 6fioXoyT]cravT€<i iv rot? 
irpoadev q)<;, el '^V)(r] ^aveirj irpea^vrepa adtipxtTO^ 
ovaa, KoX TO. ■»/^u%>}9 tS>v tov acofiarof; eaoiro irpea- 
^vrepa. 

KA. VLdvv p,ev ovv. 
D A©. T/)o7roi he Kal rjOrj Kal jSovXjjaei^ Kal 
Xoyiapol Kal ho^ac dXrjdel'i eirip^eXeiai, re Kal 
p,vrjpaL irporepa pi]K0v<; awpdrcov Kal TrXdrovq 
Kal ^ddov<i Kal pcop-rif e'ir] yeyovora dv, eXirep 
Kal "^v^h aooparo^. 

KA. ^AvdyKT]. 

A0. 'Ayo' ovv TO p^TCL 70VT0 6p,oXoyetv dvay- 
Kaiov Tcov re dyaOwv alrlav elvat y^vy(r)V Kal tmv 
KUKoJv Kal KaXwv Kal ala)(po)v hiKaiwv re Kal 
dhiKwv Kal irdvrcov tS)V evavrlcov, elirep rSiv 
TTuvTcov ye avrrjv di](Topev aiTiav ; 

KA. riw? yap ov ; 

A0. '^u^^i' hr] hiocKOvcrav Kal evoiKovaav iv 
E diraaL toI<; Trdvrri Kivovpevoi^ p,(ov ov Kai tov 
ovpavov dvdyKTf) hioiKelv (f)dvai ; 

KA. Tt p,riv ; 

A0. Miai' rj TrXetov^ ; YlXelov^' eyo) virep 
cr<f)a)v aTToKpivovfiai. hvolv p,ev ye nov eXarTOv 
338 



LAWS, BOOK X 

order — or indeed as far down the list as one cares 
to put it, — it being the change of a really soulless 
body? 

CLIN. True. 

ATH. Truly and finally, then, it would be a most 
veracious and complete statement to say that we 
find soul to b^ prior to body, and body secondary 
and posterior, soul governing and body being 
governed according to the ordinance of nature. 
CLIN. Yes, most veracious. 

ATH. We recollect, of course, that we previously 
agreed ^ that if soul could be shown to be older than 
body, then the things of soul also will be older than 
those of body. 

CLIN. Certainly we do. 

ATH. Moods and dispositions and wishes and 
calculations and true opinions and considerations 
and memories will be prior to bodily length, breadth, 
depth and strength, if soul is prior to body. 
CLIN. Necessarily. 

ATH. Must we then necessarily agree, in the 
next place, that soul is the cause of things good 
and bad, fair and foul, just and unjust, and all the 
opposites, if we are to assume it to be the cause of 
all things } 

cLiN. Of course we must. 

ATH. And as soul thus controls and indwells in 
all things everywhere that are moved, must we not 
necessarily affirm that it controls Heaven also? 
CLiN. Yes. 

ATH. One soul, is it, or several ? I will answer 
for you — "several." Anyhow, let us assume not 



» 892 A, B. 



339 
z2 



PLATO 

firjBev Ti6(OfjL€v, rfj<i re evepyiriBo'; koI t^9 ravav- 
ria SvpafjLevT)<i i^epyd^ecrdai. 

KA. X(f>68pa 6pd(t)<i eiprjKWi. 

A0. Etei'. ayei fiev Brj '^V)(rj Trdvra ra Kar 
ovpavov KoX yi]v Kol OaKarrav rai<; auTt}<i klv)]- 
897 crecriv, aU ovo/iaTd ian ^ovXeodai, aKOTrelaOai, 
e7ri/ji€XeiaOai, ^ovXeveadai, Bo^d^eiv 6pda)<;,iy{r€va- 
/ji€Vco<i, ^alpovaav, Xv7rovfievi]v, Oappovaav, (})o- 
^ovfievrjv, piaovcrav, aTepjovaav Koi 7rdaai<; oaat 
TovToov ^uyyevei<i ^] irpcorovpyol Kiv^aei<; rd<; 8eu- 
repovpyov<i av TrapaXa/i/Sdvovaai Kivrjaef^ aatfid- 
rcov dyovai irdvTa eh av^rjaiv xal (f>Oi(nv kol 
Sidxpiaiv Kol (JvyKpidiv koI tovtoi<; enropkva^ 
deppx)Tr)'Ta<i, yjrv^€i<;, ^apvTr]ra<i, KOV^OTrjja^, 
B cTKXrjpov KoX /jLoXaKov, XevKov koX fieXav, avarrjpov 
KOL yXvKv Kal Trdcriv ol<i "^v^V XP^f^^^V> vovv fiev 
irpoaXa^ovaa dev, olov 6p0a)<; ^€09,^ 6p6d Kal 
evSal/jLova Traihayonyel wdvra, dvoia he ^vyyevo- 
p,evr] irdvTa av rdvavTia tovtoi<; direpyd^erai. 
Ti0a)fi€v Tavra outco? ^X^''^> V ^'^'' ^iCTd^ofiev el 
erepo)^ 7r&)9 e^^et ; 

KA. Ov8afMCO<i. 

A0. TioTepov ovv hr] "^v^JI^ yevo<i iyKpaTet 

ovpavov Kal yr}^ Kal irda-rj^ Tr]<; nepioSov yeyo- 

vevai (f)(o/jL€v ; to ^povip-ov Kal dpeTr)<; 7rXr)pe<i, rj to 

C firjBeTepa KeKTrjfievov ; jSovXeade ovv 7rpo<; ravra 

d)Se diTOKpivcofieOa ; 

KA. IIw? ; 

A©. El fxev, M ffavjidaie, (f)(o/j.ev, 77 ^vfMTraaa 

^ oTov opdus Beos : Oehv (al. OeTov) opBws deots (marg. Qfhs ovaa) 
MSS. : dehv 6fhs ovaa Zur. {df7ov opdus diovara Winck., Herm. : 
Qelov opdSis Oehs Sis Stallb.). 



LAWS, BOOK X 

less than two — ^the beneficent soul and that which 
is capable of effecting results of the opposite kind 

CLIN. You are perfectly right. 

ATH. Very well, then. Soul drives all things in 
Heaven and earth and sea by its o>vn motions, 
of which the names are wish, reflection, forethought, 
counsel, opinion true and false, joy, grief, confidence, 
fear, hate, love, and all the motions that are akin to 
these or are prime-working motions ; these, when 
they take over the secondary motions of bodies, 
drive them all to increase and decrease and separa- 
tion and combination,^ and, supervening on these, 
to heat and cold, heaviness and lightness, hardness 
and softness, whiteness and blackness, bitterness 
and sweetness, and all those qualities which soul 
emplovs, both when it governs all things rightly and 
happily as a true goddess, in conjunction with reason, 
and when, in converse with unreason, it produces 
results which are in all respects the opposite. Shall 
we postulate that this is so, or do we still suspect 
that it may possibly be otherwise ? 

CLIN. By no means. 

ATH. Which kind of soul, then, shall we say is in 
control of Heaven and earth and the whole circle ? 
That which is \*-ise and full of goodness, or that which 
has neither quality ? To this shall we make reply as 
follows ? 

CLIN. How ? 

ATH. If, my good sir, we are to assert that the 

1 Cp. 894 B, C. 

341 



PLATO 

ovpavov 080^ afxa koX (popa koI tmv ev avrm ovrwv 
aTrdvTwv vov Kiv^crei kuI Trepi(fiopa Kal \oyiafioL<i 
ofioiav (f>vaiv e;^et koI ^vyyevo)'; epx^Tai, BP]\ov 
ft)9 T7;j/ apia-rrjv yfrvxvv (f>aT€OP eTnixekelaOai rov 
KocTfiov travTo^ koI ayeiv avrov rr^v TOiavTrjv 68ov 
eKeivrjv. 

KA. 'OpOco<;. 
D A0. Et Be fiaviKox: re xal draKTco^ epx^rai, ttjv 
KaKrjv. 

KA. Kat ravra 6pdw<i. 

A0. Tiva ovv hrj vov Kivr]<Ti<; (pvcnv ex^i ', rovro 
ijBr) '^aXeiTov, w (f)i\oi, ipcoTTjfxa dnoKpivo/Jievov 
etTrelv epn^povco'i. 810 Bi] koX i/xe t?}? aTTOKpicrea)^ 
vjxlv BiKaiov TO, vvv TrpocrXafi^dveiv. 

KA. E5 Xeyei<i. 

A0. MJ) Toivvv i^ ivavTia<i olov eh rfKiov 
dTTo^XeiTovref;, vvKra ev iiearnx^pla etrayopuevoi, 
Troi7]aro)fi€da TTjv airoKpLcriv, 6i<i vovv irore Ovrjrol^ 
o/xfiaaiv o-y^ofievoi re Kal yvcoaofxevoL lKavS><i' 
E 7r^o9 Be eiKova tov epcorcofievov fiXeirovTa^ da^a- 
Xearepov opav. 

KA. n&)9 \ey€i<; ; 

A0. *Ht irpoaeoiKC Kivijaei vov<i tmv Bexa 
eKclvcov KLvrjaewv rrjv eiKova Xd^oofiev rjv crvvava- 
fivr]adel<; iipfiv eyo) Koivfi rr)v diroKpiaiv Trocijcrofuii. 

KA. KaWfcrra dv Xeyoa. 

A0. Mep^vrjfieOa roivvv to ye roaovrov tcov 
Tore en, on rwv travrcov rd fiev KiveiaOai, rd Be 
peveiv edefiev ; 

* i.f, the uniform revolution of a sphere in the same spot 
and on its own axis: cp. 898 A ; Tim. 34 A, B ; 90 C, D. 

342 



LAWS, BOOK X 

whole course and motion of Heaven and of all it 
contains have a motion like to the motion and 
revolution and reckonings of reason,* and proceed in 
a kindred manner, then clearly we must assert that 
the best soul regulates the whole cosmos and drives 
it on its course, which is of the kind described. 

CLIN. You are right. 

ATH. But the bad soul, if it proceeds in a mad 
and disorderly way. 

CLIN. That also is right. 

ATH. Then what is the nature of the motion of 
reason ? Here, my friends, we come to a question 
that is difficult to answer wisely ; consequently, it is 
fitting that you should now call me in to assist you 
with the answer. 

CLIN. Very good. 

ATH. In making our answer let us not bring on 
night, as it were, at midday, by looking right in the 
eye of the sun,^ as though with mortal eyes we 
could ever behold reason and know it fully ; the 
safer way to behold the object with which our 
question is concerned is by looking at an image of it. 

CLIN. How do you mean ? 

ATH. Let us take as an image that one of the 
ten motions which reason resembles ; reminding our- 
selves of Mhich 3 I, along with you, \vi\\ make 
answer. 

CLIN. You will probably speak admirably. 

ATH. Do we still recollect thus much about the 
things then described, that we assumed that, of the 
total, some were in motion, others at rest ? 

' Cp. Hep. 516 A ff. 

* Cp. 893 B ff.; the motion to which reason is likened is the 
first of the ten. 

343 



PLATO 

KA. Nat. 

A0. Tmv S' av Kivovfievcov ra fxev ev evl tottw 
898 KiveicrOai, ra 8' iv irXeioai (pepofxeva. 

KA. "EcTTi Tuvra. 

A0. Tovroiv Br) roiv Kivyjcreoiv ttjv iv ivl (pepo- 
fiivijv ael irepi je tl fxecrov dvdyKT) ^ Kiveiadai tmv 
ipTopi'cov ovaav /u,Ljji,r]/u,d tl kvkXwv, elvai re avrrjv 
T^ Tov vov TrepioScp 7rdvTa)<i cof SvvaTOV olKeioTdrrjv 
T€ Kal opLoiav. 

KA. nft)9 '\.ey€i<i ; 

A&. To Kara ravrd 8^ irov koX oxravra)'; Kal 
€V tG> avrSi Kal Trepi rd avTa Kal 7rpo<; ra avrd 
Kal <Ka6'> ^ eva \6yov Kal rd^iv fiiav dfX(f)Q) 
Kiveicrdat X€yovT€<i vovv ttjv re iv ivl (fjepofievrjv 
B KLvrjo-iv, a(f)aipa<i ivropvov dtreiKaaixeva (f)opaif;, 
ovK dv TTore (pavelfiev (f)avXoi Brj/xiovpyol Xoyw 
KaXcov cIkovcov. 

KA. ^Opdorara \ey€i<;. 

A0. OvKOVv av y] ye fiijSeTrore waavrca /j-rjBe 

Kara rd avrd firjBe iv ravrw firjSe Trepl ravrd 

/jLTjSe npo^ ravrd firjS' iv evl ^epop.evq fxrjS' iv 

C KoafiQ) pLi-jK iv rd^ei firjBe ev rivi \6y(p KLvi]ai<i 

dvo'ia'i dv dirdarri'i ehj ^vyyevri<i ; 

KA. Er?; yap dv d\r]dearara. 

A0. NOi' hrj '^aXeTTOV ovBev ere BiapptjBrjv 
elirelv a)9, iireiBrj "^vxv l^^v iariv rj irepidyovaa 
r][uv Trdvra, rrjvBe ^ ovpavov TrepKpopdv ef dvdy- 
Krj'i irepidyeiv (pareov imfieXovfxevrjv Kal Koaixov- 
aav rjroi rrjv apLarrjv -^v)(riv rj rrjv ivavriav. 

^ a,v<iyKrf : avdyKif MSS., edd. 

* <Ka9"> added by Ast. 

3 rijvSi Apelt : tV 5f MSS., edd. 

344 



LAWS, BOOK X 

CLIN. Yes. 

ATH. And further, that, of those in motion, some 
move in one place, others move in several places ? 

CLIN. That is so. 

ATH. And that, of these two motions, the motion 
which moves in one place must necessarily move 
always round some centre, being a copy of the 
turned wheels ; and that this has the nearest pos- 
sible kinship and similarity to the revolution of 
reason ? ^ 

CLIN. How do you mean ? 

.\TH. If we described them both as moving 
regularly and uniformly in the same sjwt, round 
the same things and in relation to the same things, 
according to one rule and system — reason, namely, 
and the motion that spins in one place (likened to 
the spinning of a turned globe), — we should never 
be in danger of being deemed unskilful in the 
construction of fair images by speech. 

CLIN. Most true. 

ATH. On the other hand, will not the motion 
that is never uniform or regular or in the same 
place or around or in relation to the same things, 
not moving in one spot nor in any order or system 
or rule — will not this motion be akin to absolute 
unreason ? 

CLIN. It will, in very truth. 

ATH. So now there is no longer any difficulty 
in stating expressly that, inasmuch as soul is what 
we find dri\ing evert'thing round, we must affirm 
that this circumference of Heaven is of necessity 
driven round under the care and ordering of either 
the best soul or its opposite. 

1 Cp. Tim. 33 B, 34 A ; Jiep. 436 B flf. 

345 



PLATO 

KA. n ^€V€, dWa €fc ye twv vvv elpijfievwv 
ovS* oaiov dX\co<; \4yeiv rj iracrav dperrjv e'^^ovaav 
'^v')(y]v jxiav rj ■nXeiovi irepidyuv avrd. 

A0. K-dWiara, Si K.X€iVLa, v7ri]Kovaa'i Tol<; 
D \oyoif;. roSe 8e TrpocrvTraKOVcrov en. 

KA. To TToiov ; 

A0. ' YiXiov KoX aeXrjvrjv koX rd dXXa darpa, 
eiTrep '^v)(r] nepidyei Trdvra, dp ov koX ev exaa- 
rov ; 

KA. Tt firjv ; 

A0. Ilepl evo<i Si] 7ron]a(t)p,€6a X070U9, ot koL 
iirl irdvra -qpuv darpa app^oTrovre^i (pauovvrac. 

KA. Ttj/09 ; 

A0. 'RXlou 7ra9 dvdpwno'i crcopa pev opa, 
'^v')(r]v he ovhei<i' ov8e yap dXXou acopuTOf ov- 
Sevo<i ovre ^(t)VTo<i ovre aTTodvrja-KOvro<i tmv ^(o(ov, 
dX\a eXTTi'i ttoXXt] to Trapdirav to yevo^ rjpiv 
E TovTo dvaLa07jTov 7rdaai<i Tal<i rov crdiparo^; 
alcrd7]ae(ri 7repnre<pvK€vai, voiitov 5' elvai vS) 
p,6v(0' <Q» ■"■ 8r) Kol Siavoijpari Xd^copev avTov 
•nepi TO TOtoi'Se. 

KA. Tlolov ; 

A0. "¥LXiov el irepidyei "^v^/j, Tpi&v avrrjv ev 
X€yovTe<; 8pav cr^eSbv ovk dirorev^opeda. 

KA. 'YLvwv ; 

A0. 'n? 7) evovcra ivTo<; tm irept^epel tovto) 

t^aivopeva acopuTi irdvTrj htaKopi^ei to tolovtov, 

KadaTrep rjpd^ rj nap* rjp^iv yffvxv TrdvTTj jrepKpepei' 

■q TTodev e^wdev crw/ia avTfj TTopiaapevrj irvpb'; rj 

' <(y> I add : Zur. adds p.6v(f>. 

' i.e. envelopes the body and its sense-organs (like circum- 
ambient air). 
346 



LAWS, BOOK X 

CLIN. But, Stranger, judging by what has now 
been said, it is actually impious to make any 
other assertion than that these things are driven 
round by one or more souls endowed with all 
goodness. 

ATH. You have attended to our argument ad- 
mirably, Clinias. Now attend to this further point. 

CLIN. What is that ? 

ATH. If soul drives round the sum total of sun, 
moon and all other stars, does it not also drive each 
single one of them ? 

CLIN. Certainly. 

ATH. Then let us construct an argument about 
one of these stars which Avill evidently apply equally 
to them all. 

CLIN. About which one ? 

ATH. The sun's body is seen by everyone, its soul 
by no one. And the same is true of the soul of any 
other body, whether alive or dead, of living beings. 
There is, however, a strong suspicion that this class 
of object, which is wholly imperceptible to sense, 
has grown round all the senses of the body,' and 
is an object of reason alone. Therefore by reason 
and rational thought let us grasp this fact about 
it,— 

CLIN. What fact ? 

ATH. If soul drives round the sun, we shall be 
tolerably sure to be right in saving that it does one 
of three things. 

CLIN. What things ? 

ATH. That either it exists everv^where inside of 
this apparent globular body and directs it, such as 
it is, just as the soul in us moves us about in all 
ways ; or, having procured itself a body of fire or 

347 



PLATO 

rivo<: aepo<i, o><i X0709 icrri, rivoov, aydei ^ia a-oofjuni 
899 (TM/jLa' rj rpiTov avrrj yfriXt) a(OfjLaT0<; ovcra, e\ovaa 
hk Bvvdfjb€i<i aXXa<; riva<; v7r€p^aWovaa<i, dav/xari 
TToSrj'yel. 

KA.-^ Nat' TovTO fiev avdjKi], rovrcov ev je n 
hpSyaav "^vx^rjv Travra 8ia.<yeiv, 

Ae. AvTOv BrJTU pelvoV'^ Tavrrjv ttjv i^i/^t^j/, 
ecT€ €V appucriv evoiiaa r^piv rfkiov ^ dyei <i>(b<i T0t9 
airaaiv eW e^wdev etB' ottw? etd^ OTrrj, deov rjyel- 
adai %/)€(wi/ TTavra dvhpa. rj ttco? ; 
B KA. Nat, Tov 7e irov prj eVi to ea-xarov 
a(f)iyp,evov avoia<i. 

Ae. "AcTTpav 8e Brj irepi irdvTWV /cat (reXrjvrjf; 
eviavTbiv re teal prjvMv koX Traaoov oipcov iripi 
TLva dWov \6yov epovpev r) rov avrov rovrov, ft)9 
eneiSr} "^v^^rj pkv rj yjrv^al TrdvTwv tovtcov alriai 
e(f)dv'rjcrav, dyaOal 8e irdaav dperijv, deoix; avTd<i 
elvai (f)7'](Top€V, €CT€ iv (Tcopaaiv evovaai, ^coa ovra, 
Koapovai Trdvra ovpavov etre o-rrrj re koI ottoj? ; 
eaO^ oarc<; ravra opdXoycov viropevel prj Oewv 
elvai TrXijpr) rrdvra ; 
C KA. OvK ear IV ovrco^, m ^eve, Trapa^povwv 
ovhei<i. 

A0. Tft) /*€!/ roivvv prj vopl^ovri O€ov<i ev no 
Trpocrdev ^(^povw, 5) M.eyLWe re koI KXetvla, 
elirovre'i 6pov<i cnraWarrcopeOa. 

* After Ficinus and Hermann I give Nai . . . Stayed/ to 
Clin. ; Zur., al., give only tiai. 

' Srjra fif'ivov. : 5^ i/jifivov MSS. (Apelt also ci. jxelvov : 
Schneider and England bracket outoS 5^) ifinvov and add 5)j 
after ravrtiv). 

' ivovaa , . . tjXIov : ixovaa . . . t^\iov MSS., edd. 



LAWS, BOOK X 

air (as some argue), it in the form of body pushes 
forcibly on the body from outside ; or, thirdly, being 
itself void of body, but endowed with other sur- 
passingly marvellous potencies, it conducts the body. 

GUN. Yes, it must necessarily be the case tliat soul 
acts in one of these ways when it propels all things. 

ATH. Here, I pray you, jiause. This soul, — 
whether it is by riding in the car of the sun,* or 
from outside, or otherwise, that it brings light to us 
all — ever}' man is bound to regard as a god. Is not 
that so ? 

CLIN. Yes ; everyone at least who has not reached 
the uttermost verge of folly. 

ATH. Q)ncerning all the stars and the moon, and 
concerning the years and months and all seasons, 
what other account shall we give than this verv 
same, — namely, that, inasmuch as it has been shown 
that they are all caused by one or more souls, which 
are good also with all gootlness, we shall declare 
these souls to be gods, whether it be that they 
order the whole heaven by residing in bodies, as 
living creatures, or whatever the mode and method ? 
Is there any man that agrees with this view who 
will stand hearing it denied that " all things are full 
of gods " ? 2 

CLIN. There is not a man, Stranger, so wrong- 
headed as that. 

ATH. Let us, then, lay down limiting conditions 
for the man who up till now disbelieves in gods, O 
Megillus and Clinias, and so be quit of him. 

^ Cp. Tim. 41 D, E, where the Creator is said to apportion 
a soul to each star, in which it rides "as though in a 
chariot." 

- A dictum of Thales: Ar. de An. 4ll» 7 ff. 

349 



PLATO 

KA. Tiva<i ; 

A©. 'H SiBdaKeiv ?}/ia<? co? ovk opdSi'i Xiyofiev 
TiOifievoi >\rv')(r)v yeveaiv dircivroyv elvai irpoorrjv Koi 
rdWa oTToaa rovTw ^vveTTOfieva elLrrofxev, rj fir] 
hvvdfievov ^iXriov Xiyetp tj/ioov r)fjuu TreiOecrdaL 
KoX ^'pv 0€ov<; rjyov/jievov eh rov eirikonrov ^lov. 
D opMfiev ovv ei-Ve iKavco^ rfhr] rot? oy;^ r/yovfiivoa 
d€ov<; elprjKafiev co? elcrl 9eoi, etVe iTriBewf;. 

KA. "H/ciaTa ye, (o ^eve, iravTcov eVf^eeo?. 

A0. TouTOf? fiev TOLvvv rjp.lv TO Xoycov TeXo<i 
ix^TO)' TOP Be rjyovpevov pev 6eov<i eivat, p,i] 
(f)povTi^eiv Be avTOV'i rwv dvOpcoTrivwv TTpayp,dru>v, 
TrapapLvOrjTeov. '11 dpicrre Bi], (f)a)pev, on pev 
rjyel deov^, avyyeveid ri<s tcro)? are deia 7rp6<i to 
^vp(f)VTov dyei ripav koI vopi^eiv elvar kukwv he 
E dvOpMTTCov KOI dSiKcov TvycLL Ihla Kal Brjpoaia, 
dXrjdeia pev ovk evBatpovet;, B6^ai<; Be evBatpovi- 
^opevai a<p6Bpa aXX" ovk eppeXa)<;, dyoval ere tt/^o? 
dae^eiav, ev re Moyaat? ovk 6p0(2<i vp,vovpevai 
dp,a Kal ev rravToioL'i X6yoi<;. rj Kal 7rpo<; TeXo'i 
ia(i)<} [dvoalov<i] ^ dvOpdoTTOV^ 6pa>v eX06vra<i 
yi'ipao';,^ 7rai8a<; nraiBcov /caraXtTrwra? ev TtpbaU 
900 Tat? peyioTai<i, TupdrTei <6Tav> ^ to vvv ev uTraai 
T0VT0L<i [IBoiiv^ rj Bi dKofj<i ala0opevo<i 7) Kal irav- 
rdiraaiv auTO? avToirrrj'i 'trpoarvx^'i '* ttoXXwv 
dae^7]p,dTQ)v Kal Beivcov yevopevojv rial Bt avrd 
Tavra ex apiKp&v eh TVpavviBa^ re Kal rd peyiara 
d(f)iKopevoi(;' ^ Tore Bid Travra rd TOiavra BijXo^ 

' [avoalovs] omitted in best MSS. 

^ yi) pao s : yripatovs MSS., edd, 

' <Srav'> added by F^iiseb. 

* irpoffTvxi)^ '■ 'tpoffTvx^s MSS. : vpoffTux^v Zur. , vulg. 

^ cKptKOfifyois Ritter : a<l>tKofiivovs MSS., edd. 



LAWS, BOOK X 

CLIN. What conditions ? 

ATH. That either he must teach us that we are 
wrong in lading down that soul is of all things the 
first production, together with all the consequential 
statements we made, — or, if he is unable to improve 
on our account, he must believe us, and for the rest 
of his life live in veneration of the gods. Let us, 
then, consider whether our argument for the 
existence of the gods addressed to those who 
disbelieve in them has been stated adequately or 
defectively. 

CLIN. Am-thing rather than defectively, Stranger. 

ATH. Then let our argument have an end, in so 
far as it is addressed to these men. But the man 
who holds that gods exist, but pay no regard to 
human affairs, — him we must admonish. " My good 
sir," let us say, '" the fact that you believe in gods is 
due probably to a divine kinship drawing you to 
what is of like nature, to honour it and recognise its 
existence ; but the fortunes of evil and unjust men, 
both private and public, — which, though not really 
happy, are excessively and improperly lauded as 
happy by public opinion, — drive you to impiety by 
the wrong way in which they are celebrated, not 
only in poetry, b;it in tales of ever)- kind. Or 
again, when you see men attaining the goal of old 
age, and leaving behind them children's children in 
the highest offices, very likely you are disturbed, 
when amongst tlie number of these you discover — 
whether from hearsay or from your own personal 
observation — some who have been guilty of many 
dreadful impieties, and who, just because of these, 
have risen from a small jx)sition to royalty and the 
highest rank ; then the consequence of all this 

351 



PLATO 

€1 fi€/x(f)€<r6ai ixev deov<i co? alriovi 6vra<i tcov 
TOLovTcov 8ia ^vyyeveiav ovk up ideXoov dy6/j.€vo<i 
Se VTTO rivo<; a\o'yia<i d/xa koX ou hvvd^evo'i 

B Zva^epaivetv Oeoix; elf rovro vvv to TrdOoq i\7]\v- 
daq oidT elvai fiev Sokciv avrov^, Tav he dvOpco- 
TTivcov Kara(f)povelp koI dfxeXelv Trpayfidrcov. iva 
ovv fir] iirl fxel^ov e\6r) croi irddo'i tt/jo? dai^eiav to 
vvv irapov Bojfia, dXX', edv tto)? <ol6v t€>,^ olov 
aTTOoioTTO/jLTTrjaacrdai Xoyoi<{ avTo irpoaibv yevuy- 
fieda SvvaToi, ireipcofieda, cruvd-\lravTe<i top e^^? 
Xoyop (0 TTpo<s TOP TO TTapairap oi^^ r^yovfievop Oeov<; 
i^ dpxvf hieirepapdpbeda, tovtw to, i/yy Trpoaxpv- 

C aaa-dai. aif 8\ w KXeipla re Kal MeyiXXe, virep 
Tov peov Kaddirep ep rot? efnrpocrBep dTroKpipofiepoi 
oiaBe^^^eade' dp Be tl SvctkoXop efiiriTTTr) Tolf 
X6yoi<i, iyo) a<^(p axmep pvp Stj Se^dfiepa Bia^i^oi 

TOP WOTajlOP. 

KA. ^Op6S)<t Xeyei<i' koI av t€ ovtq) tuvtu 
Bpd Troii](ro/j.€P re rifiet<; et? to hvpuTOP a 
Xiyeiij. 

A0. 'AXX,' ovSep Ta^' dp iVo)? eir] '^aXeTTov 
ipBei^aaOai tovtw ^ ye, &>? i7np,eXei<i crfiiKptop elal 
6eo\ ovx '^JTTOP rj tcop fieyedei Bia<f)ep6pT(op. ijKove 
D ydp TTOV Kol Trapfjp toI<; pvp or) Xeyo/jLepoi<i, 0)9 
dyadol ye oPTe^ irdaav dpeTtjp tijp tmp irdpTWP 
eTTtfieXetap olKeiOTdTrjp avToiyv ovaap KCKTijPTai. 

KA. Kat (T(f>6Bpa ye eiTrjKOvep. 

A0. To p-eTa TOVTO tolpvp koiptj avpe^cTa^oPTcop, 
Tipa XeyopT€<i dpeTr/p avTOiP 6p.oXoyovp,ep avTOV'i 



* Koliv Te> I add {ivavTiuis for iav irt»s, Apelt). 
2 Tovr(f England : rovT6 MSS. 



3S« 



LAWS, BOOK X 

clearly is that, since on the one hand you are un- » 
willing to hold the gods responsible for such things 
because of your kinship to them, and since on the 
other hand you are driven by lack of logic and 
inability to repudiate the gods, you have come to 
your present morbid state of mind, in which j'ou 
opine that the gods exist, but scorn and neglect 
hnmanliffarrs.^n order, therefore, that your present 
opmioh may not grow to a greater height of morbid 
impiety, but that we may succeed in repelling the 
onset of its pollution (if haply we are able) by 
argument, let us endeavour to attach our next 
argument to that which we set forth in full to him 
who utterlv disbelieves in gods, and thereby to 
employ the latter as well." And do you, Clinias 
and Megillus, take the part of the young man in 
answering, as you did before ; and should ami;hing 
untoward occur in the course of the argument, I will 
make answer for you, as I did just now, and convey 
you across the stream.^ 

CLIN. A good suggestion ! We will do our best 
to carry it out ; and do you do likewise. 

ATH. Well, there will probably be no difficulty in 
proving to this man that the gods care for small 
things no less than for things superlatively great. 
For, of course, he was present at our recent argument, 
and heard that the gods, being good with all good- 
ness, possess such care of the whole as is most proper 
to themselves. 

CLIN. Most certainly he heard that. 

ATH. Let us join next in enquiring what is that 
goodness of theirs in respect of which we agree that 

» Cp. 892 D, E. 

353 

YOL. 11. A A 



PLATO 

ayaOov^ elvai. 4>€p€, to craxfipoveiv vovv re 
K€KTpja6aL (pafiev dpeTr}^, to, 8' ivavria /caKta<; ; 

KA. ^a/iev. 

A®. Tt Bai ; apeTr]<; fiev avhpiav elvai, BeiXiav 
Be KaKi,a<; ; 

KA. Udvv jxev ovv. 
E A0. Kat TCI fj,ev alaXpO' rovrcov, rd Be KaXa 
<f)i]aofi€V ; 

KA. ^AvdyKr}. 

A0. Kai Ttav fiev TrpoarjKeLV r^pXv, etirep, oiroaa 
(f)\avpa, deol<; Be ovre /xeya ovre a/xiKpov roiv 
TOtovTcov fierov epov/xev ; 

KA. Kat ravd^ ovtco^ ofioXoyol Tra? dv. 

A©. Tt Bai ; dfieXetdv re Kal dpylav koI Tpv(f)r)v 
et9 dperrjv "^v^t]^ dr]aofiei> ; rj ttw? Xeyeif; ; 

KA. Kal TTw? ; 

A0. 'AW' €49 rovvavTLOv ; 

KA. Nat. 
901 A0. l^dvavria dpa rovrot^ eU Tovvavriov. 

KA. Tovvavriov. 

A0. Tt ovv Brj ; rpv<f)(Ji)v Kal dp,e\ri<; dpyo<; re, 
hv 6 TTOirjrrj'i Ki](j)rjaL KoQovpoLai p^dXiara eiKeXov 
€(f)a<rKev elvai, yiyvoir dv [o] ^ roiovro<; ird^ 

KA. ^Opdorard ye elrrcov. 

A0. OvKovv rov ye deov ov pijreov ex^i-v tjOot; 
roiovrov 6 ye roi avro^ fiicrel' rw re ri rotovrov 
(fideyyeaOac Treipoiixevw ovk emrpeTrreov. 

KA. Ou iiev Br)' irSi^i yap dv ; 

A0. ^Q.L Bt] 7rpoai]Kei fiev wpdrreiv Kal iiri/jie- 



[6] bracketed by Burnet. 



554 



LAWS, BOOK X 

they are good. Come now. do we say that prudence 
and the possession of reason are parts of goodness, 
and the opposites of these of badness ? 

CLIN. We do say so. 

ATH. And further, that courage is part of good- 
ness, and cowardice of badness .'' 

CLIN. Cei-tainly. 

ATH. And shall we say that some of these are 
foul, others fair.'' 

CLIN. Necessarily. 

ATH. And shall we say that all such as are mean 
belong to us, if to anyone, whereas the gods have no 
share in any such things, great or small } 

CLIN. To this, too, everyone would assent. 

ATH. Well then, shall we reckon neglect, idle- 
ness and indolence as goodness of soul ? Or how 
say you? 

CLIN. How could we ? 

ATH. As the opposite, then ? 

CLIN. Yes. 

ATH. And the opposites of these as of the opposite 
quality of soul ? 

cLiN. Of the opposite quality. 

ATH. What then ? He who is indolent, careless 
and idle will be in our eyes what the poet described ^ 
— " a man most like to sting-less drones " ? 

CLIN. A most true description. 

ATH. That God has such a character we must 
certainly deny, seeing that he hates it ; nor must 
we allow anyone to attempt to say so. 

CLIN. We could not possibly allow that. 

ATH. When a person whose duty it is especially 

^ Hesiod Op. D. 303 f. : ry Sc fleol pefxtaioffi koI itvifiti or 
Kfv afpyhs I C'^Vy icri(p4)Vfa(ri KoOovpoa cTKeXos 6pfii)y. 

355 

A a2 



PLATO 

B \eladat, Bia<p€p6vT(i><i rLv6<;, 6 Be tovtov ye vov<; 
t6>v fiev fieydXcov eTrifieXeiTai, tcov afUKpcov 8e 
afieXel, Kara riva i7raivovi^Te<i rov toiovtov Xoyov 
ovK av TravTuTraai 7r\7]/j,/xe\oifi€v ; (TKOTTOifiev he 
coBe. ap ov Kara Bvo etBrj to toiovtov rrpaTTei 6 
TTpuTToyv, ciVe ^€09 eiT avdpcoiro^ ; 
KA. Tlotft) Brj Xeyofiev ; 

A0. *H Bia(f>€pop ovBev ol6^ievo<i elvai tw okco 
C d/j,e\ov/j,€va)V tcov cr/jLiKpoJv, rj padvfita koI rpvcfyyj, 
el Biacpepeiv,^ 6 Be d/j,eXel. rj eaTiv dXXco<; tt&j? 
yiyvofievi] dfieXeia ; ou yap irov otuv ye dBuvuTOV 
y TOiv diravTcov e-rrLfxeXeladai., Tore dfieXeia eaTai 
T(ov cr^LKpSyv rj fieydXcov fir) eirifxeXovfieva), (av av 
Bvvdfjiei 6eb<; rj (f)avX6<; Ti? a)V eXXnrr]^; koI firj 
BwaTo^; eirifieXeladaL ylyvrjTat. 
KA. Do)? ydp dv ; 

A0. NOi' Brj Bv^ 6vT€'i Tptalv rifiiv ovaiv drro- 
Kpivdadcocrav ol deov<i fiev dfufjoTepoi ofioXoyovv- 
T€<; elvai, jrapaiTrjTOv^ Be dTepo<i, 6 Be dfieXei<i tcov 
D crfitKpwv. TrpwTOV fxev 6eov<i dfi(f>6T€poi (f)aTe 
yiyvdiaKeiv Kal opav kuI uKOveiv irdvTa, Xadelv 
Be avTOv<i ovBev BvvaTov elvat Ttoi/ oiroawv 
elalv [at] ^ aladrjaei^i re koI iTrcaTrj/nat. TavTrj 
Xeyere e')(eiv TavTa, rj 7rw9 ; 

KA. Ol/TG)9. 

A0. Tt Bal ; Bvvacrdai irdvTa oiroauiv av 
Bvvafxi<; icTi Ovr)TOL<; re kuI dOavdTOC^ ; 

KA. lift)? ydp ov (Tvy\(opr\(TOVTai koX TavTa 
ovTW'i €)(eiv ; 



^ 5ia(f>fpeiv : Sioi^f'pft MSS., edd. 

' [ai] ora Euseb. : bracketed by Hermann. 



356 



LAWS, BOOK X 

to act and care for some object has a mind that cares 
for great things, but neglects small things, on what 
principle could we praise such a person without the 
utmost impropriety ? Let us consider the matter in 
this way : the action of him who acts thus, be he 
god or man, takes one of two forms, does it not ? 

CLIN. What forms ? 

ATH. Either because he thinks that neglect of 
the small things makes no difference to the whole, 
or else, owing to laziness and indolence, he neglects 
them, though he thinks they do make a difference. 
Or is there any other way in which neglect occurs ? 
For when it is impossible to care for all things, it 
A\ill not in that case be neglect of great things or 
small when a person — be he god or common man — 
fails to care for things which he lacks the power and 
capacity to care for. 

CLIN. Of course not. 

ATH. Now to us three let these two men make 
answer, of whom both agree that gods exist, but the 
one asserts that they can be bribed, and the other 
that they neglect the small. First, you both 
assert that the gods know and hear and see all 
things,^ and that nothing of all that is apprehended 
by senses or sciences can escape their notice ; do you 
assert that this is so, or what ? 

CLIN. That is Avhat we assert. ^ 

ATH. And further, that they can do all that can 
be done by mortal or immortal ? 

CLIN. They will, of course, admit that this also is 
the case. 

» Cp. 641 E. 

* Here, and in what follows, Clinias is answering on behalf 
of the two misbelievers. 

357 



PLATO 

E A0. Kal firjv dyaOov'i ye kuI apicrrov^ oo/jloXo- 
yrjKa/jLev avTOv<i elvai irevTe ovre^. 

KA. X(f)68pa <ye. 

A0. A^ ovv 01) padvpia fiev Kal rpv^fj dhvva- 
Tov avrovi o/xoXoyelv Trpdrreiv otlovv to Trapdirav, 
6vTa<i <ye oiov<i Xeyofiev ; SetXta? yap e/cyovof; ev 
ye "qfilv dpyia, paOvjua he dpyia<i Kal Tpv^r)<i. 

KA. ^ AXtjOearara Xeyet?. 

A0, ^ Apyia fiev Srj Kal pa6v/j.La ov8€l<i ctfieXel 
Oeoiv ov yap fiereaTiv avrw rrov BeiXla<;. 

KA. ^Opdorara XeyeL<i. 
902 A0. OvKovv TO XoLTTov, etirep dfieXovcrc rcov 
cfMiKpoyv Kal oXiywv twv irepl to irdv, rj yiyvma- 
K0VT€<; 0)9 TO TTapd-rrav ov8ev6<; tmv tocovtq}V 
eirifieXeladai hei, Spwev dv tovto, rj tl to Xoittov 
irXrjv Tw yiyvaxTKeiv TovvavTLOV ; 

KA. OvBiv. 

A0. IloTepov ovv, m dpccTTe Kal ^eXTiaTe, Ooo/xev 
ere XeyovTa, &)? dyvoovvTd<^ t€ Kal Seov eVtytteXet- 
adat St' dyvoiav d/jLeXovvTa<i, rj yiyvmaKovTa^; oti 
hel, Kaddirep ol c^avXoTaTOi tcov dvOpcoTrtov Xeyov- 
Tai TTOielv, et8oT€9 dXXa elvat ^eXTUo irpaTTeiv wv 
Br) irpdTTOvcn hid Tiva<i i]Tra<; rjBouwv 17 XvTrwp 
B ov TTOielv ; 

KA. TIw? yap dv ; 

A0. OvKovv 8t) Ttt ye dvOptoinva TrpdyfiaTa 
Tr]<; Te ifiyjrv)(^ov fieTCxei (f)vcr€(i)<; dfia, Kal Oeocre- 
^ecTTaTov avTo iaTi irdpTcoi' ^dicov dvOpcti'7ro<; ; 

KA. "Eot/ffi yovv. 

358 



LAWS, BOOK X 

ATH. And it is undeniable that all five of us 
agreed that the gods are good, yea, exceeding 
good. 

CLIN. Most certainly. 

ATH. Being, then, such as we agree, is it not 
inijx)ssible to allow that they do an^-thing at all in a 
lazy and indolent way .'' For certainly amongst us 
mortals idleness is the child of cowardice, and lazi- 
ness of idleness and indolence. 

CLIN. Very true. 

ATH. None, then, of the gods is neglectful owing 
to idleness and laziness, seeing that none has any 
part in cowardice. 

CLIN. You are very right. 

ATH. Further, if they do neglect the small and 
scant things of the All, they will do so either because 
they know that there is no need at all to care for 
any such things or — well, what other alternative is 
there except the opposite of knowing ? 

CLIN. There is none. 

ATH. Shall we then assume, my worthy and ex- 
cellent sir, that you assert that the gods are ignorant, 
and that it is through ignorance that they are 
neglectful when they ought to be showing care, — or 
that they know indeed what is needful, yet act as 
the worst of men are said to do, who. though they 
know that other things are better to do than what 
they are doing, yet do them not, owing to their being 
somehow defeated by pleasures or pains ? 

CLiN. Impossible. 

ATH. Do not human affairs share in animate 
nature, and is not man himself, too, the most god- 
fearing of all living creatures ? 

CLIN. That is certainly probable. 

359 



PLATO 

A0. ©ewj/ 76 firjv /crijfiard (ftafxev elvai iravja 
oiroaa dvqra fwa, oivrrep koI tov ovpavov oXov. 

KA. n<u9 yap ov ; 

A0. "HSt; Toivvv CTfiiKpa 77 /xeydXa rt? ^axft) 

C Taina eivai Tol<i Oeoi^' ouSere/JG)? yap rot? 

KeKTr)jj,€VOi<i J7/ia9 d/xeXelv av etr) irpoarJKOV, 

eTri/jLeXea'TdTOi'; ye ovai kuI dplcnoi^. a-KOTTco/xev 

yap Srj kuI ToSe ere 7rpo<i tovtol^. 

KA. To TTolov ; 

A0. To irepi re aladrjcrea)^ Kal 8vvdfieci}<i, ap^ 
ovK evavTL(o<: dWtjXoiv tt/oo? oaa-roovrjv xal ^a\e- 
iroTijrd i(Trov ire^vKOTe ; 

KA. IIw? Xiyefi ; 

A0. Opav flip irov koI aKoveiv ra apuKpa 
'X^aXeircoTepov rj to, fieydXa, (f)ep€iv 8e av Kal 
Kparelv Kac eirifieXeia-dac rcov afiiKpwv Koi oXiycov 
iravrl paov rj rwv ivavrioyv. 
D KA. Kal iroXv ye, 

A0. larpo) Be it poaieTaypevov oXov ti Oepa- 
irevetv ^ovXofievrp Kal twajxevw, roiv fiev p,eydXwv 
€7n/ubeXov/j,evby, rcov p-opioiv Se Kal cr/iiKpcov d/xe- 
XovvTi, e^ei ttotc «aXw9 avTtp ro vdv ; 

KA. OvSafiax;. 

A0. Ov firjv ovBe Kv^epvrjrai^ ovhe aTpaTr]yol<; 
ovS* oLKOvofioi^ ovS" av rial TroXiriKol<i ov8' dXXo) 
rSiv roiovrcov ovSevl %&J/3t9 ratv oXiycop Kal 
E (T/j,iKp(ov TToXXd Tj fieydXa' ovBe yap dvev ap,iKp6i)V 
rov<i fieydXovi (paalv 01 XidoXoyoi Xidov^ ev 
KelaOai. 

KA. n&i? yap av ; 

A0. M^ roivvv rov ye deov d^idxrco/xev wore 
dvqrSiV BrjfiiovpyMV ^avXorepov, ot rd irpoa- 
360 



LAWS, BOOK X 

ATH. We affirm that all mortal creatures are 
possessions of the gods, to whom belongs also the 
whole heaven. 

CLIN. Of course. 

ATH. That Ijeing so, it matters not whether a 
man says that these things are small or great in the 
eyes of the gods ; for in neither case would it behove 
those who are our owners to be neglectful, seeing 
that they are most careful and most good. For let 
us notice this further fact 

CLIN. What is it .'' 

ATH. In regard to perception and power, — are not 
these two naturally opposed in respect of ease and 
difficulty .'' 

CLIN. How do you mean ? 

ATH. It is more difficult to see and hear small 
things than great ; but everyone finds it more easy 
to move, control and care for things small and few 
than their opposites. 

CLIN. Much more. 

ATH. When a physician is charged with the 
curing of a whole body, if, while he is willing and 
able to care for the large |)arts, he neglects the small 
parts and members, will he ever find the whole in 
good condition? 

CLIN. Certainly not. 

ATH. Xo more will pilots or generals or house- 
managers, nor yet statesmen or any other such 
persons, find that the many and great thrive ajaart 
from the few and small ; for even masons say that 
big stones are not well laid without little stones. 

CLIN. They cannot be. 

ATH. Let us never suppose that God is inferior to 
mortal craftsmen who, the better they are, the more 

361 



PLATO 

rJKOvra avToc<; epya, oarpTrep av dfieivovi axri, 
Too-ft) cLKpi^ecTTepa koX TsKecoTepa /j,id Te)(yr} 
(TfiiKpa Kal /iieydXa direpyd^ovTai' rov 8e 6eov, 
ovTU re (TO(f)(i)TaTOV ^ovXofievov r eTrifieXciaOai 
903 Kal Svvdfxevov, mv fiev paov rjv eTTip-eX-rjOrjuaL 
(TfiiKpoiv ovTcov firjSafii] iiri/jieXelcrdai Kaddirep 
dpybv T] SeiXov riva Scd irovov; padvpiovvTa, tcov 
he fieydXcov. 

KA. M.r]8a/xco<; Bo^av roiavrrjv irepl Oecov, (o 
^ive, dTTohe-)((ofie9a' ov8a/jLfj yap ovre ocnov out' 
dXrjOe^ TO Siavorjfxa Biavooified^ dv. 

A0. ^OKov/iev Be fioc vvv ijBr] Kal p,d\a 
fieTpi(i)<; BieiXe)(^dai rw (piXaiTio) rr]<i d/jL€\€La<; irept 
deSiv. 

KA. Nat. 

A0. Tw ye ^id^ecrOai toI<; X070/9 ofioXoyelv 
B avTov /i^ \eyeiv opdoo^. eTrwBtav ye firjv irpoa- 
Belcrdat jioi BoKel /xvdcov eri, rivcov. 

KA. Tloiwv, (!) ^yaOk ; 

A0. TleiOwp,ev top veaviav rol<; X6yoi,<i co? tm 
Tov iravTO^ eiTifieXovfievw tt/jo? Tr)v aoyTrjpiav 
Kal dperrjv rov oXov irdvT ecrri crvPTerayfieva, 
wv Kal TO fiepo<; eh Bvvap.iv eKacrrov to irpoarjKOV 
irda^ei Kal troiel. Tovroi<; 8' elcrlv ap^oi'Te? 
TrpoareraypievoL €Kdaroi<; eyrl ro ap^iKpoTajov 
del irdOrj'i Kal irpd^ewi, el<i p,epLap,ov tov t'cr^a- 
C TOV <T0>^ TeXo9 direipyaapevoL' &v ev Kal to 
(TOV, w (x^eTXte, poptov eh to irdv ^vvTeivei, 
^XeiTOV del, Kaiirep 7rdv(rp,iKpov ov. ae Be 
XeXrjde Trepl tovto avTO d)? yevecn<i ev€Ka eKeivov 
yiyveTat irdaa, oirca fj r) to) tov iravTO'i ySieo 
VTrdp^ovcra evBalp-wv ovaia, ovx evCKa aov 

36a 



LAWS, BOOK X 

accurately and perfectly do they execute their proper 
tasks, small and great, by one single art, — or that 
God, who is most wise, and both willing and able to 
care, cares not at all for the small things which are 
the easier to care for — like one who shirks the 
labour because he is idle and cowardly, — but only for 
the great. 

CLIN. By no means let us accept such an opinion 
of the gods, Stranger : that would be to adopt a view 
that is neither pious nor true at all. 

ATH. And now. as I think, we have argued quite 
sufficiently with him who loves to censure the gods 
for neglect. 

CLIN. Yes. 

ATH. And it was by forcing him by our arguments 
to acknowledge that what he says is wrong. But 
still he needs also, as it seems to me, some words of 
counsel to act as a charm upon him. 

CLIN. What kind of words, my good sir ? 

ATH. Let us persuade the young man by our 
discourse that all things are ordered systematically 
by Him who cares for the World-all with a view to 
the preservation and excellence of the Whole, where- 
of also each part, so far as it can, does and suffers 
what is proper to it. To each of these parts, down 
to the smallest fraction, rulers of their action and 
passion are appointed to bring about fulfilment even 
to the uttermost fraction ; whereof thy portion also, 
O perverse man, is one, and tends therefore always in 
its striving towards the All, tiny though it be. But 
thou feilest to perceive that all partial generation is 
for the sake of the Whole, in order that for the life 
of the World-all blissful existence may be secured, — 

^ <Tb> added by Stephens. 

3«8 



PLATO 

'yi'^vofievt], (TV he eveKa eKeivov. 7rd<i yap tarpon 
Kal 7ra9 eVre^i^o? Br]fiiovpjo<; 7ravT0<i p,€V eveKa 
iravra epyd^erat, tt/jo? to koivtj ^vvTeivwv /SeXri- 
(TTov, fiepo^ fiTjv eveKa 6\ov Kal ov^ oXov pepovq 

D eveKa aTrepyd^erai. crv 8e dyavaKTel^ dyvomv 
oirrj TO Trepl ae dpiarov rat iravrl Pva^aivei Kal 
aoi Kara ovva/J,Lv rrjv Trj<; koivt}^ yeveaew^. eirei 
he del "^v-^^tj avvTerayp,evii aco/jiaTi Tore pev 
dW.(p, TOTC he dXX.<p, pera^dWet iravToia^ 
p€Ta^oX.a<; hi eavrrjv rj hi erepav '^v')(i^v, ovhev 
aXXo kpyov rm ireTrevTrj Xeiirerai irXrjv pera- 
Tidevai TO pev dp,eivov yiyvopevov ^jOo<i et9 ^eXrio) 
TOTTOv, ■)(^eipov he et? toi' x^lpova, Kara to irpeirov 
avrS)v €Ka(TTOv, iva rr]<; TrpoatjKova-rj'i poipa^ 
Xay^^dvr). 

E KA. n^ Xeyei^ ; 

Ae. Hnrep av e'X^oi \oyov pacrrdovrj eTnpe\eLa<; 
0eol<i Ta)v TrdvTcov, Tavrrj pot hoKOi (^pd^eiv el 
prj ^ yap Trpo<i ro 6\ov del ^Xeirwv irXdrToi rit 
peTaa-)(rjpari^(t)v rd ndvra, olov ck Trvpo'i vhcop 
[epyjrvxov],^ Kal prj ^vprroXXa i^ evb<; rj e« 
904 TToXXfov ev, 7rp(OT7]<i rj hevrepa^ 77 Kal TpiTr)<i 
yevecreax; pereiXrjipoTa irXrjdecnv direip ^ av eir} 
[ra] T^9 peraTtdepevrj^ Koaprjaeoys' vvv h* eo-rl 
davpaarrj pacrrcovr) rw rou Travr6<i eiripeXovpeva. 
KA. n 0)9 a 5 Xeyei^ ; 

A©. D.he. eireihrj Karelhev rjpwv 6 l3a(TiX€v<; 
epyjrv^ov^ ovcra<i rdf irpd^ei'; dirda-a^ Kal TroXXrjv 

1 M^ Apelt : iJiiv MSS. 
* [ffirpvxov'] I bracket {l^/x^vxpov Stallb.). 
' Hirtip' MSS.: iirop' MS. marg. , Zur. ; MSS. om. ra (vulg. 
om. T^j). 

364 



LAWS, BOOK X 

it not being generated for thy sake, but thou for its 
sake. For every physician and every trained crafts- 
man works always for the sake of a Whole, and 
strives after what is best in general, and he produces 
a |)art for the sake of a whole, and not a whole for 
the sake of a part ; but thou art vexed, because thou 
knowest not how what is best in thy case for tlie 
All turns out best for thyself also, in accordance 
with the power of your common origin. And inas- 
much as soul, being conjoined now with one body, 
now \\ith another, is always undergoing all kinds of 
changes either of itself or owing to another soul, 
there is left for the draughts-player no further 
task, — save only to shift the character that grows 
better to a superior place, and the worse to a worse, 
according to what best suits each of them, so that 
to each may be allotted its appropriate destiny. 

CLIN. In what way do you mean ? 

ATH. The way I am describing is, I believe, that 
in which supervision of all things is most easy for 
the gods. For if one were to shape all things, with- 
out a constant view to the Whole, by transforming 
them (as, for instance, fire into water), instead of 
merely converting one into many or many into one, 
then when things had shared in a first, or second, or 
even third generation,^ they would be countless in 
number in such a system of transformations ; but as 
things are, the task before the Supervisor of the 
All is wondrous easy. 

CLIN. How do you mean ? 

ATH. Thus : — Since our King saw that all actions 
involve soul, and contain much good and much evil, 

^ This seems to refer to tliree stages of the soul's incar- 
nation ; see p. 367, n. 2. 

365 



PLATO 

fiev dperrjv ev avral^ ovaav, ttoWtjv Se KUKiav, 
avcoXeOpov he ov 'yevoixevov, aX,X' ovk aloovcov, 
yjrvxv^ KoX (Tco/xa, Kaddirep ol Kara voixov 6vre<i 
6eoi — yeveai^; yap ovk dv it ore tjv ^(ixov diroXo- 

B [xevov TOVTOLV darepov — koX to fiev oxjieXelv del 
7r€(f)VK0<i, oaov dyadov '^v)(ri<;, Bi€vor]dr}, to 8e 
KUKov ^XdirTeiv ravra irdvra ^vvthiov i/xtj^av^- 
aaro irov Keifxevov eKaarov tmv /xepcjv viKwaav 
dpeTrjV, r^TTOipLevrjv he KaKtav, iv tm Travrl 
irape^oi fidXiar dv Kal paara Kal dptara. 
/xep.r))(^dvi]Tat hrj Trpo? Trdv tovto to ttoIov tl 
ytyi'Ofievop del iroiav ehpav hei /jLeToXdfi^ai'OV 
oiKi^eo'dat Kal TLva<i irore tottou?. t^? he yeve- 
(T€(o<i Tov TToiov TLVO'i d(f)f]K€ Tat<? ^ovXtjaeaiv 

C eKaoTcov rjpoiv rd^ atrta?. ottt] yap dv emdvpf] 
Kal o'iToi6<i Ti<i a)v ttjv yfrv^^v, TavTj) cr')(ehov 
eKaaroTe Kal toiovto^ yiyveTai d-rra^ rjp,(op a)? 
TO 7ro\v. 

KA. To yovv eiKo^. 

A0. MeraySaWei /xev tolvvv irdvd^ oaa fieTo^d 
iart, '^v^r]<;, ev eavrol^ KeKrrj/xeva ttjv t-P]^ /xera- 
^o\i]<i alriav pLerajBdWovTa he (^eperai Kara 
TTJV T?}? eifiapfjLevr)<i Ta^iv Kal v6/xov. cT/xiKpoTepa 
fiev TOiv r^doiv fiera^dWovra eXdrTco Kara to 
Tr}? '^copa<i eTTLTrehov pbeTairopeveTaiy TrXelo) he Kal 

D dhiKWTepa jxeTaTrecrovTa eh ^ddo'; tu re kutq) 
Xeyofxeva tmv totvwv, oaa "Aihrjv re «at Ta 
TOVTCOV e'X^opeva twv ovofiaToov e7rovopd^ovTe<i 
(r(f>6hpa ^o^ovvTUi Kal oveipoiroXovaL ^(0VTe<i hia- 
\vdevTe<i T€ TMV crco/jLarcov. fiei^o) he hrj yfrv^V 

1 Cp. Tim. 37 C S. 
366 



LAWS, BOOK X 

and that body and soul are, when generated, indestruc- 
tible but not eternal,^ as are the gods ordained by law 
(for if either soul or body had been destroyed, there 
would never have been generation of liNing creatures), 
and since He perceived that all soul that is good 
naturally tends always to benefit, but the bad to 
injure, — observing all this. He designed a location 
for each of the parts, wherein it might secure the 
victory of goodness in the Whole and the defeat of 
evil most completely, easily, and well. For this 
purpose He has designed the rule which prescribes 
what kind of character should be set to dwell in what 
kind of position and in what regions ; ^ but the 
causes of the generation of anv special kind he left 
to the wills of each one of us men.^ For according 
to the trend of our desires and the nature of our 
souls, each one of us generally becomes of a corres- 
ponding character. 

CLIN. That is certainly probable. 

ATH. All things that share in soul change, since 
they possess within themselves the cause of change, 
and in changing they move according to the law and 
order of destiny ; the smaller the change of character, 
the less is the movement over surface in space, but 
when the change is great and towards great iniquity, 
then they move towards the deep and the so-called 
lower regions, regarding which — under the names of 
Hades and the like — men are haunted by most fear- 
ful imaginings, both when alive and when disf)arted 
from their bodies. And whenever the soul gets a 

• Cp. Tim. 42 B ff. where it is said that the soul of the 
good man returns at death to its native star, v.hile that of 
the bad takes the form of a woman in its second, and that 
of a beast in its third incarnation. 

» Cp. Rep. 617 E. 

3^7 



PLATO 

KaKLa^ r) dp€TT]<; ottotuv /xeTaXd^rf Bed rrjv avrfjf; 
fiouXrjcTLv T€ vat ofitXiav 'y€VOfiept]v i<T')(ypdv, 
OTTorav fxev dpery deia irpoafu^acra 'yi'yvriTaL 
8ia(f)ep6vT(i)<; roiavrrj, Bia(f)epovTa koX fxeTe^dXe 
TOTTOv, dylav o86v ^ p,€raKop,i,(r6eiaa el<i dp-eLvto 
E rivd TOTTOV erepov orav Be rdvavria, eVt rdvavria 
/xeOcBpvcraaa rov avTrj<i ^iov. 

avTT} rot, Blkt) earl deu)v o'c "OXv/xttop e^^ovaiv, 

& Trai Kot veaviCKe dpeXelcrOai Bokmv vtto deSiV 
KaKio) pev 'yi'yvopevov tt/jo? rd^ kukIov^ \frv)(^d<i, 
dpeivco Be irpo'i ra? dpeivov<i, iropeuopevov ev re 
^a)fj Koi ev irdat, 6avdroi<i 'nd(T')(eiv re d irpoarJKOv 
Bpav iarl rol<; 7rpo(T(f)epeac rov<; TrpocTcpepeU kuI 
905 TTOieiv.^ ravrr}<i rr)<; BUrj'i oure crv pi] irore ovre 
el a\Xo9 drv^r)(; yevopevo'i iirev^rjrai Trepiyev- 
eaOai dewv fjv Traacov Blkcov Bia<f)ep6vro)<; 
era^dv re ol rd^avre<i ^(^peoiv re i^evXa/Selcrdac 
TO rrapdirav. ov ydp dp€\r]d>'](Tei irore vtt' avrri<i' 
ou^ ovroi apiKpo^ oiv Bvaei Kard ro rrj<; 7779 
/3ddo<;, ovB' vyjrrjXo'i yevopevo^ el^ rov oupavbv 
dva7rrr](Tei, rlaei^; Be avrcov rrjv rrpocrrjKovcrav 
ripwpiav etr' evddBe pevcov etre koI ev "AiBov 
B Bia7rop€vd€l<i etre koI rovrcov ft? dypicorepov en 
BiaKopLcdel^ roTTOV. 6 avro<i Be X0709 aoL koI 
irepl eKeivcov dv eirj, rtbv ot>9 av KariBoov ck 
(TpiKpcov peydXov<i yeyovora^ dvoaioupyi](Tavra(; 
i] ri roiovrov 7rpd^avra<; cprjdrj^ i^ ddXioiv ev- 

^ a7ia»' iSbi/ Badham : a^ioj' SAoj-MSS., edd.(SA\cj' Winck.). 
* Ka\ iroif'iv placed by Zur. , vulg., after irdax^^" ''*> l*ut by 
MSS. after wpoffffptis (so Hermann). 

1 Odyss. XIX. 43. 
368 



LAWS, BOOK X 

specially large share of either virtue or vice, owing to 
the force of its own will and the influence of its 
intercourse growing strong, then, if it is in union 
with divine virtue, it becomes thereby eminently 
virtuous, and moves to an eminent region, being 
transported by a holy road to another and a better 
region ; whereas, if the opposite is the case, it 
changes to the opposite tlie location of its life's 
abode. " This is the just decree of the gods who 
inhabit OhTnpus," ^ O thou child and stripling who 
thinkest thou art neglected by the gods, — the decree 
that as thou becomest worse, thou goest to the 
company of the worse souls, and as thou becomest 
better, to the better souls ; and that, alike in life and 
in every shape of death, thou both doest and sufferest 
what it is befitting that like should do towards like.^ 
From this decree of Heaven neither wilt thou nor 
any other luckless wight ever boast that he has 
escaped ; for this decree is one which the gods who 
have enjoined it have enjoined above all others, and 
meet it is that it should be most strictly observed. 
For by it thou wilt not ever be neglected, neither if 
thou shouldest dive, in thy very littleness, into the 
depths of the earth below, nor if thou shouldest soar 
up to the height of Heaven above ; but thou shalt 
pay to the gods thy due penalty, whether thou 
remainest here on earth, or hast passed away to 
Hades, or art transported to a region yet more fear- 
some. And the same rule, let me tell thee, will 
apply also to those whom thou sawest growing to 
great estate from small after doing acts of impiety or 
other such evil, — concerning whom thou didst deem 
that the}' had risen from misery to happiness, and 

» Cp. 728 B f., 837 A. 

369 

VOL. II. B B 



PLATO 

haifiova^ yeyovivai, Kara 0)9 iv /caroTTTpot? avrtov 
Tat9 TTpd^eaiv r/y^crco KadewpaKevai jr^v irdvTiov 
dfieXeiav 6ewv, ovk etSeo? avrSiv ttjv avvrekeiav, 
C OTTT] TTore T(p iravrl ^v/jb^dWerai. yiyvcoaKeiv 
Be avT))v, 0) Trdvrcov avSpeioraTe, 7r&j9 ov Seiv 
8oKei<; ; rjv ri^ firj yiyvoiaKOiv ovB^ av rvirov thoi 
TTOre, ovBe \6yov^ ^vfx^dWeaOai irepl ^lov hvva- 
T09 ap yivoiTO et9 euBai/xoviav re kol hvahaipiova 
rv')(iiv. ravra el fiev ere nreldei KXeii'La<i 68e 
/cal ^vp,7raaa r^pLOdv rjhe rj yepovaia, irepl Oecov 
0)9 OVK olcr6a 6 ti Xeyei^, KdXa)<; dv aoi 6 de6<i 
avTo<i ^vWa/x^dvor el B' tViSe^? en \6yov Tiv6<i 
av €t'r)<i, Xeyovrwv rjpcov 7rpo9 rov Tpirov eiraKOve, 
D el vovv Kal OTrcoaovp ej\;ei9. oxt /nev yap deoi 
t' eicrl Ka\ dvOpooTrcov iirifieXovvrai, eYwye ov 
iravrdiraa-i (f)av\o)<; av (f)aLijv tj/jliv dTroSeSei^dai' 
TO Be TrapatTTjTovq av deov<i ^ elvat rolaiv 
dBiKOixTi, Be')(^o/j,evov^ Btopa, ovre tlvX avyyw- 
pr}Teov iravri j av Kara Bvva/xiv rpoiro) eXey- 
Kreov. 

KA, YiaXXiar elire^, iroico/jLev re &)9 Xeyei<;. 

A0. ^epe Bt] 7r/J09 Oecov avrcov, rlva rpoirov 

7rapaLr7]Tol yiyvoivr dv ijpuv, el ytyvoivro av ; 

E Kal TtVe9 ^ TTolol rive<i 6vre<; ; dp-)(^ovra<i p.ev 

dvayKolov rrov ylyveaQai rov<i ye BLoiKi](jovra<i 

rov diravra evBeXexoy<i ovpavov. 

KA. Ovrox:. 

A0. 'AXX* dparicrt 7rpo<T(f)€pei<; reoi' ap^ovrcov ; 
7} rive^ rovroi<i, mv Bvvarov rjpuv dTreiKa^ovai 
Tvyx^dveiv fxel^ocnv eXdrrova<i ; rrorepov i]vio'\oi 

1 ouSe \6yov MSS. : ou5' tiv \6yovs ah MSS., Zur. 
* av Qfovs MSS. : clvtovs Stobaeus, Zur. 

370 



LAWS, BOOK X 

didst imagine, therefore, that iii their actions, as in 
mirrors, thou didst behold the entire neglect of the 
gods, not knowing of their joint contribution and 
how it contributes to the All. And surely, O most 
courageous of men, thou canst not but suppose that 
this is a thing thou must needs learn. For if a man 
learns not this, he can never see even an outline of 
the truth, nor will he be able to contribute an account 
of life as regards its happiness or its unhappy fortune. 
If Clinias here and all our gathering of elders succeed 
in convincing thee of this fact, that thou knowesl not 
what thou sayest about the gotls, then God Himself 
of His grace will aid thee ; but shouldest thou still 
be in need of further argument, give ear to us while 
we argue with the third unbeliever, if thou hast sense 
at all. For we have proved, as I would maintain, 
by fairly sufficient argument that the gods exist and 
care for men ; the next contention, that the gods can 
be won over by wrongdoers,^ on the receipt of bribes, 
is one that no one should admit, and we must try to 
refute it by every means in our jx)wer. 

ci.iN. Admirably spoken : let us do as you say. 

ATH. Come now, in the name of these gods 
themselves I ask — in what way would they come to 
be seduced by us, if seduced they were ? Being 
what in their essence and character ? Necessarily 
they must be rulers, if they are to be in continual 
control of the whole heaven. 

CLIN. True. 

ATH. But to which kind of rulers are they like ? 
Or which are like to them, of those rulers whom we 
can fairly compare with them, as small with great ? 

' Cp. Horn. 21. IX. 497 fiF., roi/s {6eovs) . . . Am/S^ re Kviini rt 
rapzrpwTua' iydpwroi ktX. 

bb2 



PLATO 

Tiva av elev toiovtoi ^evycov ufiiXXoi/jLevfav 
rj ttXolcov Kv^epvrjrai ; to-x^ ^^ f^^^ aireiKa- 
adelev CTparoirehoiV dp^ovai Ticriv. eh] B' av /cal 
vocrwv iroXefiov €u\a^ov/j,€voi<i larpol<; ioiKevai 
906 irepX crto/iara, r) 'yecop'yol^ irepl (pvrojv yeveaiv 
elo)Ovia<; (iipa<i xaXeiT aq 8ia (f)6^(ov TrpoaSexo- 
/jLevoi<;, 7) Kol TTOifiviwv iTnardraL^;. iirethrj <yap 
avy/cex^oopW^/^^^ VH-^^ (^i'toI^ elvai fiev top ovpa- 
vov TToWSiv p,earov ayadcov, etvat Sk xal tcov 
ivavTLoiv, frXeLovoiv he rcov firj, /jLa^V hrj, <f)a/j,€v, 
addvaTO^ eariv 1) TOiavrrj koI <f)v\aKr}<i 6av- 
fjLaaTt]<i Beo/xivi], ^v/xfia^oi Be rjfilv Oeoi re afxa 
Koi Baiixove<i, i)/J.ei^ B' av Krrjp.ara 6eS)V koX 
Baifxovcov (f)6et,pei Be r}fj,d<; dBiKca Kal v^pif ixerd 

B u(f)pocrvi>7]<;, (Tco^ei Be BiKaioavvrj Kal crQ)(f)po(Tvvr] 
fierd (f)pov^aeco<;, iv ral<i twv deSiv ifiyfrvxoi^ 
oiKovaai Bvvdfieai, fipa^v Be ri Kal rfjBe dv ri<; 
TU)V TOiovT(ov ivoiKOvv Tjfitv aa(f)€<i iBoi. "yfrvxcil 
Bi] TiV€<i eirl 7% ocKovaat Kal dBiKov \rj/xfxa 
KeKTrjfjLevai, Br]\ov on drjpiwBeLq 7rpo<; Ta? Totv 
<f>v\dKQ)v ■yjrvxd'i dpa kvv&v rj Td<i rwv vofiecov 
rj irpo^ Ta<i tcov iravTaTraaip aKpoTaroiv Becriro- 
rdov TrpoairiirTovaai ireiOovat OtoTreiaif; \6ycov, 

C Kal iv evKTalai<; Tialv eTTwSat?, o)? ai (pfj/xai (f>aaiv 
al TCOV KaKcov, i^elvai irXeoveKrova-t a(f>iaiv iv 
dv6p(07roi<i Trdax^i-J^ firjBev ^aXeTroi'. <pap,6v B 
elvai TTOU to vvv ovofia^o/xevov d/j,dpTr}fia rrjv 
irXeove^iav iv fiev <rapKivoi<i acofiaai voa-rjfia 



1 Cp. 904 A ff., 896 C ff., Hep. 379 C. 
» Cp. Phacdo 62 B. 



372 



LAWS, BOOK X 

Would drivers of rival teams resemble them, or pilots 
of ships ? Or perhajjs they might be likened to 
rulers of armies ; or |X)ssibly they might be com})ared 
to physicians watching over a war against bodily 
disease, or to farmers fearfully awaiting seasons of 
wonted difficulty for the generation of plants, or else 
to masters of flocks. For seeing that we have agreed ^ 
among ourselves that the heaven is full of many things 
that are good, and of the opjwsite kind also, and that 
those not good are the more numerous, such a battle, 
we affirm, is undying, and needs a wondrous watchful- 
ness, — the gods and daemons being our allies, and we 
the possession ^ of the gods and daemons ; and what 
destroys us is iniquity and insolence combined \*ith 
folly, what saves us, justice and temperance combined 
with wisdom, which dwell in the animate powers of 
the gods, and of which some small trace may be 
clearly seen here also residing in us. But there are 
certain souls that dwell on earth and have acquired 
unjust gain which, being plainly bestial, beseech the 
souls of the guardians — whether they be watch-dogs 
or herdsmen or the most exalted of masters — trjing 
to convince them by fawning words and prayerful 
incantations that (as the tales of evil men relate) 
they can profiteer among men on earth without any 
severe penalty : but we assert that the sin now 
mentioned, of profiteering or " over-gaining," is what 
is called in the case of fleshly bodies " disease," ' in 

» Cp. R^. 609, Symp. 188 A ff., where the theory is stated 
that health depends upon the " harmony," or equal balance, 
of the constituent elements of the body (" heat" and " cold."' 
"moisture" and "drynes.s,") ; when any of these (opposite) 
elements is in excess {v\(oyfKTt7), disease sets in. So, too, 
in the "body politic," the excess of due measure bj- any 
element, or member, is injustice. 

373 



PLATO 

KaXovfievov, iv he (t)pai<; irmv Kal eviavToU 
'Soifjiov, €V Se TToXea-i Kal iroXireiaif; tovto avro, 
prj/xari ^ fieTea'^rjfxaTKT/xevov, dSiKiav. 

KA. YlavrcLTTacn fiev ovv. 

A0. TovTOv Brj rov Xoyov avayKalov Xeyeiv 
rov Xeyovra co? elcrl (xvyyvwfxove^i ael deoi Tol<i 
D TMV avd poiTTWv dSiKoi<; Kal dSiKovaiv, dv avrol<; 
TOiV dBtKrjfiaToyv Ti? inrovefXTj, Kaddirep <Cet'^ ^ 
Kval \vKOi T(t)v dpTraa/jLarcov a-fxiKpa airovefioiev, 
ol he rjfxepov/xevoi tol<; Scopot^ (rvy)(^a>polev ra 
iroLfivia hiapTrd^eiv. dp ov^ outo? o X0709 
T(av (fyacTKovTcov irapanrjTov'i eivai, Oeovi ; 

KA. OvTo<; fxev ovv. 

A0. Tiaiv ovv Br) twv "rrpopprjdevTcov direi- 

Ka^oyv opLoiovi (^v\aKa<i elvai deovf ovk dv Kara- 

ye\acno<i yiyvoiro dvdpcoTrcov ocrriaovv ; iroTepov 

E Kv^€pvi]rai<;, Xoi^fj re otvov KVLcrrj re irapaTpeTro- 

fievoi<; avTol<i, dvarpeTTOVcn he vav<; re Kal vavTa<; ; 

KA. ^i'qhaixo)'^. 

A0. 'AA,X,' ov Ti p,7]v rjvioxoKTi ye iv dfiiXXr) 
(rvvT€Tay/xevoi<i, ireiadelcnv viro ha>ped<i erepoiat 
Tr]v viKTjv ^evyeai TrpoSovvai. 

KA. Aeivrjv yap ecKova Xeyoi^ dv Xeycov tov 

XoyOV TOVTOV. 

A0. Ov fiTjV ovhe o-TpaTiiyoU ye ouS' larpol'i 
ovhe yeoapyol^ ovhe vofievcriv, ov firjv ovhe Ticri 
Kval KCKrjXrjfievoi^ viro Xvkcov. 

KA. FjV(f>7]/j,er TToi? yap dv ; 
907 A0. 'A\\' ov TTavTCdV (^vXaKfuv elal fieyKXTOL 
Kal vepl Ta fxeyioTa rjfiiv ol 7rdvT€<; Oeot ; 

1 ain6, (ffifiaTi MSS., Burnet : ad rh ^rj/ia MSS. marg., Zur. 

2 <fi> added by Hermann. 

374 



LAWS, BOOK X 

that of seasons and years " pestilence," and in that 
of States and polities, by a verbal change, this same 
sin is called " injustice." 

CLIN. Certainly. 

ATH. Such must necessarily be the account of the 
matter given by the man who says that the gods are 
always merciful to unjust men and those who act 
unjustly, provided that one gives them a share of 
one's unjust gains ; it is just as if wolves were to 
give small bits of their prey to watch-dogs, and they 
being mollified by the gifts Avere to allow them to go 
ravening among the flocks. Is not this the account 
given by the man who asserts that the gods are 
open to bribes ? 

CLIN. It is. 

ATH. To which of the guardians aforementioned 
might a man liken the gods without incurring 
ridicule ? Is it to pilots, who, when warped them- 
selves by wine's '•' flow and flavour,'' ^ overturn both 
ships and sailors .* 

CLIN. By no means. 

ATH. And surely not to drivers ranged up for a 
race and seduced by a gift to lose it in favour of 
other teams ? 

CLIN. If that was the account you gave of them, 
it would indeed be a horrible comparison. 

ATH. Nor, surely, to generals or physicians or 
farmers or herdsmen ; nor yet to dogs charmed by 
wolves .'' 

CLIN. Hush ! That is quite impossible. 

ATH. Are not all gods the greatest of all guard- 
ians, and over the greatest things } 

» //. IX. 500 (quot€d above, p. 371, n. 1). 

375 



PLATO 

KA. HoXv ye. 

A0. ToL'9 8r] KoXXiard re Trpdyfiara cfivXaT' 
TOi/ra? Bia(f)€povTd<; re avTOV<i <j)v\aKrj<i^ Trpo? 
dp€TT)v KvvSiv x^Lpovi Kol dv6p(07ra)V fieaoiv eivai 
(f)i]ao/j,€v, o'c TO Slkuiov ovk dv TTore irpoholev eveKa 
B(opo)v Trapa dhiKOiv dvhpwv dvoaiwi SiSofxivwv ; 
B KA. OySa/ico9* ovre dv€KTo<; 6 X6709, tmv re 
TTcpl irdaav dai^eiav ovtwv KivBvveuei 7rd<; 6 
TavT7]<; T% Bo^r)^ dvreyofj.evo'i Trdvrwv dv rSiv 
dae^wv KeKpiadai SiKaiorara kukloto'; re elvai 
KoX dae^eaTaTo<;. 

A0. Ta fjiev 8r} irporedevTa rpia, deoi re o)? 
eiVt Kol ft)9 eVt/ieXet? koI trapa ro BiKaiov 6i<i 
rravrdrraaiv d-napairrjroi, ^wfiev iKavM<i drro- 
Behel-xOai ttov ; 

KA. IToJ? yap ov ; kuI avfi-\p'y](f)ol, ye rovroi<i 
TOt? \6yoi<; ia-fiev. 

A0. Kat /jiTjv etprjvral, ye 7r&)9 acpoBporepov Bid 
C ^iXovtKiav rcov Ka/ccov dvOpmircov. lovrov ye 
fjurjv eveKa, w <^tXe KXeivia, Tre(f)iXovLKr]vrai, [xrj 
TTore \6yot<; rjyMvrat Kparovvre<; e^ovaiav elvai 
<T(f)L(Tiv d ^ovXovrai rrpdrreiv 01 KaKol, d Br) koI 
oaa Kal ola irepX 6eov<; Biavoovvrai. irpodupila 
fiev Br) Bid ravra veQ)repco<i elirelv tj/jlIv yeyovev 
el Be ri Kal ^pa'xy rrpovpyov 7re7rot7]Kapev ei<i ro 
nreiOeiv tttj tou? dvBpa<i eavrov<i fxev piaijcrai, 
rd 8' evavria tto)? rjOrj arep^ai, Ka\ci)<; -qpuv 
D elprj/mevov dv etrj ro irpooifiLOv d(Te/3eia<; irepi voficov. 

KA. AWa eA.7rt9* el Be fii], ro ye rov \6you 
yevo<i OVK alridaovrai ^ rov vofioOerrjv. 

^ (l>vXaKrjs : (pvXaKy MSS., edd. 

* alriaffovrai ; alTidffeTat MSS., edd. 



LAWS, BOOK X 

CLIN. Yes. by far. 

ATH. Shall we say that those who watch over the 
fairest things, and who are themselves eminently 
good at keeping watch, are inferior to dogs and 
ordinary men, who would never betray justice for 
the sake of gifts impiously offered by unjust men ? 

CLIN. By no means ; it is an intolerable thing to 
say, and Mhoever embraces such an opinion would 
most justly be adjudged the worst and most impious 
of all the impious men who practise impiety in all its 
forms. 

ATH. May we now say that we have fully proved 
our three propositions, — namely, that the gods exist, 
and that they are careful, and that they are wholly 
incapable of being seduced to transgress justice ? 

CLIN. Certainly we may ; and in these statements 
you have our support. 

ATH. And truly they have been made in some- 
what vehement tenns, in our desire for victorv over 
those wicked men ; and our desire for victory was 
due to our fear lest haply, if they gained the mastery 
in argument, they should suppose they had gained 
the right to act as they chose — those men who 
wickedly hold all those false notions about the gods. 
On this account we have been zealous to speak with 
special \igour ; and if we have produced any good 
effect, however small, in the way of persuading the 
men to hate themselves and to feel some love for an 
opposite kind of character, then our prelude to the 
laws respecting impiety will not have been s|X)ken 
amiss. 

CLIN. Well, there is hope ; and if not, at any rate 
no fault will be found with the lawgiver in respect 
of the nature of the argument. 

377 



PLATO 

A0. Mera to TTpoolfxtov rolvvv Xojo^ oto<; av 
rSiV voficov ep/jLTjvev^ 6pdSi<i <yi<yvoLTo i)^lv, irpo- 
a'yopevwv i^la-raadai jracn toI^ dcre^eai rpoTTcov 
TMv auTcov el<i rov<; euo-eySet?. Tol<i Se fii] irei- 
Oofiivoi^ aaefieia<; oSe ecrTco jrepi v6fio<;' 'Edv Tf<? 
dcre^fj \6yoi<; eiV epyoL<i, o irapaTvy^dvoov 
E dfivveTQ) crrjixaivwv tt/oo? dp-)(ovra<i, joiv he dp-)(pv- 
T(t)v 01 Trpcoroi irvdo/xevoi 7r/309 to irepl rovrcov 
inroSeSeiy/xivov Kpiveiv SiKuaTtjpcov elcrayayovrcov 
Kara tov^ v6/jlov(;' edv 5e ri^ aKOvaacra dpXV f^V 
Bpa TavTa, avrrj dael3eia<i v7r68tKO<; yiyveadco rrp 
eOeXovTi TLfjLfopelv virep tmp vopLtov. idv hi Tc<i 
OipX-ij, TifiaTO) TO htKaari'jpiov €v ^ eKaaTO) rSiv 
908 Kad' €v dae^ovvTcov Tifiijfxa. h€afio<; fiev ovv vtt- 
ap^eTQ) irdar heaficoTTjpiaiv he ovtoov iv ttj TroXet 
rpicov, ev6<i p.ev KOivov TOi? irXeiaroL^ Trepl dyopdv, 
cra)Tripia<i evexa rot<; TroXX-ot? twv am/iidTcov, €vo<i 
he Trepl rov tcov vuKTcop a vWey op,ev(ov ^vWoyov, 
aco(fipovia-T7]piov eirovopa^o/jievov, evo9 he av Kard 
/jLea-rjj/ Trjv ^(^Mpav, oirrjTrep dv epr]fio<; re Kol co? 
OTi fidXiara dypicoraro'i r/ totto?, Ti/x(opi,a<; e^wv 
eTTwvvjxiav (ptjfxtjv rivd. Trepl dae/3eiav he ovtwv 
B alTtai<; fiev Tpiaiv, alcnrep koX hiyjXdo/iev, hvo he 
i^ eKd(Trr]<i t?'}9 ToiavTr}<; alTLa<; yevofievojv, e^ dv 
yiyvoiVTO, d kuI hiaKpiaem<i d^ta yevrj tojv Trepl ra 
Oela e^afiapTavovTwv, ovk iar}<; ovS" 6/.iOLa^ hLK)]^; 
heop-eva. w yap dv fit] vo/xi^ovrt 6eov<; eivai to 
TrapdTrav ■^]6o<; (pvaei Trpoayevrjrai hiKaiov, jxi- 
aovvTe<i T€ yLyvovTai tou? KaKovs, Kal tm hva^^e- 

^ (V Schneider, Hermann : iv MSS. 



378 



1 Cp. 767 C, D, 855 C. 



LAWS, BOOK X 

ATH. After the prelude it will be proper for us to 
have a statement of a kind suitable to serve as the 
laws' interpreter, forewarning all the impious to quit 
their ways for those of piety. For those who disobey, 
this shall be the law concerning impiety : — If anyone 
conmiits impiety either by word or deed, he that 
meets ^vith him shall defend the law by informing the 
magistrates, and the first magistrates who hear of it 
shall bring the man up before the court ^ appointed 
to decide such cases as the laws direct ; and if any 
magistrate on hearing of the matter fail to do this, he 
himself shall be liable to a charge of impiet\' at the 
hands of him who ^\-ishes to punish him on behalf of 
the laws. And if a man be convicted, the court 
shall assess one penalty for each separate act of 
impiety. Imprisonment shall be imposed in every 
case ; and since there are three prisons in the State 
(namely, one public prison near the market for 
most cases, to secure the persons of the average 
criminals ; a second, situated near the a'^';t■lnbly- 
room of the officials who hold nightly ai-Linl)lies,- 
and named the " reformatory " ; and a third, situated 
in the middle of the country, in the wildest and 
loneliest spot possible, and named after "retribu- 
tion" 2), and since men are involved in impiety from 
the three causes which we have described, and from 
each such cause two forms of impiety result — conse- 
quently those who sin in respect of religion fall into 
six classes which require to be distinguished, as 
needing penalties that are neither equal nor similar. 
For while those who, though they utterly disbelieve 
in the existence of the gods, possess by nature a just 
character, both hate the evil and, because of their 

* Cp. 909 A, 961 A ff. » Cp. 704 B. 

379 



PLATO 

pacveiv Trjv aSiKLav ovre Ta<; Toiavra<; T}-pd^€i<i 
TrpocTievTai irpajTeiv rou<; re jxrj SiKatovi rwv 

C avdpMTTcov (f)6V'yov(Ti KoX Toix; 8iKalov<; arepyovaii/, 
ol<; 8' av 7rpo<i ttj ho^y tfj deoiv eprjfxa elvai 
iravja aKpareiai re rjBovcbv Koi Xvirwv irpoa- 
wecTfoai, pvrjiJLai re la')(ypal kuI [xadrjaei^ o^etai 
TrapaxTi, to fiev firj vofxi^eiv Oeov<i ap,(f)ocv av 
ivuTTcip'^oi Koivov irddo'i, rfj Be rwv aXXcov dv- 
dpayjTwv X(o/3j] to fiev iXdrrio, to Se Trkelw Kaica 
ipyd^ocr dv. o peu yap \6y(p re av iTepl deov'i 
TTupp-qaia^ eh] fieaTO^ Kal irepl 6vcrLa<i re kuI 

D opKOv<i, Kal o)9 rSiv dWcov KarayeXSyv rd^ dv 
erepovi toiovtov^ aTrepyd^oiTO, 8iKr]<; fj,rj rvy- 
'X^avwv he hrj So^u^cov pev KaOdrrrep drepo^, 
ev(f)vrj<; 8e eiTiKaXovpevo^, hokov 8r) Kal eve8pa<i 
irXrjpri^, e^ a)v p,dvTei<i re KaraaKevd^ovTai ttoWoI 
Kal jrepl irdcrav ttjv payyaveiav yey evrjpevoi,^ 
ylyvovrai he e^ avrcov eariv ore Kal rvpavvoi Kal 
hrjprjyopot Kal aTparriyoi, Kal Te\eTal<; he lhLai<i 
eVt^eySouAei'/coTe?, (TocpicrTcov re einKaXovpevwv 
p^rj'^avai. tovtmv hrj TroWd pev elhrj yevoir av 

E Ta he v6p,aiv d^ta deaew<i hvo, d)v to p,€V elpooviKov 
ovx, ev6<; ovhe hvotv d^ia davdTOiv dpbdpTavov, to he 
vov6eTr](Tea>^ dpa Kal heap^wv heopevov. Q)aavT(o<; 
he Kal TO 0€ov<; vopn^ov dpeXelv hv erepa yevva 
Kal TO 7rapaiTr]T0v<; dWa hvo. tovtcov hr) TavTij 
hiecTTTjKOTayv tou? p,ev Ott' dvoLa<; dvev KdKr}^ opyrjf; 
re Kol i]Oov<; yey evi]pevou<; et? to aaxppovia-T/jpiov 



ytyevrififvot : KfKtyriufvoi 



MSS. 



^ i.e. " hypocritical," hiding impiety under a cloak of 
religion. 

380 



LAWS, BOOK X 

dislike of injustice, are incapable of being induced to 
commit unjust actions, and flee from unjust men and 
love the just, on the other hand, those who, besides 
holding that the world is empty of gods, are afflicted 
by incontinence in respect of pleasures and pains, 
and possess also powerful memories and sharp 
wits — though both these classes share alike in the 
disease of atheism, vet in respect of the amount of 
ruin they bring on other people, the latter class 
would work more and the former less of evil. For 
whereas the one class will be quite frank in its 
language about the gods and about sacrifices and 
oaths, and by ridiculing other }>eople will probably 
convert others to its views, unless it meets with 
punishment, the other class, while holding the same 
opinions as the former, yet being specially " gifted 
by nature" and being full of craft and guile, is the 
class out of which are manufactured many diviners and 
experts in all manner of jugglery; and from it, too, 
there spring sometimes tyrants and demagogues and 
generals, and those who plot by means of |jeculiar 
mystic rites of their own, and the de\ices of those 
who are called ''sophists." Of these there may be 
many kinds ; but those which call for legislation are 
two, of which the " ironic "^ kind commits sins that 
deserve not one death only or two, while the other 
kind requires both admonition and imprisonment. 
Likewise also the belief that the gods are neglectful 
breeds two other kinds of impiety ; and the belief in 
their being open to bribes, other two. These kinds 
being thus distinguished, those criminals who suffer 
from folly,2 being devoid of evil disposition and 
character, shall be placed by the judge according to 

« Cp. 863 B, C. 

381 



PLATO 

8iKa(nr)<; rtOejievo^ vofiw Tt6iad(o firjBev ekaTTOv 
eroiv TTevre. iv rovrw he rw y^povw ixi^hei^ roiv 

909 7ro\na)v avTol<i aWo<i avyyiyi^ecrdco TrXrjv ol rov 
vuKTspivov ^vWoyov Koiv(ovouvTe<i, iirl vovde- 
r^crei re Kai t^ t% "^i^X*}"? acoTrjpia 6/xiXovvt€<;' 
OTav S' 6 ^p6vo<; avTOi<i i^eXdrj rcov Bea/xcov, iap 
p,ev SoKrj Ti9 aco^poveiv avroiv, olKeira) fiera rcov 
aoxppovcov, iap 3e jj,7], o^eiXt] 5' av6i<i tijv roi- 
avrrjv hiKrjv, davdjcp ^7]/j,iovad(i). oaoi B' av 
drjpKoBec^ yevwvTai 7rp6<i rw ^eoi/? [/xr;] ^ vo/xi^eiv 

B *] d/x-eXet? ?} TrapaLr7)Tov<i elvai, KaTacfipovovvTa 
Se TOi)v av6 payjrbiv yjru^^aycoytoari fiev iroXXoii^ tcov 
i^oivrmv, Tov<; he reOvewra^ <^da Kovre'i "^v^a- 
ycoyelv Kol 0€ov<; VTria')(yovpevoi "neideiv, cof 
Overlaid re kol evxai^ kol €7T0)Bai<; yo7]revovre<i, 
iBicora<i re Koi oX.a<i olKia<; kuI TroXei? 'X^pTjfxdrcov 
Xdpiv eTTix^ipMai, Kar dxpa^ i^aipelv, rovrcov Be 
09 dv 6(f>\cov elvai Bo^rj, ri/u,drQ) ro BiKaart'/piov 
aura) Kara pofiov BeBeaOai jxev ev ra> rcov /xeao- 

C yeiwv Beaficorrjpio), irpocTievai Be avrw /xrjBeva 
eXevOepov firiBeirore, raKrrjv Be vtto rcov vo/jlo- 
(fivXdKcov avrov<; rpo^rjv rrapd roiv oiKerSyv 
Xa/ii^dveiv. drrodavovra Be e^o) roiv oplcov e/c- 
^dXXetv dra<f)ov' edv Be ri<i iXev6epo<; crwddrrrrj, 
BiKaf da€^ela<i rut edeXovri Xayxdvetv vTrex^ro). 
TralBa^ Be dv /xev KaraXiTrr) rfj iroXei iKavov'i, 

01 rcov 6p(f)avci)V e7ri/j.eXovfX€voi Kal rovrcov, (i? 
D ovrcov 6p<pav(t)v, eTTi^eXelaOcdv /j,r]Bev x^tpov Twy 

dXXfov diro rr)^ i)iiepa<i 979 dv Trarrjp avrcov 
6(j)Xr] rr)v Blkijv. 

1 [f^^] bracketed by Stallb., Hermann. 
382 



LAWS, BOOK X 

law in the reformatory for a period of not less than 
five years, during which time no other of the citizens 
shall hold intercourse with them, save only those 
who take part in the noc;turnal assembl}^ and they 
shall company with them to minister to their souls' 
salvation by admonition ; and when the period of 
their incarceration has expired, if any of them seems 
to be reformed, he shall dwell with those who are 
reformed, but if not, and if he be con\icted again on 
a like charge, he shall be pimished by death. But 
as to all those who have become like ravening 
beasts, and who, besides holding that the gods 
are negligent or open to bribes, despise men, 
charming the souls of many of the living, and claim- 
ing that they charm the souls of the dead, and 
promising to jjersuade the gods by bewitching them, 
as it were, with sacrifices, prayers and incantations,^ 
and who try thus to wreck utterly not only individuals, 
but whole families and States for the sake of money, 
— if any of these men be pronounced guilty, the 
court shall order him to be imprisoned according to 
law in the mid-countr}' gaol, and shall order that no 
free man shall approach such criminals at any time, 
and that tliey shall receive from the servants a ration 
of food as fixed by the Law-wardens. And he that 
dies sliall be cast outside the borders without burial ; 
and if any free man assist in burning him, he shall 
be liable to a charge of impiety at the hands of any- 
one who chooses to prosecute. And if the dead 
man leaves children fit for citizenship, the guardians 
of orphans shall take them also under their charge 
from the day of their father's conviction, just as 
much as any other orphans. 

^ Cp. 908 A. - Cp. 933 A, Rep. 364 BflF. 

383 



PLATO 

K.01V0P B eirl TOvroi<i Trdat vo/xov Keladac 
'X^petov, 09 iXaTTo) re eh 6€ou<i uvtmv to 119 ttoX- 
\ov<i epytp Kol \oy(p irXruxixeKelv av ttoioI, kol 
Srj Kol avoi]TOv<; rjTTOv yiyveaOai, Sia to fir) 
i^eivai OeoTToXelv irapa vofiov. eara yap v6^<i 
oSe T0t9 ^v/j,7raai Kei/nei'O'i d7r\a)<;' 'lepa /jLijBe elf 
iv ihiaif oiKLaifi eKTTjado). dveiv S' OTav iirl vovv ij} 
E Tivi, 7rpo<i ra Srifioaia trw Ovawv, koX TOif lepevai 
T€ Kai iepeiai<i eyx^eipi^ero) ra Ou/xaTU, ol<; ayveia 
TOVTfov e7nfi€\7](;' avvev^daOco 8e avT6<; re Kal 
ov av edeXr} fier avTov ^vvev-)(^ecr6aL. ravra he 
yiyvofieva roiyv TOiwvSe X"'P''^ ecrro)* lepa Kal 
6eoif<; ov paStov iSpveaOat, p,eyakr)<i Ze hiavoiaq 
Tivo'i op6o)<i Spav TO ToiovTOV, 1^09 T6 yvvai^l Te 
8rj Sia<f)ep6vT(o<; 7racrat9 koI T019 daOevovcn TrdvTij 
Kal KLvhvvevovcn Kal cnropovatv, ott]] Tf9 ctv 
cnropfj, Kal Tovvavriov orav ev'iropLa<i Tivb<; \d- 
^covTai, Kadiepovv re to irapov del Kal Oual,a<; 
910 evx^adai. Kal iSpvaeif V7na)(^ve2a0ai 6eol<; Kal 
Baifioai Kal Traiarl Oecov, ev Te cfydcr/xaaiv eyprj- 
yopoTaf hid (f)6^ov<; Kal ev oveipoi'^, 6i<; S' avTcof 
oyjreiii 7roWd<i diro/xvrjfiovevovTa^i, eKdaraicrl Te av- 
T<bv axrf 7roiov/j,evou<i, ^(Ofiov<; koI lepa Trd(ra<i fiev 
olKla<i, Trdcra'i 8e Ka>fia<i ev Te Kadapoh ISpvo/ievov^ 
ifiTrnrXdvai Kal ottt] Ti<i eTV)(e tmv toioutcov. 0)v 
evexa XPV f^civTcov iroielv Kara top vvv \ey6/u,evov 
vofioV Trp6<i TovToi<; 8e eveKa tmv dae^ovvToov, 
B iva fir) Kal ravTa KXeTTTOvTa rah irpd^ecnv, lepd 
384 



LAWS, BOOK X 

For all these offenders one general law must be 
laid down, such as will cause the majority of 
them not only to offend less against the gods by 
^\-o^d and deed, but also to become less foolish, 
through being forbidden to trade in religion il- 
legally. To deal coniprehensi\'ely with all such 
cases the following law shall be enacted : — No one 
shall possess a shrine in his own house : when any- 
one is moved in spirit to do sacrifice, he shall go 
to the public places to sacrifice, and he shall hand 
over his oblations to the priests and priestesses to 
whom belongs the consecration thereof ; and he 
himself, together with any associates he may choose, 
shall join in the prayers. This procedure shall be 
observed for the following reasons : — It is no easy 
task to found temples and gods, and to do this 
rightly needs much deliberation ; yet it is customarj' 
for all women especially, and for sick folk everyAvhere, 
and those in peril or in distress (whatever the nature 
of the distress), and conversely for those who have 
had a slice of good fortune, to dedicate whatever 
happens to be at hand at the moment, and to vow 
sacrifices and promise the founding of shrines to gods 
and demi-gods and children of gods ; and through 
terrors caused by waking visions or by dreams, and in 
like manner as they recall many A'isions and try to 
provide remedies for each of them, they are wont to 
found altars and shrines, and to fill with them ever}' 
house and every village, and open places too, and 
every sytot which was the scene of such experiences. 
For all these reasons their action should be governed 
by the law now stated ; and a further reason is this 
— to prevent impious men from acting fraudulently in 
regard to these matters also, by setting up shrines and 

385 

VOL. 11. C C 



PLATO 

re Kol ^iofMov<; iv lhLaL<i olxLai'i ISpvo/xevot, \ddpa 
rov<i deov<i tXew? olo/xepoi irotelv dvaiai^ re koX 
evxO'i'}, eh uTreipov rrjv aZiKiav av^dvovT€<; avTOi<! 
re iyKXijfiaTa Trpo<i Oeoiyv TroLMvrac koX rot? iiri- 
Tpeirovaiv, ovcriv avroiv fieXrloai, koI irdaa ovtq)<; 
T/ TToXi'i aTToXavT} rSiv dae^Siv rpoirov Tivd 8l- 
Kai(a<;. top fiev Stj vofjLoOeTrjv o Oeo^ ov fxe/jbyjreTai' 
Keiado) yap v6p.o<i ovtos' M.rj KeKTrjcrOai dedv iv 

C IBiai^ OLKLai'i lepd' rov he ^avevra KeKjijfievov 
erepa koi opyid^ovTa ttXtju rd Srjfioaia, edv fiev 
dBiKov fiTjBev Twv fxeydXcov xal dvocricdv elpyaa- 
fxipo<; dvr)p rf koI yvvr] KeKrfJTai rt?, 6 fiev aladu' 
v6fievo<; elaayyeWeTO) toi<; vofjux^vXa^iv, ol he 
irpoajarjovTcov el<i rd hrjfioaca diro^epeLV lepd 
rd ihca, firj treidovTe'i he ^rifitovvrcov, eo)? dv 

D direvex^fl' ^^^ ^^ ''^^^ dcre^rjawi firj traihitov aW 
dvhpwv daeSrjfia dvoaicav yevrjTat <^avep6^ eiTe 
ev lhioi<i ihpv(r-dfievo<; eir ev hr^ixoaioi'i dvaa<i lepd 
6eol<i olart<TLVovv, a)? ov Ka6apo<i oiv dvcav, davdrw 
^r)/j,iovaOa>. to he iraiheLOv rj firj Kplvavre'i ol vofio- 
<f)vXaKe<;, et? to hiKacrrijpiov ovt(i)<; elaayayovre^ 
TT)v T7J<; daefieia^ hiKrjv TovTOi<i etri-reXuvvTcov. 



386 



LAWS, BOOK X 

altars in private houses, tliinking to propitiate the 
gods privily by sacrifices and vows, and thus increasing 
infinitely their own iniquity, whereby they make 
both themselves and those better men who allow 
them guilty in the eyes of the gods, so that the 
whole State reaps the consequences of their impiety 
in some degree — and desenes to reap them. The 
lawgiver himself, however, will not be blamed by 
the god ; for this shall be the law laid down : — 
Shrines of the gods no one must possess in a private 
house ; and if anyone is proved to possess and 
worship at any shrine other than the public shrines 
— be the possessor man or woman, — and if he is 
guilty of no serious act of impiety, he that notices 
the fact shall inform the Law-wardens, and they 
shall give orders for the private shrines to be 
removed to the public temples, and if the owner 
disobeys the order, they shall punish him until he 
removes them. And if anyone be proved to have 
committed an impious act, such as is not the venial 
offence of children, but the serious irreligion of 
grown men, whether by setting up a shrine on 
private ground, or on public ground, by doing sacri- 
fice to any gods whatsoever, for sacrificing in a state 
of impurity he shall be punished with death. And 
the Law-wardens shall judge what is a childish or 
venial offence and what not, and then shall bring 
the offenders before the court, and shall impose 
upon them the due penalty for their impiety. 



387 
c c2 



lA 

913 A0. To Bi] fxera ravr etrj ^v^^okaia av tt/oo? 
aXkrj\ov<; r)/j,iv Seofieva 7rpo(TrjKov(jrj<i rd^ewi;. 
airXovv Be 7' etrxi irov to <ye tolovtov M;;Te ovv 
rc<; TOiV e/jLcov ')(pr)fidT(i)v utttolto et? Bvvafiiv, /xrjS' 
av KLvrjaeie /XTjBe to /3paxvrarov ifie /xr)Ba/j,fj 
fj.r}Baficii)<; ireiOwv Kara ravrd Be ravra koX irepl 
TO, TMv dWcov eyoi Bpwrjv, vovv €')(^a>v eiJb(^pova. 
dqcravpov Br) Xeyco/xev TTpSiTov roiv toiovtcov ov 

Tt9 aVTW KOl T0l<i aVTOV K€lfX7]\lOV edcTO, /XT] TCOV 

ifXMV oiv iraTepcov, ixrjd^ eupelv irore d€ol<; ev^aiprjv 
B /jL7]d^ eupcov Kivi]aai/jLt, p.rjS' av TOt<? Xeyofxevoif; 
pavjecriv dvaKoivcoaaipL to?? dfM(i)<; ye ttco^; /xoi 
^vfMjSovXevaovaiv ^ dvekelv rrjv yfj Trapa/cara- 
6i)Kr]v. ov yap ttotc roaovTOP ei? ')(^prip.dTCt)v 
ux^eXrjOeirjv av KTrfcnv dveXcav, oaov eh oyKov 
TTpo'i dperrjv '^v)(rj<; Kal to BiKaiov eiriBiBoir^v av 
p,rj dve\6p,evo<i, Krrjp^a dvrl KTi]p,aTO<; dpeivov ev 
dp,eivovi KTr]adp,evo^, Blkiiv ev rrj '^v')(fj ttXovtov 
Trporip,7]a-a<; ev ovaia Ke/crrjadai irporepov eirl 
TToXXot? yap Brj Xeyo/mevov ev to /jltj Kivelv xa 
aKivriTa Kal irepl tovtov XeyoiT av o)? evo<; 
C eKelvoiv oVto?. ireideadai Be ^prj Kal toi<; irepl 
TavTa \eyo/j,evot<; p,v6oc<;, eo? et? rraiBcov yevedv 
ov ^vp,(f)opa TO, ToiavTa. 09 S' av TraiBcov t€ 
dKr]Bj]<i yevrjTai Kal tov devTc; top vop,ov dfieXrj- 

^ ^ufifiovXfvffovfftv Stephens : ^v/x^ovKevovaiv MSS. 
388 



BOOK XI 

ATH. In the next place our business transactions 
one with another will require proper regulation. 
The following will serve for a comprehensive rule : — 
So far as possible, no one shall touch my goods nor 
move them in the slightest degree, if he has in no 
wise at all got my consent ; and I must act in like 
manner regarding the goods of all other men, keeping 
a prudent mind. As the first of such things let us 
mention treasure : that which a man has laid by in 
store for himself and his family (he not being one of 
my parents), I must never pray to the gods to find, 
nor, if I do find it, may I move it, nor may I ever 
tell of it to the soothsayers (so-called), who are 
certain to counsel me to take up what is laid down 
in the ground. For never should I gain so much 
pecuniary profit by its removal, as I should win 
increase in virtue of soul and in justice by not re- 
moving it ; and by preferring to gain justice in my 
soul rather than money in my purse, I should be 
winning a greater in place of a lesser gain, and that 
too in a better part of me. The rule,^ " Thou shalt 
not move the immovable," is rightly applicable to 
many cases ; and the case before us is one of them. 
And men ought also to believe the stories told about 
these matters, — how that such conduct is injurious 
to the getting of children. But if any man proves 
to be both regardless of children and neglectful of 

1 Cp. 684 E, 843 A. 

389 



PLATO 

aa<;, a fjLT)re avTo<i Kai-ideTo fMrjre av Trarepcov 

Tt9 Trarijp, firj Tretcra? rbv defJbevov dveXrjrac, 

KaWiaTov vofioiv SiacfiOeipcav koX airXovaraTOv, 

Kal ovSafifj ay€VVOv<i dv8po<; vo/MoOirrj/jia, 09 

D eiirev, a fx-q KareOov, firj dveXtj, — rourotv toIv 

Svolv vofModeTaLv KaTacppovijaavTa Kal dveXofievov 

ov Tt a/xiKpov, fir) Karedero avT6<;, ttX^^o? S' 

ecniv ore Oiiaavpov iraiipbeyede';, rl -^prj 7rda')(eiv ; 

VTTO fiev Bt} Oe&v, 6 6eo<i olSev 6 Be KaTiScov 

7r/9WT09 a77eXXeT&), edv fiev iv dcrrei ytyvrjTai to 

TOiovTov, Tot9 darvv6/jiOi<;, edv Be t% 7roXe&)9 iv 

914 dyopa irov, rolaiv dyopav6/j,oi<;, edv Be ttj<; dWr)<; 

■^(i)pa<;, dypovofxoi<; re Kal Tot9 tovtcov dp^ovai 

BrjXcocrdTa). BrjXcoOevTcov Be rj 7roXt9 6t9 AeX(f)ov<i 

irefxirera)' ti B av 6 Oe6<; dvaipfj ire pi re Ta>v 

')(pr)/jLdTCi)v Kal tov Kivi](TavTo<i, tovto rj TToXa 

virrjpeTOvaa Tai<; fiavTeLai<; Bparm tov Oeou. Kal 

iav fJL€V eXevdepot; 6 /xr]vvaa<; rj, Bo^av dperrj<i 

KeKTrjadco, /j,t) p,rjvvaa<; Be, KaKia<i' BovXo<; B' edv 

fi, fjLrjvvaa'i fiev eXeuOepo<; viro t?}9 7roX,6&)9 6pdS)<i 

yiyvoir dv d7roBiBovar)<; ra> BeaTroTt) tt)V Tifirjv, 

fiT) firjvvcov Be 6avdr(p ^ij/jbiovado). 

B Toi/Tft) B eirofievov e^rj'i dv yiyvoiTO to rrepl 

(T/jLLKpa Kal fieydXa TavTov tovto vofitfxov ^vvuko- 

XovOeiv. dv Tt9 TMV avTov ti KaTaXlirr) irov excbv 

etT aK(ov, o 7rpo(TTvy)(^dvo)v eaTco Keiadai vop^i^wv 

(fivXaTTeiv evoBiav Baifiova tu ToiavTa viro tov 

vofiov Tfi Oem KaOiepoyfieva. dv Be irapd TavTa 



Solon. « Cp. 759 Cf., 772 D. 

* Hecate (= Artemis). 



390 



LAWS, BOOK XI 

the legislator, and, without the consent of the 
de|)ositor, takes up a treasure which neither he 
himself nor any of his forefathers has deposited, 
and thus breaks a law most fair, and that most com- 
prehensive ordinance of the noble man^ who said, 
"Take not up what you laid not down," — the man 
who despises these two lawgivers and takes up what 
he has not laid down himself, it being no small 
thing but sometimes a vast quantity of treasure, — 
what penalty should such a man suffer ? God knows 
what, at the hands of gods ; but the man that first 
notices an act of this kind shall report it, if it 
occur in the city, to the city-stewards, or if in a 
public market, to the market-stewards ; and if it 
occur in the country outside, he shall declare it to 
the rural stewards and their officers. And when 
such declarations are made, the State shall send to 
Delphi ; ^ and whatever the god pronounces con- 
cerning the goods and him that moved them, that 
the State shall execute, acting as agent on behalf 
of the oracles of the god. And if the informer be 
a free man, he shall win a reputation for virtue, but 
for vice if he fail to inform ; and if he be a slave, as 
a reward for informing it will be right that he should 
be set free, by the State offering his price to his 
master, whereas he shall be punished by death if 
he fail to give information. 

Following on this there should come next a 
similar rule about matters great and small, to re- 
inforce it. If a man, whether willingly or un- 
■willingly, leaves any of his goods behind, he that 
happens on them shall let them lie, believing 
that the Goddess of the Wayside' guards them, as 
things dedicated to her divinity by the law. Should 

391 



PLATO 

Tt9 aireiOoiv avaipovfievo<i oiKaSe (f>€pr), av fiev 
afj,iKpd<; TCfirjii a^iov wv BovXa, viro rov irpoa-Tvy- 
')(avovTO^ fjLT] eXarrov rpiaKOVTairovi iroWa^ 

C irXtjyaii /xaariyovaOoy iav Be Tt9 iXevdepo'i, TTyoo? 
TOO dveXevdepof elvai BokcIv kuI aKoiviovqro^ 
voficov BeKairXdcTLOv rr)<i Ti/jirj<i tov KLvqOevro^; 
aTroTiveTd) rw KaraXiirouri. idv Be ri<; iiranid- 
rai rS)v avrov ')(prifidro)v ex^iv rivd irXeov rj xal 
a/iiLKporepov, 6 Be o/xoXoyj] pev e%efi', p,r) to 
eKeivov Be, dv p,€v dTroyeypap.p^evov rj irapa rol<i 
dp'}(^ovai TO KTYjpa Kara v6p,ov, tov ey^ovra 
KctXeiaOd) tt/jo? T'qv dp')(y]v, 6 Be Kadicrrdrco. yevo- 
p.evov Be ep,<f)avov<i, iav ev roh ypdp,p,a(riv 
dnroyeypapipLevov (f)aivr]Tai TTorepov twv ap,(f)ia- 

D ^TjTOVVTWv, e^wv 0VT0<i diTLTOi' idv Be TLVO<i dXXov 
TOtv fxrj TTapovroiv, oirorepo^i dv irapdcrxv '^ov 
iyyv)]Tr)v d^toXP^fov, virep rov a7rovro<i, co? 
7rapaBd)crcov eKeivco, Kara rr]v eKeivov ac^aipeaiv 
d(f)at,p€LaOo). idv Be Trapd roU dp^ovat ro dp(f)ia- 
^r)rovp,€Vov p,r] d'iroyeypap,p,evov y, KeiaOco p,ev 
P'i'XP'' BiKri^ Trapd rpcal rSiv dp^ovrcov roi<i 
irpea-^vrdroii;' idv Be ro p,eaeyyv(t)9ev dpep,p,a 
rj, rov viKTjOevra irepl avrov Blkt] rrjv rpo(f>7]v 
eKriveiv roi<; dpxovaC rrjv Be Kpiaiv BiaBiKa^eiv 
ivT0<; rpioiv rjpiepoiv rov<; dpxovra<i. 

E ^Ayero) rov eavrov BovXov 6 ^ovX6p,evo<i, idv ep- 
<f>p(i)v y, xpwopevo'i 6 ri dv iOeXr) ra>v oirocra oaia' 

1 Cp. 745 A, B. 
$9« 



LAWS, BOOK XI 

anyone transgress this rule and disobediently take 
up such things and carry them home, he being a 
slave and the article of small value, then the man 
who meets with him. being over thirty years old, 
shall scourge him with many stripes ; but if he be 
a free man, he shall not only be accounted illiberal 
and a rebel against the laws, but he shall in addition 
pay back ten times the value of the article moved 
to the man who left it behind. And if one man 
charges another \\'ith possessing any of his goods, 
be it great or small, and the man so charged allows 
that he has the article, but denies that it is the 
other man's, — then, if the article in question has 
been registered ^ with the magistrates according to 
law, the plaintiff' shall summon the man who possesses 
it before the magistrate, and he shall produce it in 
court. And the article being thus exhibited, if it be 
clearly recorded in the records to which of the dis- 
putants it belongs, he shall take it and depart ; but 
should it belong to another third party, not then 
present, whichever of the two claimants produces a 
sufficient guarantor shall take it awaj^ on behalf of 
the absent jjarty, in pursuance of his right of re- 
moval, to hand it over to him. But if the article in 
dispute be not registered with the magistrates, it 
shall be kept in charge of the three senior magis- 
trates up to the time of the trial ; and if the article 
in pledge be a beast, the man that loses the case 
concerning it shall pay the magistrates for its keep ; 
and the magistrates shall decide the case within 
three days. 

Any person — provided that he be in his senses 
— may lay hands, if he wishes, on his own slave, 
to employ him for any lawful purpose ; and on be- 

393 



PLATO 

dyeTco oe kuI virep aWov tcov oLKelfov rj (ftiXnov 
Tov d<f)e(TTa)Ta eirl crcorripia. iav Se Tf? d(f)aiprjTai 
Tiva et<? iXevOepiav &)? Sov\ov dyo/ievov, /jLeOiiico 
fiev ayoov, o 8e d(f)aipovp,€i^o<i iyyvriTdf; rp€i<i 
d^i6')(p€a)<; Karaa-TTjaa^ ovT(i)<i d^aipeiadu) Kara 
ravra, aXXtu? Se fjurj. iav 8e irapd javrd rt? 
915 d(f)aiprJTai,, rSiv ^taicov evo')(p<i earrco Kal d\ov<; 
T7)v hnrXacriav tov iiriypaipevTO'; /3X«/3of? tw 
d^aipedevTi riveTw. dyero) 8e Kal tov dTrekev- 
6epov, iav Tt9 /i^ depairevr] TOv<i direkevdepuxrav- 
Ta9 rj fiT) iKavoi^. depairela he (f)OiTav Tpl<; tov 
fir}vo<i tov direXevOepcodevTa 7rp6<i ttjv tov aTre- 
\ev6epu)(TavT0<i kcrTiav, iirayyeWop.evov 6 ti xRV 
hpdv T(ov SiKalcov Kal dfia BvvaToyv, Kal nrepl ydfiov 
TToteiv 6 TL irep dv ^vvSo/fj) tw yevo/xii'O) hecnroTrj' 
irXovreiv Se tov direXevdepcoaavTO^ fxrj i^eivai 
B fxdWov' TO Se irXeov yiyvkaOoa tov SeaTroTOV. fii] 
irXeio) Be eiKOcnv iroyv fieveiv tov atpedevra, dXXa 
Kaddirep Kal tov^ dXXov^ ^€vov<; dinevai Xa^ovTa 
TTjv avTOV irdaav ovaiav, iav ixrj Trela-rj TOV<i re 
dpxovTa<i Kal tov dTreXevdepoitTavra. iav he t& 
direXevdeptodevTi. rj Kal tcov dXXaov t&) ^evcov 
ovcrla irXetcov yiyvrjTai tov Tpirov p-eyedei ti- 
/jLT]/jLaT0<;, ^ dv tovto '^fiipa yevrjTai, TpuiKovTa 
rjfiepwv diTO TavTr)<i t^<? rjfiepas Xa^MV diriTU) ra 
C kavTOV, Kal fiTjSefiia tj}? piOvr)<i irapaiTrjai^ ert 
TovTw Trap dp^ovTcov yiyviadw. iav Be Tt9 
dneidcov TovTOif elcraxdei^ a<? BiKaa-Trjpiov 6(f)Xr}, 
OavaTO) T€ ^r)iJbiova9oi Kal Ta '^prjfiaTa avToO 



1 Cp. 850 B. 

« Cp. 744 C, K, 756 D. 



394 



LAWS, BOOK XI 

half of another man (one of his relatives or friends) 
he may lay hands on the runaway slave, to secure 
his safe keeping. And if a man tries to remove to 
freedom anyone who is being carried off as a slave, 
the man who is carrpng him off shall let him go, 
and he that is removing him shall do so on the 
production of three substantial sureties, but not 
otherwise ; and if anyone removes a slave contrary 
to these conditions, he shall be liable for assault, 
and if conWcted he shall pay double his registered 
value to the man deprived. And a man may arrest 
also a freedman, if in any case he fails to attend, or 
to attend sufficiently, on those who have freed him ; 
and such tendance shall consist in the coming of 
the freedman three times a month to the home of 
the man that freed him, and there undertaking to 
do those duties which are both just and feasible, and 
in regard to marriage also to act as may seem good 
also to his former master. The freedman shall not 
be permitted to be more wealthy than the man who 
freed him ; and, if he is, the excess shall be made 
over to his master. He that is let go free shall not 
remain in the country more than twenty years, but 
shall depart, like all other foreigners,^ taking with 
him all the property he owns, — unless he gains the 
consent of the magistrates and also of the man who 
freed him. And if a freedman, or any other foreigner, 
acquire proj)erty exceeding in amount the third 
valuation,^ within thirty days from the day on which 
he acquires this excess he shall take his own property 
and depart, and he shall have no further right to 
request from the magistrates permission to remain ; 
and if he disobeys these rules and is simmioned 
before the court and con\-icted, he shall be punished 

395 



PLATO 

'yi.'yvea6a> Brjfioaca. SiKai 8' ecTTwaav tovtwv 
iv ral^ (f)v\€TiKaiai BUai<;, iav fir) npoTepov iv 
jekTOcriv Tj iv alperolcn 8iKaaTal<i diraWdTToyvrai 
TTpo'i aWi]Xov<; rtav iyKXi^fidrcov. 

^Kdv Be &)9 avrov e(f)d7rrr}rai ^(oov Kal otovovv i) 

D Tivo<i krepov rwv avrov ')(pr)fxdTcov, dvayeTO) /xev 6 
e^^^cov ei9 Trparijpa rj top Bovra d^i6xP^d}v re koI 
€vhiKov rj rivi rpoirw nrapaBovra dW(p Kvp[ii)<i, et? 
fjiev ttoXlttjv rj Kal fxeroiKov rcov iv rfj iroXei ^fxepMV 
TpuiKovTa, €69 Be ^eviKTjv irapdBoaiv irevTe fxr^vSiv, 
»79 fjke(TO<i 6 fxrjv iv c5 Tpeirerai 6epivo<; ijXco'^ et9 rd 
X^ifiepivd. oaa Be Bid rivo<i oovfj^ r] Kal 7rpda€C0<i 
dWdrreTai ri<: erepo^ dWo), BiBovra iv %ft)pa t^ 
TcrayfievT} eKdcrToi'i kut^ dyopdv Kal Bexofievov 
iv TO) Trapa^prjfia Tifirjv, ovT(o<i dWdrTeadai, 
dWodi Be fxijBafiov, fxrjB^ eVt dva^oXfj irpdaiv 

E firjBe d)V7]V TTOieladai firjBevof;. idv Be dWw; rj 
iv d\\oi<i TOTTOi^ oriovv dvd' otovovv Biafiei^rjTac 
€Tepo<i dW(p, iTiarevQiv irpo^ ov dv dWdmiTai, 
TTOieLTO) ravra oi^ ovk ovatov Bikmv Kara vofiov 
irepl fSyv firj Trpadevrcov Kara rd vvv Xeyofieva. 
ipdvwv Be irepl, rov ^ovXofievov ipavi^eiv (f>i\ov 
TTapd (f>i\oi<i' idv Be Ti9 Bia(f)opd ylyvyjTai Trepl 
tt}? ipavi(Tea><;, ovrco rrpdrjeiv &)9 Biko>v firjBevl 
irepl TovTdov fir)Bafji(o<i ia-o/xevcov. 09 S' dv diroBo- 
/jL€V0<; ri/ji)]v rov Xd^rj /nrj iXdrro) Bpa')(/j.(ov 
rrevrrjKOVTa, irapafieverm Kara iroXiv i^ dvdyKTj^ 

1 Cp. 952 E. => Cp. 849 E. 

» Cp. Rep. 556 B. 

3^ 



LAWS, BOOK XI 

by death, and his goods shall be confiscated. Such 
cases shall be tried before the tribal couriis, unless 
the pari;ies first get a settlement of their charges 
against one another before neighbours or chosen 
jurors. 

If anyone claims as his own the beast of any 
other man, or any other of his chattels, the man 
who holds it shall refer the matter to the person 
who^ as being its substantial and lawful owner, sold 
it or gave it, or made it over to him in some othet 
valid way ; and this he shall do within thirty days, 
if the reference be made to a citizen or metic in 
the city, or, in the case of a foreign delivery, within 
five months, of which the middle month shall be 
that which includes the summer solstice.^ And when 
one man makes an exchange with another bv an act 
of buying or selling, the exchange shall be made by 
a transfer of the article in the place ap}x>inted there- 
for in the market, and nowhere else, and by payment 
of the price on the spot, and no purchase or sale 
shall be made on credit ; ^ and if anyone makes an 
exchange with another otherwise or in other places, 
trusting the man ^\•ith whom he is dealing, he shall 
do so on the understanding that there are no suits 
by law touching things not sold according to the 
rules now prescribed.^ As regards club-collections,* 
whoso wishes may collect as a friend among friends ; 
but if any dispute arises concerning the collection, 
they must act on the understanding that in regard 
to these matters no legal actions are possible. If 
any man receives for the sale of any article a price 
of not less than fifty drachmae, he shall be com- 

* I.e. of subscriptions dae from members of a (dining) club, 
or of money raised as a loan to a member in time of need. 

397 



PLATO 

0€Ka rifi€pa<;, 6 Be TrpLdfi€PO<; i'trrtu tt)v olkluv rr)v 
916 Tov diroSofievov, twv irepi rd roiavra iyKXijfidTaiv 
elcodoTcov yiyv ecrdai %a/?ti' Kal rwv dvaywySiV 
T(ov Kara vofiou^ eivcKa. i] Be Kara v6fiov<i 
dvaywyr) /cal fMrj rfjBe e<TT(o' edv Ti<i dvBpdrroBov 
airoBwrai Rd,avov ^dorj rj \i6cov rj arpayyovpiSiv 
7] rfi Ka\ovfj,6vr) Upa voaa> rj koI erepo) rivl dBtjXa) 
T0i9 TToWoit voai]p,aTi p-axpco Kal Bv<Tidr(p Kara 
ro awjxa rj Kara rrjv Bidvoiav, idv fiev larp^ Tt<? 
rj yvfivacrfi, /xrj dvayayyrji; earca rovra irpo^ rov 
roiovrov rvy^^dveiv, pn^B^ idv rdXrjOi^ rt? rrpoei- 

B TTcov drroBoirai ra>' idv Be rt? lBia>rr} ri rS)v 
rotovrmv uTroBcbrat Brip,iovpy6<;, 6 irpidpievo^ evro<i 
€K/jli]VOV dvayero), ttXtjv t^9 lepd<;' ravrr)<; 5' evro^ 
iviavrov rrjv dvaycoyrjv i^earco iroielaOai rrj<i 
vocrov. BiaBiKa^eadoi Be ev riai riav larpwv, ov^ 
dv KOLvfi Trpo^aXofievoi eXtovrai' rov Be 6i^\6vra 
rr}v Blktjv BtTrXdaiov diroriveiv rrj^ Tf/u.?}? 77? dv 

C drroBSirai.. idv Be IBicorr] rt? lBi(orrj<;, dvaycoyrjv 
fxkv elvai, Kaddirep Kal roi<i irpoaOev ipprjdr], Kal 
rriv BiaBiKaauav, 6 Be 6(f)\cov rrjv rip,T)v dTrXrjv 
dTToriveroi. idv Be dvBpo(f)6vov diroBo>rai rl^ rivi 
elBori fiev elBco'i, p-rj rvy^^^averco dvayQ)yr]<; rov 
roiovrov tj}? Trpdae(o<;, p,r) Be elBori rrjv /lev 
dvayoyyrjv elvai rore orav rt? aXadi^rai roiv 
trpiapevtov, iv rrevre Be roov vop.o(f)v\dK(ov rot? 
V€cordroi<i elvai. rr)v Kpiauv, elBo}^ Be dv KpiOfj, rd<; 
re olKCa<i rov Trpia/xevov KaOrjpdroi Kara rov rcov 

* i.e. epilepsy. 
398 



LAWS, BOOK XI 

pelled to remain in the city for ten days, and the 
seller's residence shall be made known to the buyer, 
because of the charges which are commonly brought 
in connexion with such transactions, and because of 
the acts of restitution {iermitted by law. Such legal 
restitution, or non-restitution, shall be on this wise : — 
If a man sell a slave who is suffering from phthisis 
or stone or strangury or the "sacred disease"^ (as 
it is called), or from any other complaint, mental 
or physical, which most men woidd fail to notice, 
although it be prolonged and hard to cure, — in case 
the purchaser be a doctor or a trainer, it shall not 
be possible for him to gain restitution for such a 
case, nor yet if the seller warned the purchaser of 
the facts. But if any professional person sell any 
such slave to a lay person, the buyer shall claim 
restitution within six months, saving only in the 
case of epilepsy, for which disease he shall be per- 
mitted to claim within twelve months. The action 
shall be tried before a bench of doctors nominated 
and chosen by both the parties ; and the party that 
loses his case shall pay double the selling price of 
the slave. If a lay person sells to a lay person, there 
shall be the same right of restitution and trial as in 
the cases just mentioned ; but the losing party shall 
pay the selling price only. If a man ^Wttingly sells 
a murderej, if the buyer is aware of the fact, he 
shall have no claim to restitution for the purchase 
of such an one ; but if the buyer be ignorant, he 
shall have right of restitution as soon as the fact is 
perceived, and the trial shall take place before a 
court of the 6ve youngest Law-wardens, and if it 
be decided that the seller acted wittingly, he shall 
purify the houses of the buyer as ordained by the 

399 



PLATO 

e^rjyrjTwv vojjiov, rrj<i Ttfxrjf; re aTToSoro) t&) irpia- 
/j,ev(p rpiirXdaiov. 
D O 0€ (\WaTT6ii€vo<i rj vo/uiafia dvrl vofiicrfiaros 
rf KUi rSiv dWcov ^oocov oriovv rj koI fiij ^ooaiv 
iiKi^orfkov Trdv StBorco Koi Be^eaOo) ro) vo/xro 
^vveirofievoii' Trpootfiiov 8e, KaOdirep dWdav 
vofKov, Se^dop-eOa koi irepl 0X7/9 ravrt]<; tt}? KdKTji;. 
Ki^SrjXeiav Be y^pt] irdura dvBpa BiavorjOPjvai, 
KUi '^€vBo<; Kol dTrdrrjv 009 eV rt jiuo'i 6v, 
TOVTO fiS T^i' (f)t]/j,r]v €Tn(f)epeLv eluiOacnv 01 ttoX- 
\oi, KaK(a<i Xeyovreii, 0)9 ev Kaipo) yiyvofieuov 
eKdarore to toiovtov 7roXX.dKi<i dv 6pd(a<i e^of 
E TOP Kaipov Be koI ottov koX oirore aTtt«T6)9 
Kal dopiaTO)^ e(ovTe<i rfj Xe^ei Tainrj iroWd 
^rj/jiiovvTai re kuI ^)]fiiovcrii^ erepov^i. vopLoderrj 
Be ovK iy^^copel rovTO dopiajov eav, dXhJ rj /xe/^019 
rj iXdTTOV^ opov^ del Bel Bia(ra<f)eiv, Kal Br) Kal 
vvv dtpiadoi' '^evBo<i /xrjBe}^ /jbrjBev pr]B* UTrdrrjv 
firjBe Ti KL^BrfXov, 'yevo<; eTTiKaXoupevo^; Ocmv, fi^re 
Xoyo) p,7]T€ epyo) Trpd^etev, 6 p,r] 6eofjLi(TecrTaTo<; 
917 eaeadai [xeXXoiv. outo9 5' earlv 09 dv 6pK0v<i 
ofMvii^ yjrevBei'i firjBev (f^povTitrj Oewv, BevTepo^; Be 
09 dv evavriov roiv Kpenrovcov ainov s^evBrjTai. 
KpeiTTOv; Be 01 dfieivov^ rcov ')(eLp6v(ov -npea^VTai 
T€ ft)9 eirl 70 trdv el-rrelv tcov vecov, Bto Kal yovei^ 
KpeiTTovi eKyovoiv Kal dvBpe<i Br] yvvaiKtov Kal 
7raiBo)v dp')(^ovTe<; re dp'X^o/jievcov. ov<; alBeiaOai 
Ttdai iravTWi Trpe'irov dv eh] ev dXXr] re dp^f} 
Trdarj Kal iv rati; 7roXiTCKai<i Br] jxdXiara dp^ai^' 
400 



LAWS, BOOK XI 

interpreters,^ and he shall pay three times the selling 
price to the buyer. 

He that exchanges for money either money or any- 
thing else, living or not living, shall give and receive 
every such article unadulterated, conforming to the 
law ; and touching all knavery of this sort, as in the 
case of other laws, let us hearken to a prelude. 
Adulteration should be regarded by ever}' man as 
coming under the same head as falsehood and fraud — 
a class of actions concerning which the mob are wont 
to say, wrongly, that any such action will generally 
be right if it be done opportunely : but the proper 
"opportunity," the when and the where, they leave 
unprescribed and undefined, so that by this saying 
they often bring loss Ijoth to themselves and to others. 
But it is not fitting for the lawgiver to leave this 
matter undefined ; he must always declare clearly the 
limitations, great or small, and this shall now be 
done : — No man, calling the gods to witness, shall 
commit, either by word or deed, any falsehood, fraud 
or adulteration, if he does not mean to be most 
hateful to the gods ; and such an one is he who 
without regard of the gods swears oaths falsely, and 
he also who lies in the presence of his superiors. 
Now the better are the superiors of the worse, and 
the older in general of the younger ; wherefore also 
parents are superior to their offspring, men to women 
and children, rulers to ruled.* And it will be proper 
for all to revere all these classes of superiors, whether 
they be in other jiositions of authority or in offices 
of State above all ; and to enforce this is just the 

^ The officials in charge of (Delphic) religious rites ; cp. 
759 C, 828 B. 
' Cp. 690 A ff. 

401 



PLATO 

oOev [ovv] 6 vvv rrapMv rj/Miv Xoyo'i i\r]Xvde. 7ra<f 

B yap Tcov KUT ayopav o Ki^hrfkevoiv ri yjrevSeTat 

Kal aTrard Kal Toy? d€ov<i TrapaKoXoiv eiroiivvaiv 

iv rol<i roi)v ayopavofioiv p6/j,otal re koI (^uXaKrrj- 

pioi<i, ovTC dvdpMTTovi alSov/x€vo^ ovre Oeov'i 

cr€^6p,€V0<i. irdvTO)<; fiep 8r] koXov eTnTr)hevp.a 

6eS)V ovofiaTa fir) "y^paiveiv paSttw?, e')(0VTa d)<; 

€')(OV<Tiv r)p,a)V eKaaroTe ra TToWd ol irXeicrroi 

KaOap6Tr)T6<; re Kal dyv€La<; ra irepl rov^ 9eov^. 

el S" ovv fiT] ireiOoLTO, oSe v6p.o<i' 'O ircoXwv otiovv 

iv dyopa firjBeTroTe Bvo eiirrj Tifxd^ wv dv TrcoXfj, 

C dirX'^v Be elircov, dv p,t] Tvy')(^dvr) Tavrrjt;, uTrocfiepcov 

6pd(»)<i av dTro(f)epoi irdXiv, Kal TavTr]<; Tfj<; rjp,epa<i 

JMT) Tifiijarj TrXeovo? firjBe iXdrrovo<i' eiraivo'i Be 

6pK0<; Te irepl TTavTo<i tov TrcoXovfievov direcrTa). 

edv Be Tt9 direidfi tovtoi<;, 6 7rapaTvy)(dv(t)v tcov 

dar&v p^rj eXarrov rj rpuiKOvra yeyovox; eri] 

KoXd^cov p,ev TOV op^vvvra dvarl rvirjiru), d(f)pov- 

ricTTCov Be Kal drreiOcov evo"^o^ earco yjroyo} rrpoBo- 

aia<; Toi)v vopLCOv. tov Be Brj kl^BtjXov ti ircoXovvTa 

D ical fir) Bvvdp,€vov TOC<i vvv TreLOeadai X6yoi<i 6 

irpocTTvyy^dvcov tcov ycyvcoaKovTcov, BvvaTo^ a)v 

i^eXey^eiv, evavTiov iXey^a<i twv dp')(0VT03V, 6 fiev 

BovXo<i ^epiaOco to Ki^BrjXevOev Kal 6 p,6TOiKo<;, 6 

Be TToXtTi;? p,r) eXey)(^u)V /lev <»<? diroaTepcov Tou<i 

Oeov^ KaKo<i dyopeveadco, eXey^a<; Be dvaOeTO) rot? 

T^i^ dyopdv e')(^ovcn 6eoi<i. 6 Be Br] (pavepo<i y€v6p,ev6<i 

Ti TTwXSiV ToiovTov 77/009 T(p aTepr]6r)vai tov 

KL^BijXev6evT0<i, oiroarj^ dv Tip.ri<; d^Kiiar) to ttcoXov- 

402 



LAWS, BOOK XI 

purpose of our present discourse. For everyone who 
adulterates any market commodity, lies and deceives 
and;, calling Heaven to witness, takes an oath in 
front of the laws and cautions of the market- 
stewards, neither regarding men nor revering gods. 
Certainly it is a good practice to refrain from sullying 
lightly divine names, and to behave with such purity 
and holiness as most of us generally exhibit in matters 
of religion ; if however this rule is disobeyed, the 
law runs thus : — He that sells any article in the 
market shall never name two prices for what he is 
selling ; he shall name one price only, and if he 
fails to get this, he will be entitled to take the 
article away ; but he shall not put any other price, 
greater or less, upon it on that day ; and there shall 
be no puffing or taking of oaths about anything i)ut 
up for sale. If any man disobeys these rules, any 
townsman who is present, not being under thirty years 
of age, shall punish with a beating the seller who 
swears, and he shall do so with impunity ; but if he 
is disobedient and neglects to do so, he shall be liable 
to reprobation for betraying the laws. And if a man 
is selling an adulterated article, and is mcapable of 
dbeyiiig uur present rules, any person who is present 
and aware of the fact and able to ex|x>se him shall 
take for himself the adulterated article, if he expose 
him before a magistrate, he being himself a slave or a 
metic, — but if he be a citizen, he shall be declai*ed 
to be wicked, as a robber of the gods, if he fail to 
expose the guilty man ; while if he does expose him, 
he shall offer the article to the gods who preside 
over the market. He that is found out in selling 
any such article, in addition to being deprived of 
the adulterated article, shall be beaten in the market- 

403 

D D 2 



PLATO 

jxevov, Kara Spa^f^V^ eKdarrjv rfj fidcrrcyi rvTrre- 
E ado) Tr\r)ya<i viro Ki']pvKO<i iv rfj dyopd Krjpv^avTO^ 
(ov €V€Ka fxiXXei rvTrreaOai. to, Be Ki^BrjXev/MaTd 
T€ Kal KaKOvpyia<i t5)v TrcoXovvToyv oi re dyopavo- 
fiot Kal 01 vofio(f)vXaKe^ Trvdofievoi -tmv i/MTrelpcop 
irepl €Kaara, dvaypayjrdvrcov d re ')(^pr) iroulv tov 
TToyXovvra Kal a fit], Kal irpoaOe tov dyopavofiiov 
devrcdv ev arrfXr) ypd-\jraPTe<i v6fiov<; elvai rol<i 
918 irepl Tr)v Trj^ dyopd^ '^(^peiav fi7jvvTd<; aa<f)ei<:. to. 
Be irepl rwv dcrTVPOfioov iv Tol<i irpoadev iKavwq 
etprjTai. edv Be ti irpoaBeiv BoKjj, vop.o<^v\a^iv 
eiravaKOivdaaavTe^ Kal ypd^^avre'i to Bokovv 
eWnrelv^ et? dcrTVvofiiov devTwv ev aTrfkr] tu tc 
irpioTa Kal ra Bevrepa reOevTa avTolcri T»)<f dp')(ri<i 
vopiip,a. 

Ki^BijXoi'i S' eTrcTTjBev/xaaiv e-neTai Kara 
TToBa KatTTJXeia'i eiriTi^BevixaTa. TavTr)<i Be trepL 
^VfiTrdarjii avfi^ovXijv irpSiTOV B6vt€9 Kal Xoyov 
B eV avTfi vojMOV varepov eTriddifieda. KairrfXeia 
yap Kara ttoXlv irdaa yeyovev ov ^Xd^ri<i eveKa 
TO ye Kara <^vai,v, irdv Be TovvavTiov 'ir(o<; yap 
ovK €V€py€Tr}9 Tra? 09 dv ovaiav ')(p7j/j,dT(ov 
Q)VT ivavovv d(rvfj,p,eTpov ovaav Kal dvcofiaXov 
ofxaXriv re Kal cnj/J,p.eTpov aTrepyd^ijTai ; tovto 
Tjfxlv '^pr] (f)dvai Kal rrjp tov vofiiap^aTO^ direpyd- 
i^eadai Bvpafitv, Kal tov efiiropov eirl TOVTOt 
TeTd-)(jdaL Bel Xeyeiv. koI /j,i(Td(OTO<i Kal irav- 
BoKev^ Kal dXXa, Ta fiev ev(T)(i^fiove(TTepa, to, Be 
C dcr^rjfioveaTepa yiyvojxeva, tovto ye rrdvra Bv- 
vaTai, TrdcTLv eTriKovpiav rat? %/)etat9 e^eviropecv 

^ iWiTflv Hermann : ^/cAiir«7v MSS. 
404 



LAWS, BOOK XI 

place Mrith stripes — one stripe for every drachma in 
the price he asks for the article — after that the 
herald has first proclaimed the crimes for which 
the seller is to be beaten. Touching acts of fraud 
and wrongful acts done by sellers, the market- 
stewards and the Law-wardens, after making enquiry 
from exjjerts in each trade, shall write out rules as 
to what the seller ought to do or avoid doing, and 
shall post them up on a pillar in front of the stewards' 
office, to sene as written laws and clear instructors 
for those engaged in business in the market. The 
duties of the city-stewards have been fully stated 
already ; ^ in case any addition seems to be required, 
they shall inform the Law-wardens, and write out what 
seems to be wanting ; and they shall post up on the 
pillar at the city-stewards' office both the primary and 
the secondary regulations pertaining to their office. 

Following close upon practices of adulteration 
follow practices of retail trading ; concerning which, 
as a whole, we shall first offer counsel and argument, 
and then impose on it a law. The natural purpose 
for which all retail trading comes into existence in a 
State is not loss, but precisely the opposite ; for how 
can any man be an\-thing but a benefactor if he 
renders even and s}'mmetrical the distribution of 
any kind of goods which before was unsATXimetrical 
and uneven ? And this is, we must say, the effect 
produced by the power of money, and we must 
declare that the merchant is ordained for this pur- 
pose. And the hireling and the innkeep)er and the 
rest — some more and some less respectable trades, — 
all have this function, namely, to pro\ide all men 
with full satisfaction of their needs and with even- 

1 Cp. 759Aff., 849Ef., 881C. 

405 



PLATO 

Kai o/jLa\oTy]ra Tai<i ouaLai<;. t'l ttotc Sr/ to firj 
Kokov avro fn]8' eva^V/^ov hoKelv elvai, kuI j'l 
TO Sia^€/3\j]K6<; Tvy)(^dv€i, i8o)/jiev, Xv el fxr} koI 
TO oXoi^, aXX,' ovv /J-ept] 'ye i^caa-do/neOa vofiw. 
TTpa'^/jx eaO , to? eoLKev, ov (pavXov, ovBe apLKpa<i 
Beofieuov dperf]<i. 

KA. IIco? Xeyei^ ; 

A0. n <^t\e KXe/j/ta, a/iCKpov yevo^i avOpcoircov 
Kai (f)vaei oXiyov Kai aKpa rpo(f)fj reOpa/xfievov, 
orav el<i ^^/oeta? re koL i7Tt,0u/xLa<i rivcov ifnrLTrTTj, 
D Kaprepelv tt/jo? to fiirpiov hvvarov icni, xal ozav 
e^fj ^pijfMara Xa^elv iroXXd, vtjcfyet Kai vpoTepop 
aipelrat tov ttoWov to toO p^erpov i)(^6pevov' 
ra oe twv dvupooTroyv ttXtjOt] itdv rovvavriov eyet 
TovTOi^, heopevd re dperpoi<i helrai koI e^ov 
Kephaiveiv Ta perpta diT\rj(nco<i alpelrai Kephai- 
veiv Bib rravra rd irepX ri-jv KairrfKeiav koX 
efiTTopiav Kai TravBoKCiav yevr] Sia^e^XrjTai re Kai 
ev ala)(^pot<; yeyovev oveiBeacv. inel ec Ti<i, o /zj; 
TTOTe yevoLTo ovB^ earai, TrpoaavayKaarece — ye- 
E \olov pev elirelv, opwi Be elpijcrerac — iravBoKevaat 
Tovs TravTaxJ] dplaTov^ dvBpa^ e-Tri riva ')(^p6vov 
1] KairrjXeveiu i] ti rcov roiovrcov irpdrreLV, i) Kai 
yvvaiKa<; €k rivo<i dvdyKrj<; eip,app,eprj<; tov tolov- 
Tov peTaa-)(elv Tpoirov, yvoiTjpev dv 0)9 <f>iXov Kai 
dyaTrrjTov iartv eKaaTOV tovtcov Kai, el Kara 
Xoyov dBui(p6opov yiyvono, ev p,7]Tp6<; dv Kai 
919 Tpo(f)ov a'x^i]pari ripwro rd roiavra iravra. vvv 
Be oTTorav eh ep^p,ov^ ris KarrrjXeia^; eveKa roirov*; 

^ i.e. by equalizing the distribution of goods throughout 
the community. Cp. Ar. Pol. 1257* 14 ff. 

406 



LAWS, BOOK XI 

ness in their properties.^ Let us see then wherein 
trade is reputed to be a thing not noble nor even 
respectable, and what has caused it to be disparaged, 
in order that we may remedy by law parts of it 
at least, if not the whole. This is an undertaking, it 
would seem, of no slight importance, and one that 
calls for no little virtue. 

CLIN. How do you mean ? 

ATM. My dear Clinias, small is the class of men 
— rare by nature and trained, too, with a superlative 
training — who, when they fall into divers needs and 
lusts, are able to stand out firmly for moderation, 
and who, when they have the power of taking much 
wealth, are sober, and choose what is of due measure 
rather than what is large. The disposition of the mass 
of mankind is exactly tlie opposite of this ; when they 
desire, they desire without limit, and when thej- can 
make moderate gains, they prefer to gain insatiably ; 
and it is because of this that all the classes con- 
cerned with retail trade, commerce, and inn-keeping 
are disparaged and subjected to violent abuse. Now 
if anyone were to do what never will be done 
( Heaven forbid I) — but I shall make the supposition, 
ridiculous though it is — namely, compel the best 
men everywhere for a certain period to keep inns 
or to peddle or to carry on any such trade, — or even 
to com{)el women by some necessity of fate to take 
part in such a mode of life, — then Ave should learn 
how that each of these callings is friendly and 
desirable ; and if all these callings were carried on 
according to a rule free from corruption, they would 
be honoured with the honour which one pays to a 
mother or a nurse. But as things are now, when- 
ever a man has planted his house, with a view to 

407 



PLATO 

Kav iravra'X^oae /jl^kt] €Xovra<i oSwv l8pvad/ji€V0(i 
oiKi](r€i<;, iv airopia yL'yvo/j,6Vov<i Ka-raXvaecnv 
d<ya7rrjTai<; 8€'^o/jievo<;, rj vtto -x^eifKovcov dyplav 
^ia €\avvo/jievoi<;^ evSieivrjv 'yaXyjvrjv Trapacr^cbf 
■^ TTviyecnv dvayfrv)(^^v, ra fiera ravra ov)( o)? erat- 
pov<i 8€^dfi€vo<; ^CKiKa ■TTapd(T')(r) ^evia eirop.eva 
Tai<i vTToho-)(a'l<i, oi<i S' i')(dpov<; ai')(^puKdiTOv<i xeyec- 
pco/xevov; aTToXvTpoocrrj twv p-aKpordrcov Ka\ dhiKwv 

B KaL uKaddpTfov \inpoiv, ravrd eari kuX rd toi- 
avra iv ^v/j,Traai rol^ ToiovToi<i [opdoo'i] ^ dp,ap- 
ravofieva ra<i 8ia^o\d<i tj} t^9 diropias eiTL- 
Kovprjaei wapea KevaKora. tovtcov ovv ')(^pT) (f)dp- 
p,aKOv del repveiv rbv vopodcTrjv. opdov pev 8r] 
irdXac re ecprjpevov &)? tt/jo? 8vo pd^eadai Kal 
ivavTta ^(aXeTrov, Kaddirep ev Tal<i v6croi<i TroXXoi? 
re aXXoiai' km or) Kal vvv rj tovtcov kuI irepl 
ravTa iaTi irpo^ hvo pd')^7], ireviav Kal ttXovtov, 
Tov p,ev yjrv^Tjv Siecj^OapKora Tpv(pfj rojv dv- 

C dpoirrayv, ttjv he Xinrai<i irpoTeTpappevrjv €t9 
dvai(T')(yvTiav avTrjv. rt? ovv 8r) tt)? voaov 
TavTr}<i dp(oyr) ylyvoiT dv ev voiiv exovarj iroXet ; 
irpoiTOv pev 6 ti ap^CKpoTaTfo '^(^prja-dai Kara 
hvvapiv Tw TO)v KaiTt']Xcov yevei, eTretra Toi/rot? 
tS)v dvO pcoTTcov irpoaTaTTeiv (ov 8ia(f)6€ipop,ev(i)v 
ovK dv yiyvoiTo pbeydXr] Xvprj rfj iroXei, Tpirov 
he avToi<i roc<i p,eTacr^ov(rc tovtcov tcov iTriTrj- 
hevp,dTcov evpelv p,ri')(avriv oircot rjdij prj dvehrjv 

D dvaia'^vvTLa^ re Kal dveXevdepov yjrv^rj<; peT0')(a, 
avp,^rjCTeTai, ylyvecrQai pahico<i. perd hrj Ta vvv 
elprjp^va irepi TavTa v6po<; dyadfj tv')(tj TOiocrSe 

^ f\avvojj.€vois Stephens, Ast : i\avvojj.fvovs MSS. 
408 



LAWS, BOOK XI 

retail trade, in a desert place and with all the roads 
from it lengthy, if in this welcome lodging he 
receives travellers in distress, providing tranquillity 
and calm to those buffeted by fierce storms or restful 
coolness after torrid heat, — the next thing is that, 
instead of treating them as comrades and pro\'iding 
friendly gifts as well as entertainment, he holds them 
to ransom, as if they were captive foemen in his hands, 
demanding ver\' high sums of unjust and unclean 
ransom-money ; it is criminal practices such as this, 
in the case of all these trades, that afford grounds of 
complaint against this way of succouring distress. 
For these evils, then, the lawgiver must in each case 
provide a medicine. It is an old and true sajing that 
it is hard to fight against the attack of two foes * 
from opposite quarters, as in the case of diseases and 
many other things ; and indeed our present fight in 
this matter is against two foes, poverty and plenty ,2 
of which the one corrupts the soul of men with 
luxury, while the other by means of pain plunges 
it into shamelessness. What remedy, then, is to be 
found for this disease in a State gifted with under- 
standing ? The first is to employ the trading class 
as little as possible ; the second, to assign to that 
class those men whose corruption would prove no 
great loss to the State ; the third, to find a means 
whereby the dispositions of those engaged in these 
callings may not quite so easily become infected by 
shamelessness and meanness of soul. After the 
declarations now made, let our law on these matters 

* Cp. Phaedo 9Q C: -wphs 5vo Ki-ftrai ohV S 'HptucXrjs ol6s re 
flvai. 
- Cp. 679 B, 705 B. 

* [npdus] bracketed by Wagner : al<rxpus Zur. , vulg. 

409 



PLATO 

r)ixiv '^I'^vkadw' Ww^vryroav, ov^ 6 Oeo<i avopOcov 
iraXiv KaTOiKi^et-, yewfiopoi ocrot rSiv Terjapd- 
KOVTa Kal 7r€VTaKt,(T^i\i(ov eariS)v elai, fX7]T€ 
KdirrfX.o'i €Kcov p-rjS^ clkwv iJbt)hel<i 'yi'yviadoy jxrjT^ 
€fnropo<i fitjTe BiaKovtav /xrjB^ rjvriva K€KTr]fi€VO<t 
iBi(jOTai<; TOt<i /XT) €^ icrov eavrw, ttXtjv irarpX koX 
E fxrjTpl Kal T0t9 €Ti TOVTCOV 6l<i TO uvw 'yeveai 
Kal irdcri Tot9 avrov 7rp€a^uT€poi<; ocroi iXeu- 
depoi iXevOepo)^. ro 8' eXevOepiKov Kal dvaXev- 
Oepov cLKpi^o}^ /uL€v ov fxihiov vofioOeTecu, Kpive- 
ado) ye firjv vtto rS>v ra dpiareia elXrjcfjOTCov 
ToS eKetvcov p,iaei re Kal dairaap.S). 09 2' av 
KairrfKeia^; Tt]<i dveXevOepov rexvr] rivl fi€rdaxf}> 
'ypa(jiecr6(o /xev avrov yevov<; alcr'^uurj'} 6 ^ovXo- 
fi€vo<; 7r/309 701/9 dperfj irpcoTovi KeKpi/jL€vov<;, idv 
8e Bo^fi dva^Up eTnrrjBeu/xart Karappviraiveiv ti^v 
avTov Trarpmav kariav, Sedelf iviavrov diro- 
920 aykaQw rov toiovtov, Kal idv av6i<;, eri] Bvo, Kal 
i(p' eKdcrrr]'; dX(i)(T€0)<; rov<i 8ecr/xou9 pi] iravecrdai 
BnrXaaid^cov rov epirpoaOev 'y^povov} heinepo<i 
pr)v v6po<i' ^lirotKov elvai ^/oecot' r) ^evov 09 dv 
piXXr} KaTTTjXevcreiv. ro 8e rpirov Kal rplra' 
"07rft)9 0)9 dpiaro<i rj Kal KaKo-i 0)9 rjKiara roiovro^ 
r}pA,v xi ^vvoiKO<i iv rf) iroXei, T01/9 vopo<f>vXaKa^ 
■)(pr) vorfcrai (f)vXaKa<i eivai prj povov eKeivwv ov<i 
(f)vXdrreiv paBiov prj rrapavopov; Kal KaK0v<i 
yi-yveaOai, oaoi 'yevecrei Kal rpocf)ac^ ev rreTrai- 

^ Tov . . . xp^^°" -A^st : rhv . . . xP'^^o" MSS. (bracketed 
by England) 

' Cp. 702 Bff., 848 Off. 

* Literally "free men," — the Greek word connoting 
generosity, culture and dignity, like our "gentle." 

410 



LAWS, BOOK XI 

(Heaven prosper it I) run in this wise :— Amongst 
the Magnesians/ whom the god is restoring and 
founding afresh, none of all the landholders who 
belong to the 5040 houses shall, either willingly or 
unwillingly, become a retail trader or a merchant, or 
engage in any menial service for private persons who 
do not make an equal return to himself, save only 
for his father and mother and those of a still earlier 
generation, and all that are elder than himself, they 
being gentlemen ^ and his a gentleman's service. 
What is becoming, what unbecoming a gentleman it 
is not easy to fix by law ; it shall, however, be 
decided by those persons who have achieved public 
distinction ^ for their aversion to the one and their 
devotion to the other. If any citizen in any craft 
engages in ungentlemanly peddling, whoso will shall 
indict him for shaming his family before a bench of 
those adjudged to be the first in virtue, and if it 
be held that he is sullying his j^aternal hearth by an 
unworthy calling, he shall be imprisoned for a year 
and so restrained therefrom ; if he repeats the 
offence, he shall get two years* imprisonment, and 
for each subsequent conviction the period of im- 
prisonment shall go on being doubled. Now comes 
a second law : — Whosoever intends to engage in 
retail trade must be a resident alien or a foreignier. 
ATwHrhiitHT, this third law : — In order that such an 
one may be as good as possible, or as little as 
]X)ssible bad, he being a resident in our State, the 
L;iw-wardens must bear in mind that they are 
guardians not only of those who, being well-trained 
both by birth and nurture, are easy to guard from 
lawless and evil ways, but also of those who are 

» Cp. 914 A, 922 A fiF. 

4ii 



PLATO 

B SevvTUi, Tov<; Se firj roiovrov^ iiTirrih€vixard t€ 
iTrtrriBevovrwi a poirrjv ^ e%et rtva lcr')(ypav 7rpo9 
TO TrporpeTTeiv kukov^ yiyveaOai, (f)v\aKT€OV 
fidWov' ravTrj Br) ra irepX rrjv Kairrfkeiav TroWrjv 
ovaav Kal iroWa eirni^Bevfia'Ta TOiavra kcktij- 
fievy]V, oaaiTtp av avroiv \€i(f)dfj 86^avTa e/c 
TroX\f]<; avdyKr]<; iv ifj iroXei Betp elvai, avveXOelv 
av %/c»ea)i' irepl javra Tov<i vofio(f)v\aKa<; /xera tmv 
ifiTrelpcov eKdcrr7]<; KaTTrfKeia<i, KaOdirep efiirpoadev 

C iireTd^a/jLev t^9 Ki^8r}\ei,a^ irepi, ^uyyevov'; tovtw 
Trpd<y/xaTO<;, avve\d6vra<i he IBeiv Xfjfifid re kuI 
dvdXcofxa ti irore ro) KairrfKa) KepBo<; iroiel to 
fierpiov, ypdyfravTa'i Be delvat to yiyvop,evov 
dvd\a)fia koI Xtj/xfia xal (fjuXdrretv, rd fiev 
dyopav6fiov<i, rd Be d(TTVv6/j,ou<;, rd Be dypovofiov^. 
Kal (T')(eBov ovra}<i av KairrfXeia ra fiev Q}<f>eXoirj 
eKdarov^i, afxiKpoTaja Be av ^Xdirjoi tov<; ev 
rat<i TToXeai j^^pw jxevovi , 

D "Oaa TL<i av ofxoXoycov ^vvOeadat firj Troifj 
Kard rd^ 6p,oXoyla<i, ttXtjv (ov av vofxoi direlpyaxriv 
rj ■\lri](f>ia'fia, ^ Ttvo<; v-no dBiKOU ^laadei^ avay- 
Kr)<i oixoXoyrjar], Kal edv vtto Tu%r^9 dirpoaBoKrjTOV 
Tt<? aKcov K(oXv6fj, Si'/ca? elvai rwv dXXwv dTeXov<i 
o/jLoXoyla'i iv Tal<i (fivXeriKalat BtKai^, edv iv Biai- 
Tr)Tai<i rj ycLToaiv e/xTrpoaOev pirj Bvvcovrai BiaX- 
Xdrreadai. 'Y{<paiarov Kal ''Adr]vd<i lepov to touv 
Brjfiiovpyojv yevos, o'i tov ^iov fjixlv ^vyxare- 

E (TKevaKaai Te%J/af9, "A/jeo? B' av Kal 'A6T)vd<; ol 

^ i l>ovi]v Hermann : dirorpoirV MSS. : & rpoirrjv Zur. 

1 Cp. 917 E. 
41a 



LAWS, BOOK XI 

otherwise, and who follow pursuits which greatly 
tend to urge them on the road to vice ; and these 
they must guard the more. Accordingly, with 
respect to retail trading, which is a multifarious 
occupation, embracing many callings of a similar 
nature, — with respect (I mean) to so many branches 
of it as are allowed to exist, as being deemed 
absolutely necessary- to the State, — concerning these 
the procedure shall be the same as that previously 
prescribed in the case of the kindred matter of 
adulteration ^ : the Law- wardens must meet in con- 
sultation with experts in every branch of retail trade, 
and at their meetings they must consider what 
standard of profits and expenses produces a moderate 
gain for the trader, and the standard of profits and 
expenses thus arrived at they must prescribe in 
writing ; and this they must insist on — the market- 
stewards, the city-stewards, and the rural stewards, 
each in their own sphere. So j>ossibly, by this means, 
retail trade would be of benefit to all classes, and 
would do but little damage to those in the States 
who practise it. 

/ Touching agreements, whenever a man undertakes 
'and fails to fulfil his agreement — unless it be such 
as is forbidden by the laws or by a decree, or one 
made under forcible and unjust compulsion, or when 
the man is involuntarily prevented from fulfilling it 
owing to some unforeseen accident, — in all other 
cases of unfulfilled agreements, actions may be 
brought before the tribal courts, if the parties are 
unable to come to a previous settlement before 
arbitrators or neighbours. Sacred to Hephaestus 
and Athena is the class of craftsmen who have 
furnished our life with the arts, and to Ares and 

413 



PLATO 

Ta TOiv SfffjuovpyMv crco^ovT€<; rexvaicriv erepaif 
a/xvprr}pi,oL<; epyw BiKaiO)<; 8e /cal to tovtcov yevo<i 
lepov iarv tovtcov tmv 6eo)v. ovroi St] 7rdvTe<; 
■^copav Kol Brjfiov 6epair€V0vr€<i BiareXovaiv, ol 
fiev ap')(^ovTe<i twv Kara iroXep^ov dycoviov, ol he 
opydvoyv re Kal epytov A'noreK.ovvTe'i yevecriv 
€/x/jLiaOov' ol<i St] TTepl ra roiavra ov irpeirov av 
eir) yjrevSeadai, 6eov<i Trpoyovov^ avrcov alSou- 
921 fi€Pov<:. av B^ Ti<i Srjfxiovpyoov et? ■)(^p6vov elprj- 
fievov epyop /jLtj aTroreXecrr/ Bia kuktjv, p.tjSev top 
^loBoTijp $eop €7raiBeadeL<;, r}yov/j,€Po<i &>? oiKeiop 
avyypco/j.opa elpai Oeov, ovBev t&) i'oI) ^XeTTcop, 
•npSiTOP fiep Blxrjp tm deSt v(f>€^ei, Bevrepop Be 
eir6p>evo<i avrS) p6/jL0<i Keicrdoo' T^y Ti/xrjp tmp 
epyoip o<pei\€T(o mp up top exBopTa yjreuaijrai /cal 
TTuXip i^ dp')(i)^ ep rip p'qdevTi y^poPM irpotKa 
e^epya^eadw. Kal dpaipovpApat S' epyop ^v/ii^ov- 

B XevTr}<; p6p.o<i dtrep tw ttcoXovpti, ^vpe^ovXeve /jltj 
7rXeopo<; rifidv Biairecpcop^epop dXX co? UTrXovcr- 
jara t^9 d^La<;, ravrop Brj TrpoardTTei Kal to) 
dpaipovfiepM' yiy pwcrKec yap o ye Brjp.iovpyo'i rrjp 
d^iap. ep eXevdepoop ovp TToXeaiv ov Brj Trore 
'X^prj rexi'7], aacpel re Kal d-yjrevBei (f)V(Tei irpdyfxaTi, 
BiaireLpdadaL tmp lBkotmp Tex^pd^opra avTOP top 
BrjixLovpyov' BvKa^ Be elvai tovtcop t^ dBiKovpLepcp 
7rpb<i TOP dBtKovPTa. edp Be Tt<> e/cSou? av Btj- 

C fxiovpyo^ /XT) uttoBm tou? fiicrdovq 6pOa)<i Kara tt)P 
€ppo/jLOP ofioXoyiap yepo/neprjp, Ai'a Be TroXiov')(op 
Kal ^ Adrjpdv Koipoypov^ TToXneia<i dripd^cop, ^pa'^v 
414 



LAWS, BOOK XI 

Athena belong those who safeguard the products of 
these craftsmen by other defensive arts ; rightly is 
this class also sacred to these deities. These all 
continually serve both the country and the people : 
the one class are leaders in the contests of war, the 
others produce for pay instruments and works ; and 
it M-ould be unseemly for these men to lie concerning 
their crafts, because of their reverence for their 
divine ancestors. If any craftsman fail to execute 
his work within the time named, owing to baseness 
— he not revering the god who gives him his liveli- 
hood, but deeming him (in his blindness of mind) 
to be merciful because of his kinship, — he shall, in 
the first place, |)ay a penalty to the god, and, 
secondly, there shall be a law enacted to suit his 
case : — He shall owe the price of the works regard- 
ing which he has lied to the person who gave him 
the order, and within the stated time he shall 
execute them all over again gratis. And as it coun- 
selled the seller, so the law counsels the contractor 
who undertakes a work not to give in too high an 
estimate for it, but to estimate it simply at its real 
worth ; this same charge the law gives, I say, to the 
contractor, for he as a craftsman certainly knows 
what its worth is. In States composed of gentle- 
men it is wTong for a craftsman to tiy by his art 
(which is essentially truthful and sincere) to im|X)se 
artfully upon lay jjersons ; and in such cases the 
wronged shall be entitled to prosecute the wrong- 
doer. If, on the other hand, a man who has given 
an order to a craftsman fails to pay him his wage 
duly according to the legal agreement, and sets at 
naught Zeus, the Patron of the State, and Athena, 
who are partners in the constitution, — thereby dis- 

415 



PLATO 

K€pSo<; ayaTTCov, Xvrj fie'ydXa<i Koivcovia^i, vofio^ o 

deoiv ' O9 <yap av 'rrpoa^eiy^dixevo^ epyov fjLiadov<: 
fit} aTToStSft) ep xpoi^oi'i rol<i o/jLoXoyrjOetai, BnrXovv 
TrpaTTeaOco' idv Be evLavTO<i i^eXdrj, to)p dWwv 
D droKOdv 6vro)v ')(pr)/j,dTa)V, oiroaa Saveicr/jia) ^Vfi- 
/SaWet T*9, ouTOf rfi Spa'X^/j.fj eKaarov fxr)v6<; 
eTTco^eXiav KarariOerw 8lKa<i 8e elvai tovtohv 
ev Toc<; Kara <f)u\a^ SiKaaTT)ploi<;. 

'n? Be €v irapepycp irepX t(ov Kara TroXefiov 
Brfixiovpyoiv ovtcov <T(OTr]pia<;, (TTpaTrjyoov re Kal 
oaot Trepl ravra rexyiKoc, BlKaiov elirelv, on to 
irapdirav ifiv^(T0r}/ii€v Brjfiiovpywv' 69 ^ tovtoi^ av, 
Kaddirep eKCLvoi^, olov erepoi.^ oven Br]fiiovpyoi<;, idv 
T<<? dpa Kal rovTcov aveXo/xepof Brjuocnov epyov etO^ 
E €KQ}V etre Trpoarax^^v «a\<u9 e^epydcrrjTai, raq 
rifiu<i, oc Br) fiLadol TTo\€fiiKol<i dvBpdaiv elaiv, 
diroBiBw BiKaia)<;, 6 v6/xo<; avrov eTraivcov ovTroTC 
KafietTtti' iav Be tt poa/xei\frd/j,6vo<; epyov ri rtav 
Kara iroXefiov KoXSiV epycov fii) dTToBiBo), fie/jL- 
■^erai. v6fio<i ovv ovrof eiraivu) Trepl rovrcov ■q^lv 
fi€ficyfi€vo<i Keladco, ^vfi^ovXevriKOf, ou ^laariKOf, 
922 T«5 TrXtjOet rwv iroXircov, ri/xav rov<i dyaOov<; 
dvBpa<i, ocroi acorfipef t^9 TroXeax; eicn ^vfj,Trdar}<i 
etre dvBp€i,ai<; eire troXejxiKal'i fxri'^^aval^, Bevre- 
povi' 7r/ja)T0t9 yap to fieyiarov yepa<; BeBoaOo) 

1 fcs Schneider : is MSS. 

» i.e. bear no interest. Cp. 742 C ; Rep. 5.56 A ; Ar. Pol. 
1258b 5 flf. 

416 



LAWS, BOOK XI 

solving great |)artnerships through love of a little 
gain, — ^then, with the help of the gods, this law shall 
lend aid to the bonds that unite the State : — Who- 
soever has previously received the work ordered and 
fails to pay the price within the period agreed shall 
be bound to jwiy double the price ; and if a year 
have elapsed, although all other monies on loan are 
barren,^ this man shall }>ay as interest one obol on 
each drachma for every month ^ of arrears ; and 
actions for these cases shall take place before the 
tribal courts. y' 

And now that we have made mention of craftsmen 
in general, it is right to allude in passing to those 
whose craft is military security, — that is to say, 
military commanders and all experts in such matters. 
As to the former craftsmen, so to these men, as 
craftsmen of another sort, — whenever any of them, 
either voluntarily or under orders, undertakes any 
public work and executes it well, — whosoever shall 
duly pay to these men those honours which are the 
soldier's wages, him the law will never weary of 
lauding ; but if he has previously received some noble 
work of a military kind and fails to pay for it, the law 
will blame him. So, touching this matter, let there 
be laid down this law, coupled with laudation, — a 
law which counsels rather than compels the mass of 
citizens to honour as second in merit those brave men 
who, either by bold deeds or by military devices, are 
protectors of the State ; for first in merit come those 
on whom the greatest reward must be bestowed — 
namely, those who have proved themselves able pre- 

* As a drachma = 6 obols, the interest would amoiuit to 
200 p.c. per aununi. 

4'7 



PLATO 

roi'i ra t(ov djaOwv voixoOerSiv >ypdixfiaTa rifxav 
Ziac^epovrw'i Svvtjdelaiv. 

Ta fiev Br) fieyiaTa rcov ^vfi^oXalcov, oaa TT/yo? 
aXX^^Xof? dvdpcoTToi ^v/x^dWovcri, irKrjV ye 6p<^av- 
CKcov Kol T% Tcov eTTirpoTTcov eTTt/ieXeta? tmii 
6p(f>av(av, (TXcBov rjpuv BiareTaKrar ravTa Be Brj 
fierd rd vvv elprjpeva dvajKatov dpu)<; ye 7ro)<i 
B rd^acrdai. rovraiv he dp')(^al irdvicov a'l re tS)V 
TeXevrav ixeWovTwv eTnOv/xtai tt}? Biadeaeo)^ 
at re twi' fj,y]8ev to rrrapdirav Siade/xevoyv Tu;^a/.. 
dvayKoiov he elirov, to KXeLvla, /SXe-v|ra9 avrwv 
Trept 7rp6<i re to hvaKoXov koX ^aXeTTOv ovhe yap 
UTaKTOv hvvajov ear avro eav iroXka yap €Ka- 
aroi Kal hid(f)opa dW7]\a)v Kal evavna riBelvT dv 
rol<; re v6/jiOi<; Kal Tot? tmv ^(ovrcov rjOeai Kal tok 
avTOiv To?9 efiirpoadev, irplv hiarideadai peWeiv, 
C ft' Ti? e^ovaiav huxrei aTrXci)? ovto) Kvpiav elvai 
hiaOrjKrjv fjv dv ri<; hiadr]rai oircoaovv e')((ov 7r/309 
TW Toy ^Lou riXei. dvot'iTCi)<i yap ht) Kal hiareOpvp- 
p.evo)<; Tivd rpoirov exofiev oi irXelaroi, orav ijhi] 
/xeWeiv rjycopeOa TeXevrav. 

KA. rieo? TOVTO, 0) ^eve, Xeyeii; ; 

A0. XaXeTTOi' ecTT*, w KXeivia, fieXXcov dvOpco- 
7ro9 reXevTrjcreiv, Kal fiearov Xoyov toI<; vo/jLoderai<i 
ev fidXa (fio^epov Kal hva)(^epov'i. 

KA. n^ ; 

A0. TiT^rSiV elvai Kvpia dirdvraiv eicoOe /ict' 
I) 6pyrj<; Xeyeiv. 

KA. Tlola h^ ; 

AO. Aeivov ye, a> deoi, (f)i]ai,v, el rd ep,d epol 



1 Cp. 919 D, E. 



418 



LAWS, BOOK XI 

eminently to honour the written code of the good 
lawgivers.^ 

We have now made regulations for most of the 
more important business dealings between man and 
man, excepting those regarding orphans and the 
care of orphans by their guardians ; so, after those 
now dealt with, these matters must necessarily 
receive some kind of regulation. All these have 
their starting-|X)ints either in the desire of those at 
the point of death to devise their property, or in the 
accidental cases of those who die without making a 
testament ; and it was in view of the complex and 
difficult nature of these cases, Clinias, that I made 
use of the word •'• necessarily." And it is, indeed, 
imfMJSsible to leave them without regulation ; for 
individuals might set down many wishes both at 
variance with one another and contrary to the laws 
as well as to the disjx)sitions of the living, and also 
to their own former dispositions in the days before 
they proposed making a will, if any will that a man 
makes were to be granted absolute and unconditional 
validity, no matter what his state of mind at the end 
of his life. For most of us are more or less in a dull 
and enfeebled state of mind, when we imagine that 
we are nearly at the point of death. 

CLIN. What do you mean by this. Stranger.^ 

ATH. A man at the point of death, Clinias, is a 
difficult subject, and overflowing with speech that is 
most alarming and vexatious to a lawgiver. 

CLIN. How so ? 

ATH. Since he claims to be lord of all he has, he 
is wont to speak angrily. 

CLIN. What will he say } 

ATH. " Good heavens ! " he cries, " what a mon- 

419 
E E 2 



PLATO 

fir)Ba/j,a>'i i^ecnai hovvai re orw av eOekw Koi fiij, 
Kol r(p fiev irXeiw, tS> S' eXdrrova tmv ottoctol 
TTepl ifie (f)avXoi koX oaoi ayadol yejovacrt (f)av€- 
/0W9, ^a(ravt(jOevT€<i iKavS)^ iv v6aoL<i, ol 8' eV "yripa 
KOL aXkai^ TzavToiaKTi rv)(^aL<i. 

KA. OvKOvv, Si ^eve, koXo)^ hoKovai croL 
Xeyeiv ; 
E A0, IsHakOaKol efioiy, w KXeivia, SoKovaiv oi 
irdXai vofiodeTOVvre^ yeyovevao Kal eVt afiiKpov 
T(ji)v dvOpcoTTivcov TTpayp-drcov jBXerrovTe^ re koX 
Biavoovfievoi vo/xodereip. 

KA. Ilfo)*? \eyet<i ; 

A0. Top \6yov roviov, & ^yaOe, (f)o^ovfievot, 

Tov vojxov eTidecrav rovSe, i^elvai rd eavrov 

SiaTideadat a7rXw9 ottco^ av Ti? edeXy ro Trapdirav, 

923 iyoo he koI av Tot? ev rfj afj irokei p.eX\ovat 

reXevrdv aTroKpivuvfMeda ifi/jLeXearepov. 

KA. IIco? ; 

A0. 'n (f)tXoi, (f)7Jaofi€V, Kal dTc^^i/co? €(f>7]fjLepoi, 
^(aXeTTov v/xiv earl yiyvMaKCiv rd v/j-eTep avrcov 
■)(prj/ji,aTa Kal irpo^ ye v/xd<; avTOv<i, Mcr-nep koi to 
T7^9 Yivdia'i ypd/jL/xa (ppd^ei, rd vvv. 670)7' ovv 
vopo66Tr]<; wv ovd' vp,d<; upcov avTwv elvai Ti.Or]p,i 
ovTe rrjv ovaiav Tavrrjv, ^vp,7ravT0<i Be tou yevov^ 
v/j,(ov TOV re e/iirpoaOev Kal tov eTrena ecroixevov, 
Kol eTt, fidXXov TJ/9 7ro\e&)9 eLvai to t€ yevo<; irdv 
B KoX TTjv ovaiav. Kal ovtco tovtcov e)(^6vTQ)v ovk, 
edv Tt9 vfidq dcoTTeiaL'i vTroSpa/xMV ev vuaoi<; tj 
yripa aaXevovTa^; -napd to ^eXTiaTOV SiaTtdeadai 
420 



LAWS, BOOK XI 

strous shame it is. if I am not to be allowed at all to 
give, or not give, mv own things to whomsoever I 
will — and more to one, less to another, according as 
they have proved themselves good to me or bad, 
when fully tested in times of sickness^ or else in old 
age and in other happenings of every kind." 

CLIN. And do you not think. Stranger, that what 
they say is right ? 

ATM. What I think, Clinias, is this — that the old 
lawgivers were cowardly, and gave laws with a short 
\iew and a slight consideration of human affairs. 

CLIN. How do you mean ? 

ATH. It was through fear, my dear sir, of that 
angrv speech that they made the law allowing a 
man unconditionally to disjwse by will of his goods 
exactly how he pleases. But you and I A\ill make a 
more suitable answer to those in your State who are 
at the ix)int of death. 

CLIN. In what way -^ 

ATH. O friends, we will say, for you, who are 
literally but creatures of a day, it is hard at 
present to know your own possessions and, as the 
Pythian oracle declares,^ your own selves, to boot. 
So I, as lawgiver, make this ruling — that both 
you yourself and this your property are not your 
own, but belong to the whole of your race, both 
jwist and future, and that still more truly does all 
your race and its property belong to the State ; and 
this being so, I will not -willingly consent if anyone 
jiersuades you to make a will contrary to what is 
best, by fawning on you and helping you when 
afflicted by disease or age ; rather will I legislate 

^ Alluding to the dictum, "Know thyself"; cp. Prolog. 
343 B. 

421 



PLATO 

ireidr], ^vyxoipijcrofiat ckcov, 6 tl Be ttj ttoXci re 
apicTTOv irdar) Koi 'yevei, Trpo<; irav tovto ^Xeirmv 
vofioOeTTjcTQ), TO €vo<; cKuaTov KaTartOel^i ev 
fioLpai<; eXaTToai, hiKai(o<;. v/ji€l<; Be rjfilv iXeoi re 
KoX €VfMevei<i 6vre<i tropevoiaOe fjirep Kara <j>vaiv 
vvv TTopevecrOe Trjv avd pwirivriv' rjfxiv Be irept rS)v 

C aW(ov rSiv vfierepcov fieXtja-ei, Kr/Bo/jievoi^ ort 
fiaXiara €49 Bvva/xcv ov tmv fiev, tmv Be ov. 
Tavra fiev ovv Trapa/xvdid re Kal Trpooifita icov re 
^(ovTcov, CO KXeivla, Kal t(ov reXevrwvrwv earo), 
vofio^ Be oBe' 

' 0? av BiadrjKrjv ypd(f)T) to avTOv Biart- 
de/j,evo<;, iraiBoav o)v TraT^p, irpwrov /xev tmv 
viecov KXrjpovofiov ov av d^icoarj yiyveadai ypa- 
^CTft), TMv Be dWa>v TraiBcov ov av fiev erepw 
TToiela-dai, BiBw Be^^op-evw, ypa(f)eado) tovto avTO. 
iav Be irepiyiyvqrai t<<> tmv viecov avra fiT) eiri 

D TLVL K\i]p(p TreTTOirj/jLevo^;, ov Kara vofiov eX,7ri9 et? 
diroiKLav €K7r€/j.<f>6^a€(T0aL, rovro) tmv a\,Xo)v ypr}- 
/xdrmv i^earo) rm irarpl BiBovai ocra av eOeXrj, 
TrXr]V Tov Trarpwov KXijpov Kal t^9 "nepl rov 
KXrjpov KaTa(TKevr}<i 7rdar]<;' Kal edv 7rXeiov<; Stcri, 
7rpo<; /jiepo<; 6 irarrjp otttj av edeXp vefxeTO) ra 
irepiovra tov KXrjpov. oto) S' av t5)v vletov v-ndp- 
"Xwv oiKO'i rj, fjLrj vefieiv tovtw tcov 'Xpyip.dTtav, 
Ovyarpi re axravTw^i ff fiev av iyyeyvrjfievo^ tw? 

E dvrjp ecr6fievo<i 77, fir) vifieiv ff 8' av fit], vefieiv. 
eav Be to) tmv viecov r) Kal tcov dvyarepcov ^avfj 
KXifpo'i e7ri^copio<i Tr]<i Biad7]K7}<; yevofievo^ vcTTcpov, 
tS> KXrfpovofLcp TOV TTfV BiadrjKrjv BiaOefievov Kara- 

' i.e. one of the 5040 allotments, cp. 737 C fif. 
422 



LAWS, BOOK XI 

with a general view to what is best for your whole 
race and State, justly accounting of minor import- 
ance the interest of the individual. May it be that 
vou will feel kindly disposed and at peace with us 
as you journey towards that bourne whither, by the 
natural law of our human life, you now are travel- 
ling : the rest of your affairs shall be our care, and 
we will watch over them all, without exception, to 
the best of our power. This shall sene, Clinias, 
alike for consolation and for prelude for both the 
living and the dying, and the law shall run as 
follows : — 

Whosoever writes a will disposing of his pro- 
perty, if he be the father of children, he shall 
first write down the name of whichever of his sons 
he deems worthy to be his heir, and if he offers any 
one of his other children to another man to be 
adopted by him, this also he shall write down ; and 
if he has any son besides that is not adopted for any 
lot,^ of whom he has hopes that he will be sent out 
by law to a colony, to him the father shall be 
allowed to give so much of his other projjerty as he 
wishes, saving only the ancestral lot and all the 
equipment of that lot ; and if there be several more 
sons, the father shall divide among them the surplus, 
over and above the lot, in whatever way he chooses. 
And if a son already jwsse^ses a house, he shall not 
assign him goods, and so likewise in the case of a 
daughter, if she is betrothed to a husband, he shall 
not assign goods, but if not so betrothed, he shall 
assign. And if, after the will is made, it is dis- 
covered that one of the sons or daughters owns a lot 
in the district, then that person shall resign his 
legacy in favour of the heir of him that made the 

423 



PLATO 

Xenrerco. eav Se dpf)€va<; fiev firj Xelirrj, OrjXeia'i 
oe hiaTLdeixevo<i, avhpa /xev tmv dvyarepwv firivi 
av eOeXrj, viov he avTa> KaToKecTreTco, <ypdyfra<i 
KXripovofiov. iav 8e vlo^ T(p Te\€vri]crr] iral'i Oi)V, 
TTplv et9 avBpa<i BuvaT6<; elvai reXeiv, et're y€vvr)ro<i 
oiv eiVe TTOirj'TO^, ypacfiiTO} kuI irepl rrj^; ToiavTr)'^ 
924 Tvxv* TTju Bia67]Kr]v ypdcfxav riva -^ph TralBa 
avTU) Bevrepov iirl TV)(^aL<i dfxetvoai jijveadai. 
idv Be Tt9 a.Trai'i mv to irapdirav Biad^/crjv 'Ypd<f>7j, 
TO Tfj<i eiTiKTrjTov Be K UTT) flop lov €^e\6fi€vo<;, edv 
edeXr] to) Bcopetcrdai, Bcopeiadw rd Be dXka 
7rapaBiBov<; iravra rw ironjOevri d/xefnrTO<; XXecov 
viov avrov TroieiaOco ^vv vo/xm. 

*fli 8' av eTTLTpoTTwv ol TratSe? Becovrai, idv 
fiev BiaOe/xevo'i reXevra koI ypdylra<; iinrpo- 
TTOV? rot? iraialv eKovTa'i re xai ofxoXojovvTa<; 
B eTTirpoTTevaeiv ovcnivaaovv Kol ottoctov^ av ideXr], 
Kara raiiTa rd 'ypa(f)€VTa rj tmv eTrnpoTToov 
aXpecn<i jijvecrOa) Kupla' idv Be rj to irapdirav 
fiT) Bia6e/xevo<i reXevryar} ri<; rj rrj'i roiv iirt- 
rpoiroyv alpecrew^ iXXnn]<i, eVtTpoTTOi/? eivac TOv<i 
iyyvTara yevei vrpo? TTarpb<; Kal pLrjrpo^ Kvpiov^, 
Bvo fiev 77/909 7raT/909, Bvo Be irpo^ pbrjjpo'i, eva 
Be eV TMV Tov Te\evTrjaavTO<i <f)iXu)V' TOVTOV<i 
S' 01 vo/jLO(f}vXaK€<i Kadiardvrcov tm Beofxevai tmv 
C opSavMV. Kul irdcrrj'i rrj<i iirn poTtrj'i Kai rwv 
6p<^avoiv irevTeKaiBeKa tmv vofxo^vXdKOiv oi it pea - 
^vraroL irdvrcov eTripeXeiaOwv del Kara irpea^iv 
Kal fcard rpei'i BieXofievoi, a<^d<i avrov^, xar 
iviavTov rpeh Kal Kar iviavrov dXXov erepoi 



424 



LAWS, BOOK XI 

will. If the testator leave no male children, but 
females, he sliall bequeath to whichever daughter he 
chooses a husband, and to himself a son, and write 
him down as his heir ; ^ and if a man has a son, 
whether his own or adopted, who dies in childhood 
before reaching man's estate, in this case also, when 
making his will, he shall state in writing who is to 
be his son's successor, and ^vith happier luck. If 
any testator be wholly childless, he shall take out a 
tenth part of his surplus property and shall give it to 
any person, if he so chooses ; but all the rest he 
shall hand over to his adopted heir, and him he shall 
make his son with mutual good-will and the blessing 
of the law. 

When a man's children need guardians, if he 
"die after making a will and naming what persons 
and how many he desires to act as guardians to 
his children, and if they are willing and consent to 
act, then the choice of guardians in this document 
shall be final ; but if a man dies either wholly 
intestate or having omitted from his will the choice 
of guardians, then the nearest of kin on both the 
father's and the mother's side, two from each side, 
together with one of the friends of the deceased, 
shall act as official guardians, and these the Law- 
wardens shall appoint in the case of each orphan 
that requires them. All that appertains to guardian- 
ship and the orphans shall be supei'vised by fifteen 
of the Law-wardens, who shall be the eldest of the 
whole lx)dv, and shall divide themselves into threes 
according to seniority, three acting one year and 
another three a second year, until five yearly periods 

* i.e. he sliall select a citizen to become his heir by 

marrying one of his daughters. 



PLATO 

T/3€t9, «09 av at irevre irepiohoi '^'I'^vayvTai kvkXm' 
KQL rovTO €K\i7r€TQ) /jLrjSeTTOTe Kara Bvvafjbiv. 

"O? 6' av fitjSev TO irapdirav SiaOifievo'i airodavrj, 
7ralBa<i fiev KaTaXiiroiv Seo/xevov*; eimpoTrrjii, r(bv 
avT(ov vofioov TovTfov rj XP^^^ '^^^ iraihoov avrov 

D fi€T€X€TQ)' Orfkeia^ he av KaTaXLirr} ti? ('nrpoaSo- 
K7]T(p TVXV XPV^^/^^^^^> o-vjyv(Ofj,r)v rw ridevri rov 
vojjiov e^eVft), iav tmv jpioyv aurov Trpo<i ra 8vo 
iina KOTToiiv rrjv e/cSoaiv rcov dvyaripoiv 7roir]Tat, 
irpof T€ rr^v rov yevov^ a7;^to-Tetai/ Kal rrjv toD 
K\ripov (Twrrjpiav, to Be rpirov, owep av TrarTjp 
BiaaKeyfrayro, e^ airavrcov tmv ttoXitwv ^Xerraiv 
etc i^$r) T€ Kal Tp6iTOV<; rov eimriBeiov avTw fiev 
vlov, vvfi(f>Lov S' elvai tj} dvyaTpi, rovro Be irapa- 

E Xeiirrj Bia ti)v dBuvarov (TKeyjrcv. v6p.o<; tolvvv eh 
Bvvafxtv oBe nepl rcov roiovTav Keiadoy 'Eay o 
firj BiaOe/jL€VO<; dvyarepa^ XItttj, rov d7ro6av6vTO<i 
a8eX</)09 ojjLOTraTwp rj aKX'iqpo<; ofiofitjrpio^; exero) 
rrjv dvyarepa Kal rov KXrjpov tov reXevTr)aavTO<;, 
iav Be firj y dBeX(f)6<;, dBeX(f)ov Be Trat?, toaauTCt)?, 
eav ev rjXiKia tt/jo? dXXrjXov<i waiv iav Be firjBe 
el? rovTcov, aSeX0^<? Be 7rat9 y, Kara ravrd' 
Terapro^; Be Trarpo^; dBeX(f)6<;, TreyWTTTO? Be tovtov 
Tra??, e«T09 Be dBeXcfyrj^; irarpo'^ eKyovo^. wcravro)'; 
Be TO yevo<; del Tropeveadw Kar aYp^^tcTTetai', iav Tt? 
925 iralBa'i 6r)X€La<i KaTaXi-nrj, Bl dBeX<^wv re Kal 
dBeX^iBwv eiraviov, e/jLTrpocrde fiev tmv dppevwv, 
varepov Be drfXeicov evl yevei. 

T^v Be rov rwv ydfioov xpovov trvfifierpiav re Kal 

^ i.e. in marriage: the "lot" is to pass on always to the 
next of kin, of. 925 D, E. 

436 



LAWS, BOOK XI 

have passed in rotation ; and this process shall go on, 
so far as possible, without a break. 

And if any man die wholly intestate, leaving 
children that require guardianship, his unfriended 
children shall share in these same laws. And if 
a man meets with some unforeseen mischance and 
leaves daughters, he shall pardon the lawgiver if 
he regulates the betrothal of the daughters with 
an eye to two points out of three — namely, nearness 
of kinship and the security of the lot — and omits 
the third point, which a father would take into 
consideration, — namely, the selecting out of all 
the citizens of a person suited by character and 
conduct to be a son to himself and a spouse for 
his daughter, — if, I say, the lawgiver passes this 
over owing to the impossibility of taking it into 
consideration. Accordingly, the law that we shall 
enact, as the best in our power touching such 
matters, will be this : — If a man dies mtestate and 
leaves daughters, that brother who is born of the 
same father or of the same mother and who is with- 
out a lot shall take the daughter ^ and the lot of the 
deceased ; failing a brother, if there be a brother's 
son, the procedure shall be the same, provided that 
the parties be of an age suited the one to the other ; 
failing one of these, the same rule shall hold for a 
sister's son ; then, fourthly, for a father's brother ; 
and, fifthly, for his son ; and, sixthly, for the son of 
a father's sister. In like manner, if a man leaves 
female children, the right of kinship shall proceed 
always by degrees of consanguinity, going up through 
brothers and brother's children, first the males, and 
secondly the females in one line. 

The suitability or otherwise of the time of 

427 



PLATO 

afierpiav 6 BiKaa-rrj^ (tkottmv Kpiverw, yv/j.vov'i fxev 
TOv<; appeva-i, yvfiva^ 8e 6/j.(f)aXou fie^pi deQ)/j.€vo<i 
Ta9 6rfKeia<i' eav he Tol<i oIk€Loi<; airopia ^vyyevdv 
jj, /J'€Xpt fi€v dSeXcfiov v'uhoiv, pi^XP'' ^^ TrdinTov 
iraihwv oxxauTft)?, tmv aWcov ovriv av rj ttol'^ 
per eTTtTpoTroiv alprjrai rcov irdXiroiv eKOvcriov 

B CKOvaia, K\r]povop,o<; ycyveaOco tov r€\€VTi]cravTO<i 
Kul T/}? OvyuTpo^ vv/j,(f)lo<;. ecni^ Be TroWa ttoX- 
Xwv <€p,TToS(t)V> ^ Kal TrXeicov diropia tmv toiovtcov 
yiyvon av ecrriv ore ev avrfj rfi iroXer dv ovv 8rj 
Tf9 dTTopovpievrj tcov avToSev opa rivd et? diroiKiav 
direcTTaKpevov , -p Be Kara vovv avrfj K\r]pov6p,ov 
eKelvov yiyveadai tmv tov irarpo'i, eav pbev ^vy- 
y€VT](i -p, Kara rrjv rd^iv rov v6p,ov eVt rov kXtjoov 
TTopeveado), eav Be f«T09 yevov^, tmv ev rfj iroXei 

C ovrcov e^o) tt}? cvyyeveia<i, Kvpio<i earo) Kara rrjv 
TCOV eTTLTpoirwv Kal rrj^ TraiBo'i tov TeXevTrjcravTO<i 
aipeciv yrjpai Kal tov KXrjpov eiraveXOoov ocKaBe 
Xa^elv TOV p,r] BiaOepLevov. 

"ATTttf? Be dppevcov re Kal OpXeccov to irapd- 
Trav 09 dv pbrj BiaO€p,evo<; TeXevra, to, pbev 
dXXa irepl tov tolovtov Kara tov epurpoaOev 
e\eT(i) vopiov, 0>']Xeia Be Kal apprjv, olov ^vv- 
vopioi, cTwaav €k tov yevov^ eh tov i^rjpr)p,Q)- 
pievov eKacTTOTe oIkov, mv o KXrjpo<; yr/veado) 

D Kvpiox;, dBeXipT) pbev trpoyTov, dBeX<^ov Be dvyaTiip 
BevTepa, TpiTTj Be CKyovo^ dSeX^^9, Tera/jr?; Be 
TTaTpo'i dBeX^rj, Kal vepLTTTT) Trarpo'i dB€X(f)ov 7rot9, 
€KTi] Be dB€X(f)rj<; 7raT/309 dv etp iral^' avvoiKc^eiv 
Be Tavraf eKeivoi^ KaT dyxtcrTeiav Kal depiv, W9 

1 tffri Apelt : ert MSS., edd. 
* (J^Lirohievy I add (iroAA^ for iroAAa Ast). 
428 



LAWS, BOOK XI 

marriage the judge shall decide by inspection, 
viewing the males naked and the females naked 
down to the navel. And if there be in the family 
a lack of kinsmen as far as brother's grand- 
children, and likewise as far as grandfather's 
eliildren, whomsoever of the other citizens the girl, 
aided by her guardians, shall choose, that man (if 
both he and the girl are willing) shall become the 
heir of the deceased and the spouse of his daughter. 
But obstacles often occur, and there might be times 
when there was an unusual dearth of such men in 
the city itself: so if any girl, being at a loss to find 
a spouse on the spot, sees one that has emigrated to 
a colony and desires that he should become heir to 
her father's property, if so be that he is related, 
he shall proceed to the lot, according to the ordin- 
ance of the law ; but if he be outside the kin, and 
there be no one of near kin in the State, then by 
the choice of the guardians and of the daughter of 
the deceased he shall be entitled to marry and to 
take the lot of the intestate man on his return 
home. 

Whosoever dies intestate, being without any issue, 
male or female, in his case all other matters shall be 
governed by the previous law ; and a man and 
woman from the family shall in each such instance 
go into the deserted house as joint assignees, and 
their claim to the lot shall be made valid ; and the 
female claims to inheritance sliall come in this order 
— first, a sister ; second, a brother's daughter ; third, 
a sister's daughter ; fourth, a father's sister ; fifth, a 
father's brother's daughter ; sixth, a father's sister's 
daughter ; and these shall share the home with the 
male kinsmen according to the degree of relationship 

429 



PLATO 

efiTTpoadev €VOfiod€Ti]aa/u,€v. /uLrj SrjXavdaveToo to 
Tcov TOiovTcov vofMcov r^jxa^ ^dpo<;, co? ^aX.e7rft)? 
eariv ore TTpoardrreL tS> tov T6\evTrjaavro<i Kara 
<y€vo<; olKeiw <yap,eLv rrjv ^uyyevrj, firj SoKel Be 
(TKOirelv a fivpia ev dvdpa)7T0c<; i/niroSia yuyverat 
E T019 rotovTot<; iirndyfiaai tov p,rjTiva ideXeiv 
ireiOeadai, irporepov he ovcrTiva<i otiovp av ^ovX-q- 
dfjvai iradelv, oirorav rj aco/xuTcov vocrrjpara koX 
•TTJjpcoaei'i rj Siavoia^ ev Tiai ro)v eTriraTTOfievcov 
yapelv t) yafielaOai yiyvqTai. tovtcov Brj fitjBep 
(f)povTL^€iv Td')( av 6 vofiodeTr)^ Bo^eie riaiv, ovk 
opdco'i SoKOvv. earo) tolvvv elprjp,evov virep re 
vopodejov Koi vTrep vop,odeTov/u,evov a^eBov olov 
KOLVOV Trpoolfitov, avyyvcofxrjv jxev to5 vopodery 
rov<i i7rcTaTTop,evov<; Beopevov e)(eiv, on twv kol- 
vo)v eTTipeXoupevo^ ovk dv ttotc Bvvairo Bioiicelv 
dpia Koi ra? IBia^; eicdcyi-(p ycyvop,eva<; ^vp,(f)opd<;, 
926 ^vyyvdyprjv 8' av koI toI<; vop,odeTOvp,evoi<i, &)9 rd 
tov vopbo6eTOvvTO<i eiKoTQXi evLOTe ov BvvavTat 
irpoaTdypiaTa TeXelv, a prj yiyvdicrKWV irpoaTdTTei. 

KA. Tt Brj Ti9 ovv, 0} ^eve, Bpcov 7r/309 ra toiuvtu 
ipLpeTpoTUTo^; dv eh] ; 

A0. AiaiTi]Td<;, (l) KXeivia, Tol<i TOiovToa 
v6pbOL<; Kal vo pod eTOv pAvoL<i dvayKalov alpelaOai. 

KA. Yloi'i \eyeL<i ; 

A0. "^GTLV ore tfKovaiov iraTpo^; dBe\(f>iBov'i 

Tt]V TOV deiov OvyaTepa eKcbv ovk av eOeXoi Xap,- 

B ^dveiv, Tpv(pcbv Kal eVt ptei^oai ydpoi<i ttjv Bidvoiav 

erri'^wv' ecrTi 8' ore kuI ^vp<f>opdv ttjv peyccTTTjv 

430 



LAWS, BOOK XI 

and right, as we previously enacted. Now we must 
not fail to notice. how burdensome sucBT a law may 
pTovejin tli^t sometimes it harshly orders the next 
ofliiri to the deceased to marry his kinswoman, and 
fHat'il appears to overlook the thousands of impedi- 
ments which in human life prevent men from being 
willing to obey such orders and cause them to prefer 
anv other alternative, however painful, in cases 
where either of the parties ordered to marry is 
suffering from diseases or defects of mind or body. 
Some might suppose that the lawgiver is paying no 
heed to these considerations, but they would be 
\^Tong. On behalf, therefore, of the lawgiver as 
well as of him to whom the law applies let a kind of 
general prelude be uttered, requesting those to 
whom the order is given to pardon the lawgiver 
because it is impossible for him, in his care for the 
public interests, to control also the private mis- 
fortunes which befall individuals, and requesting 
jiardon also for the subjects of the law, inasmuch as 
they are naturally unable at times to carry out 
ordinances of the lawgiver laid down by him in 
ignorance. 

CLIN. As regards this. Stranger, what would be 
the most rational course of action to adopt ? 

ATH. It is necessary, Clinias, that for laws of this 
kind, and those whom they affect, arbitrators should 
be chosen. 

CLIN. How do you mean r 

.*TH. It might happen that a nephew, who has a 
rich father, would be loth to take to wife his uncle's 
daughter, giving himself airs and being minded to 
make a grander match. Or again, when what the 
lawgiver enjoins would be a fearful calamity, a man 

43» 



PLATO 

Tov vofioOeTOV •npo(T'TUTTovTO<; atreidelv ava'y- 
Ka^on av tm vo/jlo), /jLatv6/x€va KTjSevfiara avay- 
/cd^ovTo<i \a/j,^dv€iv rj heii'a<i aWw; aw/jLaToyu ^ 
yjrv^MV ^v/i(f)opd<i, a? d^LcoTov ^rjv Ke/CTrjfiivo). 6 
8r] vvv X6yo<; rjfxlv irepl rovrcov 68e v6fio<i KelcrOoj' 
Edv TiV€<i dpa Trepl 8ia0i]Krj^ iyKoKMai rot? k€i- 
/jL€voi<i vo/xoa, "Trepl re dXXcov odvtivcovovi' kuI S?; 

C Kal irepl yd/xcov, y /nijv napovra koI ^covra avrov 
TOV vofModerrjv pujiror ui> dvayKdauL TrpdrTeiv 
ovTco, firjSe yPj/xat /xijSe ytjfxaadai, tou? vvv dvay- 
Ka^o/jL€vov<i exdrepa Bpap, 6 Be rt? t(ov oiKeiwv 7] 
Ti? €7riTpo7ro<i (j)fj, SiaiTrjTa^; (f)dvat fcal irarepa'^ 
TOv<i 7r€VT€/caiSeKa tmv vo/j.o(f)v\dxcov KaraXnrelu 
Tol<i 6p(f>avoL'i Kal 6p(f)avat'i tov vopoOeTrjv tt/oo? 

D Ob's eTravc6vTe<; hiahiKa^ecrd oiv ol irepi Tivo<i tmv 
TOiovToov d/jL(jiia/3r)TovvTe<;, Kvpia TeXovvTe<i to, 
TOVTCov hoyp-aTa. av Be Tea pel^cov 8vvap,L<; eirava- 
Tideadai Sokt} toi'? vop,o(f)v\a^iv, et? to tmv 
eKKpiTwv BiKaaTOiv 8i.KaaTi']piov eladymv avTov<i 
SiaStKa^eado) Trepl tmv dp,(f>ial3')]Tovp,ev(ov' Tot Be 
i)TTr]$evTC Tvapa tov vopodeTov •^6yo<i Kal oveiBo^ 
Keiado), ttoWmv ')(pripdTwv vovv KeKTTjpevw ^i]fila 
^apvTepa. 

NOf Bi] Tois 6p(j}avoi'i iratal yev€ai<; olov Bev- 
Tepa Tt9 yiyvoiT av. pueTa p,ev ovv ttjv TrpcoTijv 

E eKdaTOi<i €ipi]VTaL Tpocfeal kal rraiBevcreL^' p,€Td 
Be TTjV BevTepav, epi]pLOV vaTepcov yevop,€vi]v, 



1 Cp. 775 D ff., 855 C. 

- i.e. be "born again" as children of the State, with the 
Law-wardens as their new official parents, as explained 
below. 

432 



I 



LAWS, BOOK XI 

might be compelled to disobey the law — for instance, 
when the law would force him to enter into an 
alliance with madness or some other dire affliction 
of body or soul, such as makes life intolerable for 
the person so allied. This statement of ours shall 
now be laid down as a law in the following terms : — 
If any man have a complaint against the ordained 
laws concerning testaments in resj)ect of any detail, 
and especially of those relating to marriage ; and 
if he affirms on oath that of a truth the lawgiver 
himself, were he alive and present, would never 
have compelled the parties to act as they are now 
being compelled to act in respect of marrying and 
giving in marriage ; and if, on the other hand, some 
relative or guardian supports the compulsion of the 
law ; what we declare is that the lawgiver has left 
us the fifteen Law-wardens to act for the orphans, 
male and female, as both arbitrators and parents, 
and to these all who dispute about any such matters 
shall go for judgment, and their verdict shall be 
carried out as final. If, however, anyone maintains 
that this is to confer too much power on the Law- 
wardens, he shall summon his opponents before the 
court of select judges ^ and secure a decision regard- 
ing the points in dispute. On him that is defeated 
there shall be imposed by the lawgiver censure and 
disgrace, — a penalty heavier than a large fine in the 
eves of a man of right mind. 

Accordingly, orphan children will undergo a 
kind of second birth. ^ How in each case they 
should be reared and trained after their first 
birth we have already described ; ^ and now we 
must contrive some means whereby, after their 

» In Books II. and VIL 

433 

VOL. II. F F 



PLATO 

fir])(^avaa0ac Set Tiva rpoirov rj t?}? optpaviat rv^V 
Tot9 y€vo/j,€VOL<; 6p(f)apoc<i o)? ■^Kiara eXeov e^ei t^9 
o-vfi(f>opd<;. irpoiTov p,ev hel ^ vojxodeTelv avToit 
TOv<i vofiocf)v\aKa<; avrl yevvtjToptov Trare/aa? ov 
')(eipov<i, KoX Br) /cal <Tpet<;> ^ kuO^ eKacrrov iviav- 
rbv ft)9 oIksIwv iiriixeXeladai irpoardrrop.ev, ififxeXi] 
70VT0i.<; T€ avTol<i irepl rpo^^? 6p^av5)V irpooi- 
fiiaadfievoi koX toI<; eVtr/joTrot?. et? rivayap ovv 
fj.01 Kaipov 4)aivo/jL€da tou9 efnrpocrOev \6>yov<; 
927 Ste^eXdetv, co? a pa al tcov reXevTrjcrdvTfov 'yfrv^al 
Bvvafj,iv exovai riva rekevTrjaaaai, fj roiv kut 
dvd pdairov; TrpayfiaToyv e7rip,€\ovvTai. ravra Be 
dXijdel^ fxev, fiuKpol B' etcrt TTepie'X^ovTe'i Xoyoi. 
iriareveiv Be Tai<; aXXai^ (f)7]pai<i ^/aecov irepl rd 
TOiavra, ovtq) iroXXaicri koX a^oBpa 7raXaiat<; 
ov<rai9' TTKTTeveiv B' av fcal TOL<i vofioderovac ravd^ 
0VT0)<i e'x^eiv, dvirep fir) iravTairaaiv d(f)poi>e<; 
<f)aiv(i}VTai. ravTT} Be el ravr^ ecrrl Kara ^vcriv, 
irpSiTOv /J,€V Tou? dvoo deov<i t^o^eiadoiv, ot tcov 

B op^avcop T^9 eprjfiia^ at(rdr]crei<; eyovaiv, elra Td<; 
TCOV KeKfiTjKOTcov ^frv^d'y, at? eaTiv ev Trj (jivcrei 
TCOV avToov CKyovcov KTJBeadat BiacpepovTco^; Kal 
TiixoiGi T€ avTOv<i €vfiev€i<; elvai koX uTCfid^ovai 
Bvafxevei';, eTi Be Td<i t&v ^(ovtcov fiiv, ev yijpa Be 
ovToov Kal ev fieyiaTai<; Tip.ai<;, oti ovwep ^ 7r6Xi<i 
evvofiovaa evBai/xovel, Tovtov; ol 7ratSe<? TraiBatv 
<^LXoaTopyovvTe<i ^coai fied^ rjBovi]^' Kal ra Trepl 

C raOra o^v jxev aKOvovai, ^Xeirovai re o^v, toI^ 
T€ irepl avTa BiKaioi^ €Vfi€vel<i el(xi, vefieacoaC 

^ ou: 5j) MSS. : 5^ <panev (MS. marg.) Zur., vulg, 

* <Tp€j$> added by Susemihl, Ritter. 

' 8t« ovirep : 'oirovirep MSS. {'6wov yap Hermann). 

434 



LAWS, BOOK XI 

second birth in which they are destitute of 
parents, their orphan condition may be as free as 
possible from piteous misery for those who have 
become orphans. In the first place, to act in the 
room of their begetters, as parents of no inferior 
kind, we must legally appoint the Law-wardens ; 
and we charge three of these, year by year,^ to care 
for the orphans as their own, having already given 
both to these men and to the guardians a suitable 
prelude of directions concerning the nurture of 
orphans. Opportune, indeed, as I think, was the 
account we previously gave ^ of how the souls of 
the dead have a certain power of caring for human 
affairs after death. The tales which contain this 
doctrine are true, though long ; and while it is right 
to believe the other traditions about such matters, 
which are so numerous and exceeding old, we must 
also believe those who lay it down by law that these 
are facts, unless it is plain that they are utter fools. 
So if this is really the state of the case, the guardians 
shall fear, first, the gods above who pay regard to the 
solitude of orphans ; and, secondly, the souls of the i 
dead, whose natural instinct it is to care especially 
for their own offspring, and to be kindly disposed 
to those who respect them and hostile to those who 
disrespect them ; and, thirdly, they shall fear the 
souls of the living who are old and who are held in 
most high esteem ; since where the State flourishes 
under good laws, their children's children revere 
the aged with affection and live in happiness. These 
old people are keen of eye and keen of ear to mark 
such matters, and while they are gracious towards 
those who deal justly therein, they are very wroth 

1 Cp. 924 C. * 865 E flf. 

435 

F F 2 



PLATO 

T€ fiakiara av to 49 €t9 6p(f>ava Kal eprjfia v^pi- 
^ovai, irapaKaTad^Krjv elvai p.e'yiaTr^v rj'yovfievoi 
Koi lepwTarrjv. 0I9 iirirpoTrov Kal dp-^ovTa irdai 
Bel TOP vovv, <p Koi ^pa-)(y<i iveit}, TTpoae-)(ovra, Kal 
€vXa^ovp,evov irepl Tpo^rjv t€ Kal iracSetav 
6p(f)av(ov, Qi<i epavov ela^epovTa eavrSi re Kal roit 
avTov, Kara 8vva/juv Trai/rw? iraaav evepyereiv. 6 
p,ev Bi) Treiadel^ ro) irpo tov vo/xov p^vdw Kal 

D /j,r}Bei> et? 6p<pav6v vj3pLa-a<i ovk eicreTai evapyuyf 
TTjp irepl ra TOiaina opyrjv vop,odeTOV, 6 Be atrei- 
0T)<; Kai riva Trarpo? rj p.rjrpo'i eprjfiov aBiKc!>v 
BnrXrjv Ttvira) irdaav rrjv ^Xd^ijv rj irepl rov 
a/j.(f>Lda\rj y€v6p,€V0<; KaK6<i. 

l^^rjv Be aWrjv vofiodeaiav eirnpoTToiai re 
irepl 6p(f>avov<i dp^ovat re irepl rrjv eirifieXeiap 
ra)v eirirpoircov, el p,ev p,i] ^ irapdBety/j.d ^ re 
rpo(f)rj<; iralBcov eXevdepwv eKeKrrjvro avrol rpe- 
^ovre<i rov<i avrS>v xal tmv OLKeiotv ')(^prip.dru)V 

E eTTi,fie\ovp-evoi, en Be v6fiov<; irepl avrcov rov- 
rwv perpi(t)<i Bieipr]p,ivov<i el'X^ov, el'X^e riva Xoyov 
dv €inrpoinKov<i rcva^ v6fiov<i, q)<; 6vra<i IBia 
Bia(f)epovra<i iroXv, ridevai,, iroiKiWovrat eirirr]- 
Bevp.aaiv lBloi<i rov rcov 6p(f>av(ov ^lov irapd 
rov rSiv p,rj' vvv Be et? pev rd roiavra ^vp- 
iravra ov iroXv Bia(f>epov 17 Trap' i]ptv opcfiavla 
KeKrrjrai t% irarpovop,iKrj<i, ripal<i Be Kal drtpLai<; 
dfia Kal iinp,eXeiai(Tiv oiiBapa)^ e^vaovadai, (jaXel. 



1 ^l), Baiter : S)j MSS. 

* irafj<£5«(7/uo MSS. : irapaSfly/iari Zur, 



436 



LAWS, BOOK XI 

with those who despitefully entreat orphans and 
waifs, rejjarding these as a trust most solemn and 
sacred. To all these authorities the guardian 
and official — if he has a spark of sense — must pay 
attention ; he must show as much care regarding 
the nurture and training of the orphans as if he 
were contributing to his own support and that of 
his own children, and he must do them good in 
every way to the utmost of his power. He, then, 
that obeys the tale prefixed to the law and in no wise 
misuses the orphan will have no direct experience 
of the anger of the lawgiver against such offences ; 
but the disobedient and he that wrongs any who 
has lost father or mother shall in every case pay a 
penalty double of that due from the man who 
offends against a child with both parents living. 

As regards further legal directions either to 
guardians concerning orphans or to magistrates con- 
cerning the supervision of the guardians, — if they did 
not already possess a pattern of the way to nurture 
free children in the way they themselves nurture 
their own children and supervise their household 
goods, and if they did not also possess laws regulating 
these same affairs in detail, then it would have been 
reasonable enough to lay down laws concerning 
guardianship, as a peculiar and distinct branch of 
law, marking out with special regulations of its own 
the life of the orphan as contrasted with the non- 
orphan ; but, as the matter stands, the condition 
of orphanhood in all these respects does not differ 
greatly with us from the condition of parental 
control, although as a rule in respect of public 
estimation and of the care bestowed on the children 
they are on quite a different level. Consequently, 

437 



PLATO 

928 Sf 6 8t) TTepl TovTo avrb rrjv op^avSiv iripi vofio- 
Oecnav 7rapa/iivdovfi€v6<i re Kal aTreiXoiyv 6 vofiof 
eairovSaKev. en 8' aTretX^ Ti<i av roidhe eir) 
fiaka €yKatpo<i- ' O9 av drfK-vv etre appeva imTpo- 
'Trevrj, KUi 09 av eiriTpoTTov (f}v\a^ rSiv vofio<f)V- 
\aK(ov Kara(na<i eTrifieXrJTai, jmrj '^elpov ayaTrdrco 
TOiv avTov TeKvwv Tov Trj<i 6p(f)aviKr]'i ixeTeCKrj^ora 
Tvxv*} P'V^^ "^^^ otKeioov roiv tov Tpecpo/xivov 
■X^elpov %/377/ittT&)v iirifieXeLadco, ^iXriov Be rj ratv 
auTov Kara Trpodvp.iav. 

B ' Eva he tovtov vofiov e-)((ov op^avwv Trept 
'iTa<i eiriTpoTTeveToy iav Se dX\co<; ti<; irepX rd 
roiavra irpdrTr] irapd tov v6/j.ov Tovhe, 6 fiev 
dp'^cov ^rjfitovTco tov eTriTpoTrov, 6 Se €7rtT/307ro9 
TOV dp')(pvTa eh to tmv eKKpiTOiv SiKaaT7]piov 
eladjfov ^rjfiiovTO) tw ho^avTi Tifir]fiaTt tw 
SticaaTrjpio) SiTrXfj. edv S* eVtT/JOTro? d/ieXeiv 
T) KaKOvpyelv BoKfj toi^ oIkcloi^ rj Kal twv 
dXXcov Tivl TToXcTcov, ei9 TavTov dyeTco Siku- 

C a-Tijpiov 6 TL S* dv o(jiX7], TeTpaTrXaalav fiev 
TOVTOV TLveiv, yiyvkadw Be to fiev ■yjpicrv tov 
traiBo^, TO B rjfiiav tov KUTuBiKaaafievov ttjv 
BiKTjv. d/JLa S' dv rj^rjar) Ti<i tmv 6p(f)av(!)v, edv 
rjyfjTai KaK6!)<; einTpoTrevBrivai, P'e^pt TreWe eTtov 
i^rjK0var]<i Tij<; eiriT poTTrj<i ecrro) Blkijv Xa'xelv 
eirLTpoTTLa^' edv Be Tf? o^Xr) twv e-ntTpoTrav, 
Tifidv TO BiKacTT^piov 6 Ti 'X^prj iraOelv r} diroTLveiv, 
edv Be Br) tmv dp^ovTcov, dfieXela fiev B6^a<; 
KUKbiaai TOV 6p(f)av6v, ti 'X^prj TLveiv avTov tw 

D iraiBi, TifiaTco to BiKaaTijptov, edv Be dBiKia, tt/jo? 



438 



LAWS, BOOK XI 

in its regulations concerning orphans the law has 
emphasized this very point both by admonition and 
by threat. A threat, moreover, of the following 
kind will be extremely opportune : — Whosoever is 
guardian of a male or female child, and whosoever 
of the Law-wardens is appointed supervisor of a 
guardian, shall show as much affection for the child 
whom Fate has made an orphan as for his own 
children, and he shall zealously care for the goods 
of his nursling as much as for his own goods — or 
rather, more. 

Every guardian shall observe this one law in 
the discharge of his office ; and if any act in 
such matters contrary to this law, the magistrate 
shall punish him if he be a guardian, and, if he be 
a magistrate, the guardian shall summon him before 
the court of the select judges, and fine him double 
the penalty adjudged by the court. And if a 
guardian be held by the child's relatives, or by any 
other citizen, to be guilty of neglecting or mal- 
treating his ward, they shall bring him before the 
same court, and he shall pay four times the damages 
assessed, and of this amount one half shall go to the 
child, the other half to the successful prosecutor. 
When an orphan has reached full age, if he thinks 
that he has been badly cared for, he shall be allowed 
to bring an action concerning the guardianship 
within a period of five years after the date of its 
expiration ; and if the guardian lose his case, the 
court shall assess the amount of his penalty or fine ; 
and if it be a magistrate that is held to have injured 
the orphan by neglect, the court shall assess what 
sum he shall pay to the child, but if the injury be 
due to unjust dealing, in addition to the fine he shall 

439 



PLATO 

Tw Tifitj/xaTL rf)? o.pxn^ Twv vofio(f>v\dK(t)v a<fi- 
icrrdaOo), to Be koivov rrjf; TToXeo)? erepov vofxo- 
(f)v\aKa dvTl tovtov KadicrTdro} rfj X^P^ '^^'' "^V 
TToXeL. 

Aia(f)opal Trarepwv re 7rpo<i avrtov TratSa? 
yiyvovrat Koi iralScov Trpo? yevvrjTd'; fieL^ov<; rj 
XP^diV, ev al<i o'l re irarepe^ rjyoivr ai> Belv rov vop,o- 
dert)}' vofioOerelv i^eivai a(picnv iav ^ovXcovrai rov 
vlov VTTO Ki]pvKO<; evavr'iov dirdvTWV aTrenrelv viov 
E Kara vojjlov firjKer elvai, viel<i r av a(f)Lai 7rarepa<; 
VTTO voaoov fj j^p(i)<; Siaridefievov; alaxpco^ i^elvai 
7Tapavoia<; ypdcf^eaOai. ravra Be 6vt(o^ ev 7ra7- 
KdKwv rj9e<Jiv dvOpwirayv jiyveaOai <f)i\el, eirei 
rj/jLLaecov ye ovrcov rcov KaKOiV, olov fMrj KaKOV fxev 
rrarpo^, vleo<; 8e, rj rovvavrlov, ou yiyvovrai ^vfM- 
<f)opal rr]\iKavrr)<; e')(Opa<i eKyovoi. ev fiev ovv 
aXXrj TToXireia Trai<i dTroKeKrjpvyfievo^ ovk av e^ 
dvdyKrjf; drrd\L<i etrj, ravrr]<; Be, ^9 oiBe oc vo/xoi, 
eaovrai, dvayKacQ)<i ex^t eL<; dWrjv x^p(^^ e^oiKi^e- 
929 adai rov dirdropa' irpo^ yap rah rerrapdKovra 
Kal rrevraKiaxi'Xioi^ oikoi<; ovk eariv eva irpoaye- 
vea-6ai. Bio Brj Bel rov ravra ireiaofievov ev Blkj} 
fir) VTTO evo^ rrarpo^, viro Be rov yevov^ d-nopprj- 
Orjvac Trarro?. TTOielv Be XPV '''^^ roiovrcov rrepi 
Kara vofiov roiovBe rivd' '^Ov dv dvpo<i errirj 
fxr]Bap(o<i evrvxv^y etV ovv ev BiKr) eire Kal fii], 
ov ereK€ re Kal e^eOpe^aro, rovrov imOvfieiv 
drraWd^aL t/}<? avrov ^vyyeveia<;, pr) (f)avX(0'i 
B ovrcov e^ecrru) prjB' ev0v<; rovro Bpav, irptorov Be 
avWe^drm 701/9 avrov ^vyyevei<; P'expi' dveyjriMV 



440 



LAWS, BOOK XI 

be removed from his office of Law-warden, and the 
public authority of the State shall appoint another 
in his place to act as Law-warden for the countrj' 
and the State. 

/Between fathers and their children, and children 
'^nd their fathers, there arise differences greater 
than is right, in the course of which fathers, on 
the one hand, are liable to suppose that the law- 
giver should give them legal permission to proclaim 
publicly by herald, if they so wish, that their sons 
have legally ceased to be their sons ; while the sons, 
on the other hand, claim permission to indict their 
fathers for insanity when they are in a shameful 
condition owing to illness or old age. These results 
are wont to occur among men who are wholly evil 
of character, since where only half of them are evil 
— the son being evil and the father not, or vice 
versa — such enmit\- does not issue in calamitous 
consequences. Now, whereas under another polity 
a son when disinherited would not necessarily cease 
to be a citizen, it is necessary in our State (of which 
these are to be the laws) that the fatherless man 
should emigrate to another State, since it is impos- 
sible that a single household should l>e added to our 
5040 ; consequently it is necessary that the person 
upon whom this punishment is to be inflicted legally 
should be disinherited, not by his father only, but 
by the whole family. Such cases should be dealt 
with according to a law such as this : — If any man is 
urged by a most unhappy impulse of anger to desire, 
rightly or wrongly, to exj>el from his own kindred 
one whom he has begotten and reared, he shall not 
be permitted to do this informally and immediately, 
but he shall, first of all, assemble his own kinsfolk 

441 



PLAIO 

Koi TOv<; rov vleo^ Q)(TavTco<; tou? tt/jo? fjLi]Tp6<i, 
KaTTjyopeiTO) Se iv TOvroL<i, SiSdcrKcov (09 d^io<i 
UTracnv ck rov yevov^ i/cKeKijpvx^cii, horw he koi 
t5> Viet \6yov^ rot"? laov^, 0)9 ovk d^i6<i iari 
TOVTCov ovSev •nda')(eiv' Koi idv p.ev ttciOt} 6 
TTarrip koi (TUfj,yp-i](f)ov<; Xd^rj Trdvrcov twv |^i;77e- 
vwv vnrep ijfiKTu, ifKrjv Trarpo^ Biayfnjcpi^ofjLevoiV ^ 
Kal fiyjrpos koI tov (f)€vyoi'ro<;, rcov ye ^ dWoov 

C oTToaonrep av coai yvvaiKiov eire dvhpwv reXeioi, 
ravrrj fiev koX kuto, ravra i^icrrco rat irarpl rov 
vlov aTTOKijpvTTeiv, aX,X&J9 Be fir]8a/j,(ii)<;. tov B 
d7roKr)pv)(devTa idv Tt9 ra>v ttoXitmv vlov ^ovXrj- 
rai OecrOai, fir]8el<i v6/xo<; aTreipyeTco iroLelaOai' rd 
yap Tcbv vecov rjOrj 7roWd<; fiera^oXd^ iv tw /Stw 
/jbCTa^dWeiv exdaTOTe ire^vKev diroKrjpvxdevra 
he dv Tf9 BeKU ctcov firj eTnOv/Mijcrr) derov vlov 

D TTOitjo-acrdai, tov<; rcov eTTiyovtov emfieX'qrd'i rwv 
ei9 rrjv aTTOiKlav €7rtp,e\ei(r6ai Kal rovrwv, 07r&)9 
dv [xerd(T-)((oai t^9 avrrj'i diroiKLa'^ e/i/xeXft)9. idv 
Be rl<i rtva v6ao<i r) yr)pa<i rj Kal rpoircov ;^aXe7roTr?9 
>/ Kal ^vfinavra ravra €K(f)pova aTrepyd^rjrai 
Bia<p€p6vTco<; ra)V ttoWmv, Kal \avddvr) rov'i 
d\\ov<i 7r\r)v rmv a-vvBtairfOfiivav, olKO(j)dopfj Be 
u><i ct)V rcov avrov Kvpio<i, 6 Be vlo^ diropfj Kal 
OKvf) rrjv ri]<i TTapavoia<; ypd<^ea6ai, BiKtjv, vo/xo^ 

E avrw KelaOco irpoirov fiev 77/309 tou9 rrpea^vrdrov; 
roiv vofjLO(f>v\dKcov ekdovra Birjytjaaadat rrjv rov 
7rarp6<; ^Vfi(f)opdv, ol Be KariB6vre<i iKavcb'? ^Vfi- 
^ovXevovrwv idv re Berj ypd^eaOai Kal idv firj 



^ Sia^Tl<pt^ofxfvwv Baiter : dia<l/r]<pi^o/j.fvov MSS. 
2 yt Hermann : t« MSS. ; Se Ast, Zur. 



442 



LAWS, BOOK XI 

as far as cousins and likewise his sen's kinsfolk on 
the mother's side, and in the presence of these he 
shall accuse his son, showing how he deserves at the 
hands of all to be expelled from the family, and he 
shall grant to the son an equal length of time for 
arguing that he does not deserve to suffer any such 
treatment ; and if the father convinces them and 
gains the votes of more than half the family (votes 
being given by all the other adults of both sexes, 
save only the father, the mother, and the son who is 
defendant), in this way and on these conditions, but 
not otherwise, the father shall be permitted to 
disinherit his son. And as regards the man disin- 
herited, if any citizen desires to adoj)t him as his son, 
no law shall prevent him from doing so, (for the 
characters of the young naturally undergo many 
changes during their life) ; but if within ten years no 
one offers to adopt the disinherited man, then the 
controllers of the surplus children designed for 
emigration shall take control of these persons also, 
in order that they may be duly included in the same 
scheme of emigration. And if a man becomes 
unusually demented owing to illness or old age or 
crabbedness, or a combination of these complaints, 
but his condition remains unnoticed by all except 
those who are living with him, and if he regards 
himself as master of his own property and wastes his 
goods, while his son feels at a loss and scruples to 
indict him for insanity, — in such a case a law shall 
be enacted on behalf of the son whereby he shall, in 
the first instance, go to the eldest of the Law- 
wardens and report to them his father's condition, 
and they, after full enquiry, shall advise whether or 
not he ought to bring an indictment ; and if they 

443 



PLATO 

rr]v ypa(f)7}v, iav Se ^Vfi/SovXeva-wcri,, yiyvea-Oaxrav 
ra> <ypa<po/jL€i'6) fx,dpTvp€<; ap,a koI ^vvSikoi. 6 Se 

0<f)X,0)V TOV XOITTOV ')(p6vOV aKVpO<i eCTTQ) TOiV aVTOV 

Koi TO (T/MKpoTarov hiariOeadai, Kaddnep Trat? 
Be oiKeiTQ) TOV eTTLXonrov ^lov, 

^Eai* he dvrjp kuI <yvvr) /xrjSafjif} ^Vfj,(f)ep(ovTai 
rpoTTcov Suarvx^a %/0<»/iei^ot, BeKa fiev dp8pa<; tcov 
vofio(f)vXaKQ)v iiTLfieXeicrOai roiv tolovtcov del ^pecbi/ 
930 TOU9 fieaov^, Sexa Be tmv nepl ydfj,ov<; yvvaiKMV 
(ocravTO}<;' Kai edv fxev Brj ^vvaXXdrTeiv Bvvwvrai, 
ravT ecTTft) Kvpia, edv S' al yjfv)(^al KVfialvQXTi p,ei- 
^ovQ}<i avTO)v, ^rjjeiv Kara Bvpa/xiv o'lrive^ eKarepoi 
^vpoiKt']crov(Tiv, et/co? Be elvai Tov<i tolovtov<; fxi] 
irpaecriv r)deat, K€XpVM^ou<;'^ ^aOvrepa Br) tovtoc^ 
KOL TTpaorepa rpoTTcov tjOt) ^vvvopa TreipdcrOaC 
TrpoaapfioTTeiv. koi oaoi /nev dv d7raiBe<; avrSiv 
rj oXiyoTraiBe^i ovt€<; Bia(f)epcovTat, koX iraiBcov 
B eveKa Trjv avvoLKrjaiv iroielaOai' oaoi S' dv 
iKavwv ovTOiv iraiBwv, tt}<? <TvyKarayr]pd(Te(o<i 
eveKa kul eirifieXeia^ dXXijXcov rijv Bcd^ev^iv re 
Kol crv^ev^iv iroieladai 'y^pecov. idv Be reXevrd 
yvvr) KaTaXeiTTOVcra TraiBa'i 6r}Xeia<; re Kol dppe- 
va<i, avp,j3ovXevTLKo<; dv ec7) vo/xo'i 6 Ti6ip,€vo<;, 
ovK dvayKa(jTLKo<i, Tpecfteiv rov^ 6vra<i iralBwi firj 
p.7]rpviav etrayofievov p,rj Be ovtoov e^ dvdyKi]<; 
yap,€tv, ixe'X^piTTep dv iKavov<; yevvijarj 7raiBa<i Ta> 
C re oiK^ Kol TTJ TToXei. rjv Be 6 dvrjp dTToddvp 
nalBa^ iKavoi)^ Xlttwv, r] p,T]Tr}p t&v TraiBayv 

^ KtxpVf-fvovs MSS. : KfKpapLtyovs MSS. marg., Zor. 

1 Op. 784 A ff., 794 B. 
444 



LAWS, BOOK XI 

advise him to bring an indictment, they shall act 
for him, when he brings it, both as witnesses and 
advocates ; and the father that is convicted shall 
thenceforward have no power to administer even the 
smallest tittle of his property, and shall be counted 
as a child in the house for the rest of his life. 

If a man and his wife, being of unhappy dis- 
positions, in no wise agree together, it is right 
that they should be under the constant control 
of ten members of the Board of Law- wardens, 
of middle age, together with ten of the women 
in charge of marriage. ^ If these officials are able 
to bring about a reconciliation, this arrangement 
shall hold good ; but if their passions rage too high 
for harmony, the officials shall, so far as jjossible, 
seek out other suitable unions for each of them. 
And since it is probable that such persons are not of 
a gentle disposition, they must endeavour to yoke 
with them dispositions that are more gentle and 
sedate.- If those who quarrel are childless, or liave 
but few children, they must form unions with a view 
to children ; but if they have children enough, then 
the object both of the separation and of the new 
union should be to obtain companionship and mutual 
assistance in old age. If a man's wife dies, leaving 
both male and female children, there shall be a law, 
advisory rather than compulsory, directing the 
husband to rear the children without introducing a 
step-mother ; but if there be no children, the 
widower must of necessity marry, until he has 
begotten children sufficient alike for his household 
and the State. And if the husband dies, leaving 
sufficient children, the mother of the children shall 

* Cp. 773 C. 

445 



PLATO 

avTov fiivovaa Tpe(f)€T(o' vecorepa 5' av Soktj tov 
Siovro^ elvai 7r/309 to ^fjv av ^ vyiaivovaa dvav- 
8po<;, 01 7rpoa7]KOVT€<; 7rpo<i ra? rayv ydficov im- 
jxeXovfiiva^i yvvaiKa<; Koivovfievoi ro Sokovv avTol<; 
T€ Kol eKeivaiq irepX tmv toiovt(ov Trotovprcov 
iav 8e eVSeci? tckvcov wai, kuI iraihoiv evexa' 
D Traihoiv he iKavorrj^; aKpi^rj^ apprjv koX drjXeia 
kaTco Ta> v6fi(p. orav Se 6/j,o\oyf]rai fj,ev to 
yevofxevov eivai tmv Troiov/nevcov exyovov, Serjrai 
8e Kpiaew^ tlvi to yevvijdev eireadai ')(pe(ov, SovXtj 
fiev iav av/xfii^j] SovXm rj eXevdepw rj airekevOepo), 
TrdvTQ)<; TOV SeairoTOV ccttco tj}? 8ov\rj<i to yev- 
v(o/j,evov' iav he ti<; iXevdepa Zovkw crvyylyvrjTai, 
TOV Sea-TTOTOV ecTTO) TO yi,yv6/j,evov [tov SovXov]'^ 
iav S' i^ avTov SovXrj^ rj ix hovXov eavTrj^, /cal 
7r€pi(f)av€<i TOVT T), TO fiev tt)? yvvaiKo^i ai yvvatKa 
E et9 aXXrjv ')((opav iKTrefnrovTwv avv t&J Trarpl, to 
Se TOV dvSp6<i ol vofiO(f)v\aKe^ avv Trj yevvrjcrdar), 
Tovecov Se cifieXeiv ovTe 0e6<; ovTe dvdp(07ro<} vovv 
e^a>v ^vfi^ovXot; iroTe yevoLT^ av ovBel<; ovBevi. 
(ftpovrjaai Be ')(pr] irepl Oewv deparreia^ ToiovSe 
irpooifiiov av yevofievov, el<i Ta? roiiv yevvrjcrdvTcov 
Ti/jbd<i Te Kul dTCfila<; opOoo'i crvvTeTay/xivov' Nofioi 
931 TTcpl Oeovf; dp'^^aloi KelvTai irapd Trdai Bi)^fj. rovf 
fiev yap t(ov deS>v 6po)VTe^ (Ta<p(t)<i Ti/xojfMev, TOiv S' 
eiK6va<; dydXfiaTa ISpvo-ufievoi, ov<; tj/jliv dydX- 
Xovai Katirep dyjrv'X^ov'i 6vTa<; iKeivov; rjyovfieda 

1 hv H. Richards : a5 MSS., edd. 

* [tov SouAou] wanting in best MSS., bracketed by England. 

^ The object of this rule dealing with irregular connexions 
between free citizens and slaves is to prevent any of slave 
descent acquiring rights of property in the State. 
446 



LAWS, BOOK XI 

remain there and rear them ; but if it be deemed 
that she is unduly young to be able to live healthfully 
without a husband, the relatives shall report the case 
to the women in charge of marriage, and shall take 
such action as may seem good to them and to them- 
selves ; and if there be a lack of children, they shall 
also act with a view to the supply of children ; 
and the number which constitutes a bare sufficiency 
of children shall be fixed by the law at one of each 
sex. Whenever, in spite of agreement as to who a 
child's parents are, a decision is required as to which 
parent the child should follow, the rule is this : ^ in 
all cases where a slave-woman has been mated with 
a slave or with a free man or a freedman, the child 
shall belong to the slave-woman's master ; but if a 
free woman mates with a slave, the issue shall belong 
to the slave's master; and if the child be a master's 
by his own slave- woman, or a mistress's by her own 
slave, and the facts of the case are quite clear, then 
the women officials shall send away the woman's child, 
together with its father, to another country, and the 
Law-wardens shall send away the man's child, 
together with its mother. 

Neglect of parents is a thing that no god nor 
any right-minded man would ever recommend to 
anyone ; and one ought to recognize how fitly 
a prelude of the following kind, dealing with 
worship paid to the gods, would apply to the 
honours and dishonours paid to parents : — The 
ancient laws of all men concerning the gods are 
two-fold : some of the gods whom we honour we see 
clearly ,2 but of others we set up statues as images, 
and we believe that when we worship these, lifeless 

* i.e. stars ; cp. 821 B. 

447 



PLATO 

TOv<; ifMyjrvy^ovf; Oeov^; 7roWr)V 8ia ravT evvoiav 
KoX %a/9<i' e^^iv. •narrjp ovv otm koI fi'^rrip rj 
rovT(t>v 7raT€p€<i rj iirjTepe<i iv oIkLo, Kelvrai k€i- 
fjbijXioL aireipriKOTe'; 'yrjpa, fXT]he\<i SiavorjOrjro) Trore 
dyaXfia avrw, toiovtov e<j)€aTiov tSpvfia [iv ot'/cta]^ 
€)(^(ov, p,dWov Kvpiov ecreaOai, iav ^rj Kara Tpoirov 
y€ 6pd(o<; avTO OepaTrevr) 6 K€Krrip,evo^. 
B KA. 'Yiva Br} Trjv opdoTrjja eivat ^p(i^€i<i ; 

Ae. 'E7&) epoi' KoX jap ovv d^iov, w (\>i\oi, 
OLKOveiv rd 76 Bij roiavra. 

KA. A€76 flOVOV. 

A0. OlSiTTov;, (f)ap.€v, tnLp,aad€\<i eirev^aro 
T0i9 avTov reKvoi<i a 8r} Koi 7rd<; vfivel reXea kuI 
ein'jKoa yevecrdai irapd OeSiv, 'A/jLVvropd re ^oivi/ct 
Tw eavTOv eirapdaaadai iraiSl OufMoyOevra koI 
'iTTTToXyTm ©rjcrea koI irepov<i dWoa fivpiovf 
p,vpioi<i, SiV jeyove <Ta(f)e<; eTrrjxoov^ elvai yovevcri 

C irpo'i reKva 6eov<:' dpalo'i yap yovev<i eKy6voi<i &><? 
ovhei<i erepo'i dXX.oi<;, StKaioTara. firj Bt] ri<; 
drifia^Ofievo) fxev Bia(f)ep6vTa><i Trarpl Trpo'i iraiBuyv 
Kal prjrpl deov eTry'jKOOv ev)(al<i i^yelad a yiy veadai 
Kara (f>vaiv' Ti/xcofiivfo Be dpa Kal irepixo-pel 
crcjioBpa yevop-evcp, Kal Bid rd roiavra ev-)(al<; 
XiTTapco^; et? dyadd TOt<; natal 7rapaKaXovvTO<i 
6eov<i, ovK dpa rd roiavTa uKOveiv e^ laov Kal 
vejxeiv i)fxiv avTov<i ■qyr^aopeda ; dXX! ovk dv Trore 
BLKUtot vofi,e2<i elev dyaOcov, Bt] (f)ap£v rjKiaTa 

D deol<i elvai Trpeirov. 

' [*V oIkI-x] bracketed by Cobet, England. 

1 Cp. Aesch. Sept. c. Theh. 709 flF.; Soph. 0. C. 1432 ff. 

* Cp. Horn. II. IX. 446 ff. : Phoenix, to avenge his neglected 
mother, seduced his fathers mistress. 
448 



LAWS, BOOK XI 

though they be, the living gods beyond feel great 
good-will towards us and gratitude. So if any man 
has a father or a mother, or one of their fathers or 
mothers, in his house laid up bed-ridden with age, 
let him never suppose that, while he has such a figure 
as this upon his hearth, any statue could be more 
potent, if so be that its owner tends it duly and 
rightly. 

CLIN. And what do you siiy is the right way ? 

ATH. I will tell you : for in truth, my friends, 
matters of this sort deserve a hearing. 

CLIN. Say on. 

ATH. Oedipus, when he was dishonoured (so our 
story runs), invoked upon his children curses ^ which, 
as all men allege, were granted by Heaven and 
fulfilled ; and we tell how Amyntor in his wrath 
cursed his son Phoenix,^ and Theseus cursed 
Hippolytus,^ and countless other parents cursed 
countless other sons, which curses of parents upon 
sons it is clearly proved that the gods grant ; for a 
parent's curse laid upon his children is more potent 
than any other man's curse against any other, and 
most justly so. Let no man suppose, then, that when 
a father or a mother is dishonoured by the children, in 
that case it is natural for God to hearken especially 
to their prayers, whereas when the parent is honoured 
and is highly pleased and earnestly prays the gods, 
in consequence, to bless his children — are we not to 
suppose that they hearken equally to prayers of this 
kind, and grant them to us ? For if not, they could 
never be just dispensers of blessings ; and that, as 
we assert, would be most unbecoming in gods. 

3 Cp. 687 E, Eur. Hipp. 884 ff. : Hippolytus was falsely 
charged with dishonouring his step-mother, Phaedra. 

449 
VOL. II. O O 



PLATO 

KA. YloXv ye, 

A®. OvKovv 8iavor]0a)/J-ev o afiiKpw Trporepov 
ecTTOfiev, CO? ovBev tt/jo? dcMv Ti/iicorepov ayaXfi 
av KTrjcraifieda 7raTp6<i koX 7rpo7rdropo<; irapec- 
/jLCVcov y^pa KoX firjTepoov Trjv avrrjv Svvafiiv 
€')(pv(TOiv, 01)9 orav dydWr) tc<; Tifiai<;, yeyrjOev 6 
de6<i' ov yap av eVfy/too? ^v avjSiv. Oavfiaarov 
yap 81J TTOV TO irpoyovcov iSpv/xa r/filv ecrrl, 
E 8ca(pep6vTQ)<i rwv d^jrv^^oov rd fiev yap depairevo- 
fieva v(j> '^fMcov, oaa e/A-\/ru;^a, ^vvev')(eraL exda- 
Tore, Kol dTi/xa^o/iieva rdvavrla, rd 5' ovBeTepa, 
cocrre av opdw^ Tf9 XP^'^^'' Trar/Jt Kal Trpoirdropt 
Kal TTaaL rot? roiovroi^, irdvrwv irpo'i 0eo(f)i\7] 
fioipav KvpccoTaTa dyaX/xdrav dv KeKrfjro, 

KA. J^dWiar €47re9, 

A0. Ha? St} vovv e^oiv (f>o^€lTai Kal rifia 
yovewv ev^d^, elBa)<i TroWoif Kal iroWaKi^ iiri- 
TeXet9 y€vo/jLeva<}. tovtcov ovv ovtco (fivaei 8ia- 
rerayixevcov Tot9 fiev dyadol<i ep/J-aiov Trpoyovoi 
932 yrjpaioi, ^(ovt€<; fie^pi' tcov iaxdrcov rov ^iov, Kal 
diTLovTe^ [veoi] ^ (r(f)6Spa TroOeivoL, toi<; Be KaKOi<i 
eu fjidXa (po^epoL 7ra9 Bi] rifMdTO) 7rdaai<; Ti/xat9 
Tat9 evvo/jLoi'i Tov<i avTov yevvi]Topa<i rot? vvv 
7ret,(rdel^ X6yoi<;' el S' ovv Tcvd Karexoi 4>Vf^V 
K(i)(f)ov 2 TCOV TOiovrcov Trpooifilcov, v6fM0<i oBe iirl 
rovToi<i 6pdco<i Kelfji€vo<i dv ehy ^Etdv Ti<i ev TJjBe 
jy TToXei yov6Q)v d/xeXearepov e^J) toO BeovTOf, 

* [ffoi] bracketed by W.-Mollendorff : dirJcres vfois 
Winckelmann, Zur. 

^ Koxphv England : Koxftj) MSS. 

1 Cp. 931 A. 
450 



LAWS, BOOK XI 

CLIN. Most, indeed. 

ATH. Let us maintain, then, — as we said a 
moment ago — that in the eyes of the gods we can 
possess no image more worthy of honour than a 
father or forefather laid up with old age, or a mother 
in the same condition ; whom when a man worships 
with gifts of honour, God is well pleased, for other- 
wise He would not grant their prayers. For the 
shrine which is an ancestor is marvellous in our eyes, 
far beyond that which is a lifeless thing : for while 
those which are alive prav for us when tended by us 
and pray against us when dishonoured, the lifeless 
images do neither ; so that if a man rightly treats 
his father and forefather and all such ancestors, he 
will possess images potent above all others to win for 
him a heaven-blest lot.^ 

CLIN. Most excellent ! 

ATH. Every right-minded man fears and respects 
the prayers of parents, knowing that many times 
and in many cases they have proved effective. And 
since this is the ordinance of nature, to good men 
aged forefathers are a heavenly treasure while the)' 
live, up to the very last hours of life, and when they 
depart they are sorely regretted ; but to the bad 
they are truly fearsome. Therefore let every man, 
in obedience to these counsels, honour his own 
parents with all the due legal honours. If, however, 
" report convicts " ^ any of deafness to such preludes, 
the following law will be enacted rightly to deal 
with them : — If any person in this State be vmduly 
neglectful of his parents,* and fail to consider them 

- Alluding to Pindar's phrase {01. 1. 18) b 5* ixfiios U- (pa/xai 
Kurixovr' ayadal. Cp. Eur. Hijtp. 1466. 

' Cp. 717 D, 881 D. 

451 



PLATO 

B Kal [Xrj T03V Vl€(OV Kol TTcivTCOV TCOV Ik'^ovwv uvtov 

Kal eavTOv /jL€i^6vq)<; eh airavTa eirirpeTToov Kal 
uTTOTrXijpcov rj Ta<; ^ov\r]aei<i, i^ayyeWirco fiev 
6 irdaxoyv ri roiovrov, ecre avrof etVe riva 
irefiTTcov, Trpo? rpeh fxev tmv vo/jLO(f>v\dKo)v tov<; 
trpea^VTaTOVs, rpeh S' av tmv irepl ydjxovq 
yvvaiKcov iTn/xeXovfxivcov' o'l S' eTrifieXeiadaycrav, 
Ko\d^ovTe<i Toi'9 dSiKovvTU^ veov<i jxev ovra^ eVt 
'n\riyal<i Kal 8eafiol<;, /^e^yotTrep av ircov dvBpe^ 

C /x€V Tvy')(^dvcoaiv ovt€<; rpidKovra, yvvatKe^; 8e 
8eKa TrXeloaiv erecrt KoXa^ecrdwaav rat? avrah 
Ko\dcr€(Tiv. eav he Troppcorepa) tovtwv tmv 
ercov oWe? rcov avrcov d/neXeicov irepl yovea^ firj 
d(f}iaT<ovTat, KaKoiai he rivd^ Ttve<;, eh SiKacm]- 
pLou elaayovTMV avTom eh eva Kal CKarov ^ 
TO)v TToXiTMv, oiTi,ve<; av S)cn Trpecr^vTaroi dirdv- 
rwv av he Tf? 6<^\r], TifxaTco to SiKaar^jpiov 6 ti 
')(pri TLvetv rj TTd(T')(eiv, aTToppijTOV /jt,')]8ev ttoiov- 
fievoi 6a(ov hvvaro^ dvOpatiro^ Tracr^eti' y) riveiv. 

D edv he t<? dhwarfj KaKovpievo^ (fypd^eiv, o irvdo- 
/jL€vo<i TOiv eXevdepwv i^ayyeWerco roh dp')(ovaiv 
rj KaKO<; ecTW Kal vTrohcKO^; tw ideXovTi ^\dfii-i<i. 
edv he hov\o<; firjvvarj, e\€vdepo<; earo), Kal edv 
fxev Twv KaKovvrcov fj KaKOv/xevcov hovXo<;, vtto 
Trj<i dp')(ri<i d(f)€LaO(i), eav he Tivo<i dXkov tmv ttoXl- 
TMV, TO hrjfiodLOv vTTep avrov Ti/J,r]v tm KeKrrjfievoi 
KaTa^aWeTOt' roh dp^ovat he eTrt/xeXe^ earw 
fjLT] Tf9 dhiKrj rov TotovTOV ri/jL(i)pov/xevo<i t/}? 
fi7)vv(Te(i)<; eveKa. 

E "Oaa Ti<i dXXo<i dXXov Tnjjjialvet, ^appMKoi<i, 
rd fiev 0avdcnp,a avrwv hieiprjrat, roiv S' dXXoyv 

^ fKUThy Bekker, most edd. : fKaarov MSS., Zur. 
452 



< 



LAWS, BOOK XI 

in all things more than his sons or any of his 
offspring, or even himself, and to fulfil their wishes, 
let the parent who suffers any such neglect report 
it, either in person or by a messenger, to the three 
eldest Law-wardens, and to three of the women in 
charge of marriage ; and these shall take the matter 
in hand, and shall punish the wrongdoers with stripes 
and imprisonment if they are still young — up to the 
age of thirty if they are men, while if they are women 
thev shall suffer similar punishment up to the age of 
forty. And if, when they have passed these limits 
of age, they do not desist from the same acts of 
neglect towards their parents, but in some cases 
maltreat them, they shall be summoned before a 
court of 101 citizens, who shall be the oldest citizens 
of all ; and if a man be convicted, the court shall 
assess what his fine or punishment must be, regarding 
no penalty as excluded which man can suffer or pay. 
If any parent when maltreated is unable to report 
the fact, that free man who hears of it shall inform 
the magistrate, failing which he shall be esteemed 
base, and shall be liable to an action for damage at 
the hands of anyone who chooses. If a slave gives 
information he shall be set free : he shall be set free 
by the Board of Magistrates if he be a slave of either 
the injured party or the injurers ; but if he belong 
to any other citizen, the State Treasury shall pay 
his owner a price for him ; and the magistrates shall 
take care that no one does injury to such a man in 
revenge for his giving information. 

We have already ^ dealt fully with cases where one 
man injures another by poisons so that death is the 

* 869 Eff. 

453 



PLATO 

TTepi /BXd'^ecov, etre Ti<? dpa Trcofiacriv rj koX 
/Bfjco/jLacrtv rj aXeififiacnv €kodp e/c 7rpovoia<; 
Tn^fia'tvei, tovtmv ovhev ttco SieppijOr), SiTral 
yap St) ^apfiuKecai Kara rb rwv avdpwirwv 
ovaai yevo'i eVtV^ouo-t rrjv Biapprjaiv. fjv pbev 
933 yap ra vvv hiapprjhrjv eiirofiev, (Tco/xacn croi/xaTa 
KaKovpyovcrd icrri Kara (f)vaiv dWrj Se ^ 
p.ayyaveiai<i re riat koX iirwhai^i KaX KuraBicreai 
\eyop.evai<; ireiOei tov^ /xev ro\fXb)V7at ^XdirTeiv 
avTOV<;, 0)9 <6vru)<i>^ hvvavrai to toiovtov, tov<; 
S' to9 Trat'To? /xdXXop virb rovTOiv hvvapevcov 
yo'r)reveiv ^Xdinovrai. ravr ovv Koi irepX rd 
TOiavra ^vpiiravra ovre pahiov OTrta ttotc 7re(j)VK€ 
yiyvd)(TK€iv, ovt et rt? yvoirj, ireldeiv euTreTe? 
krepovi. ra'i<i he y^v)(al<i tmv dvdpdiTrayv hvaco- 
B TTOVfxevaif; rrpo^ dXX7]Xov^ irepl rd Toiavra ovk 
d^iov iiri^x^eipelv [veiOeiv] ^, dv ttotc dpa thwcrl ttov 
KTTjpLva p^ifxrjpara TreirXaa fjueva, eir eVi Ovpai<; etV 
eVl Tpi6hoi<; etr irrl /xv^/xaai yoveatv avrcov Tive<;, 
oXiywpelv irdvTwv tojv toiovtwv hiaKeXevecrdai 
/XT) cra^e<? e^ova-i S6y/xa Trepl avTcov. SiaXa- 
^6vTa<; Be Si'x^fj top t% <^app,aKeia<i nepc vojipv, 
oTTOTepwi dv Ti<; eTrt^eipfj (f)ap/j,dTT€iv, irptaTov 
fxev helaOai koi Trapaivelv koI avp^ouXeveiv fxr] 
C Selv eiTix^ipelv toiovto Bpdv /xrjSe Kaddirep 7Tat8a<; 
Tovf 7roXXov<i TMV dvd pcoTTfov heifiarovvra^ ^ 
<f)o^elv, fxrjS' av top vo/Mo6eTT)v re Kal tov Sc- 
Kaarrjv dvayKd^eiv e^idcrdai rcav dvdpwTrwv TOv<i 
roiovTov; cpo^ovi, (W9 irpoiTOV p-ev rov eirix^i- 

^ (ivTiDsy I add. 

^ [irf/eeic] I bracket {k&v for &v Schramm). 

' Sei/iOToOi'Tas England : BeinaivovTas MSS. 

454 



LAWS, BOOK XI 

result ; but we have not as yet dealt fully with any 
of the minor cases in which wilful and deliberate 
injury is caused by means of potions, foods, and 
unguents. A division in our treatment of poisoning 
cases is required by the fact that, following the 
nature of mankind, they are of two distinct types. 
The type that we have now expressly mentioned is 
that in which injury is done to bodies by bodies 
according to nature's laws. Distinct from this is 
the type which, by means of sorceries and incanta- 
tions and spells (as they are called), not only con- 
vinces those who attempt to cause injury that they 
really can do so, but convinces also their victims 
that they certainly are being injured by those who 
possess the power ot bewitchment. In respect of 
all such matters it is neither easy to perceive what 
is the real truth, nor, if one does perceive it, is it 
easy to convince others. And it is futile to approach 
the souls of men who view one another with dark 
suspicion if they happen to see images of moulded 
wax at doorways, or at points where three ways 
meet, or it may be at the tomb of some ancestor, 
to bid them make light of all such portents, when 
we ourselves hold no clear opinion concerning them. 
Consequently, we shall divide the law about poison- 
ing under two heads, according to the modes in 
which the attempt is made ; ^ and, as a preliminary, 
we shall entreat, exhort, and advise that no one 
must attempt to commit such an act, or to frighten 
the mass of men, like children, with bogeys, and so 
compel the legislator and the judge to cure men of 
such fears, inasmuch as, first, the man who attempts 

* i.e. attacking body or mind. 

45S 



PLATO 

povvra (papfiaTreiv ovk elhora ri Spa, to- re Kara 
ado/jLura, eav fit] rvy^dvr] imaTTjfxcov o)V laTpiKrj^, 
rd re av irepl ra fiayyaveufjiara, eav /xrj fidvTi^ 
rj TeparoaK67ro<i cbv Tvy^dvr). XeyeaOco Brj X0709 
D oSe i'Oyu-09 irepl <^app,aKeia<i' '^O? av ^ap/JbaKevr/ 
Tiva eVt /9X.a/377 fit] Oavaatfim p,rjre avrov /i/;Te 
dvOpcoircov Twv eKeivov, ^o(TKr}fidr(ov Be rj aprjvcov, 
eiT^ <e7r'>^ aXXf] ^\d^r) eW ovv Oavaaijxw, eav p-ev 
larpo<i 0)v Tvyxdvrj fcal 6<^\rj Blktjv (papp^aKcov, 
Oavdro) ^ijpiovcrda}, eav Be iStcoTJ;?, ti ^Ph 
iradelv rj diroriveiv, Tipdrco irepl avrov ro Bi- 
KaarrjpLov. eav Be KaraBecreaiv rj €7rayo)yai<i ij 
Tier IV eVwSat? 17 rcov roiovrcov [(pappaKeiMv] (p- 
E riviovv ^ Bo^r] 6p,oto^ elvai /SXdTrrovri, eav pev 
pdvri<i wv rj reparoaKorro^;, redvdrco, edv B dvev 
pavTiKrjii, o dv ri<} ^ <^appaKeia<i o(j)\rj, ravrov kuI 
rovra> yiyveadw rrepl yap av /cal rovrov ripdrco 
TO BLKacrri]piov 6 ri av avroc<; Belv avrov Bo^rj 
'7rdcr')(eiv rj drronveiv. 

"Oaa Tt9 av erepo<; dWov irrjprjvrf KXerrrcov 
rj ^ia^6p€Vo<;, av pev p,el^u>, p,el^ova rrjv eKricriv 
TO) rrrjpiavOevri, rLvero), eXdrrw Be ^r)p,i(i)(Ta<; 
apiKporepav, it a pa irdvra Be roaavrrjv rjXcKa 
av eKdarore ^rjpidiar) ti? rtva, p€)(pi7rep av 
idarjrai ro fiXa^ev. BIktjv Be e/ca(Tro<i [Trpof] ^ 
exdaro) rw KaKovpyrjp,ari crco(f)poviarvo^ evexa 
934 ^vveirop^ev rjv rrpocreKriadrw, 6 pev dvoia KaKovp- 
y7]cra<; dXXorpla, ireidol Bid veorrjra i] ri roiovrov 
'Xpr]adp,€vo<;, eXa<f)porepav, 6 Be Bid oiKeiav 

1 <^7r'> I add. 

* l^apfiaKitwv'] (fTiviovv Hermann ; ipapfxaKtilev wvtlvuivoiv 
MSS. 

456 



LAWS, BOOK XI 

poisoning knows not what he is doing either in 
regard to bodies (unless he be a medical expert) 
or in respect of sorceries (unless he be a prophet or 
diviner). So this statement shall stand as the law 
about poisoning : — Whosoever shall poison any persoa 
so as to cause an injury not fatal either to the person 
himself or to his employes, or so as to cause an injury 
fatal or not fatal to his flocks or to his hives, — if the 
agent be a doctor, and if he be convicted of poison- 
ing, he shall be punished by death ; but if he be a 
lav person, the court shall assess in his case what he 
shall suffer or pay. And if it be held that a man is 
acting like an injurer by the use of spells, incanta- 
tions, or any such mode of poisoning, if he be a 
prophet or diviner, he shall be put to death ; but if 
he be ignorant of the prophetic art, he shall be dealt 
with in the same way as a layman convicted of 
poisoning, — that is to say, the court shall assess in 
his case also what shall seem to them right for him 
to suffer or pay. 

In all cases where one man causes damage to 
another by acts of robbery ^ or violence, if the 
damage be great, he shall pay a large sum as com- 
pensation to the damaged party, and a small sum 
if the damage be small ; and as a general rule, every 
man shall in every case pay a sum equal to the 
damage done, until the loss is made good ; and, in 
addition to this, every man shall pay the penalty 
which is attached to his crime by way of corrective. 
The penalty shall be lighter in the case of one who 

1 Cp. 857 A ff. 

* % iy Tis Hermann : iiv rrjs MSS. 

* [»f>b»] bracketed by Stephens (»pii kKiarpf by England). 

457 



PLATO 

avoiav rj hi^ aKpcireiav rjBovayv rj \vnoiv, ev 
<^6^0L<i SetXot? ^ Tj riaiv eTridv/xiai<; i) (f)d6voi<; 
rj 6v/jlol^ hvaiuTOL^; yiyvofxevo^, ^apvrepav, ou^ 
evsKa rov KUKOvpyijaai Si8ov<i ttjv Slktjv, ov yap 
TO yeyovo<; ayevrjTov earai Trore, tov 8 €i<; top 
avOi<; eveKa ■)(^p6vov rj ro irapaTrav fxiarjaai rrfv 
aBiKtav avTOV re Koi tov<; ISovtu^ avrov 8i/cai- 

B ovfievov, rj \(0(pi](Tai jxeprj ttoWu t>;<? ToiavTtj<; 
^Vfji(f)Opd<;. o)v Si] ttcivtwv eveKa ypr) kuI vpo'i 
iravra ra TOiavra ^XeirovTa^ tov^ vo/jlov^ ro^orov 
fir) KUKOu aTO')(^d^€adai Blktjv tov re fieyeOov^ rrj^ 
KoXda€a><i eKuajav eveKa Kal 7ravTe\o)<i Tr}<i d^la<i. 
ravTOV 6' epyov hpuivra ^vvvTrrjpeTetv Bel rw 
vofioOeTT] TOV hiKaarrjv, orav avrw xf? vop.0^ 
eTTLrpeTTr) rifxav 6 ri 'y^prj Tracr^eti' tov Kpivo/uievov 

C rj diTOTLveiv' rov 8e, KaOdirep ^(i)ypd(f)0v, viroypd- 
^eiv epya eiro/xeva rfj ypa(j)fj. o Brj Kal vvv, c5 
M67iXXe Kal KXetvla, iroirjTeov rjfjLtv otl KdWiara 
Kal dpicTTa' Twv KXoTralwv re Kal jSiaiwv TrdvTcov 
ra? ^r]/j,ia<i Xeyofieva^ o'ia<; 8et yiyveadai, XcKreov, 
OTTO)? av rjfxiv TrapeLKcoai deal Kal Oecov TratSe? 

VOjlo6eT€lV. 

Maivo/xeva 8e av ti<; y, fxr] (f)avepb<; earco 
Kara iroXiv ol TrpoarjKovTe^ 8' eKdcrrcov Kara raf 
olKia<; (f)v\arT6vT(t)v avrov^, brrp av eTrtcrroyvrai 
D rpoTTW, rj ^rj/jLiav eKTLvovTOiv, o jiev rov fieycaruv 
rijirjiMaros eKarov 8paxfJ'd<;, edv r ovv 8ov\ov edv 
T ovv Kal iXevOepov irepiopa, Bevrepov Be riiir)pLaTO<i 

^ SeiAoij Winckelmann : SeiAioj {al. heivws) MSS. 
1 Cp. 862 D ff. 



LAWS, BOOK XI 

has done wrong owing to another's folly — the wrong- 
doer being over-persuaded because of his youth or 
for some such reason ; and it shall be heavier when 
the man has done wrong owing to his own folly, 
because of his incontinence in respect of pleasures 
and pains and the overpowering influence of craven 
fears or of incurable desires, envies and rages. And 
he shall pay the penalty, not because of the wrong- 
doing, — for what is done can never be undone, — 
but in order that for the future both he himself and 
those who behold his punishment mav either utterly 
loathe his sin or at least renounce ^ to a great extent 
such lamentable conduct. For all these reasons and 
with a view to all these objects, the law, like a good 
archer, must aim in each case at the amount of the 
punishment, and above all at its fitting amount ; and 
the judge must assist the lawgiver in carrying out 
this same task, whenever the law entrusts to him 
the assessment of what the defendant is to suffer or 
pay, while the lawgiver, like a draughtsman, must 
give a sketch in outline of cases which illustrate the 
rules of the written code. And that, O Megillus 
and Clinias, is the task which we must now execute 
as fairly and well as we can : we must state what 
penalties should be ordained for all cases of robbery 
and violence, in so far as the gods and sons of gods 
may suffer us to ordain them by law. 

If any be a madman, he shall not appear openly in 
the city ; the relatives of such persons shall keep 
them indoors, employing whatever means they know 
of, or else they shall pay a penalty ; a person belong- 
ing to the highest property-class shall pay a hundred 
drachmae, whether the man he is neglecting be 
a free man or a slave, — one belonging to the second 

4S9 



PLATO 

rerrapa fiepr) t//9 fiva<; rS)V Tvevre, rpia 8' o 
jpiro^, KoX hvo 6 rera/jTo?. paivovrai pev ovv 
TToWol 7roX\ov<t rpoTTOf?, 01/9 pev vvv eXiropev, 
viro voaoav, elcrl Se ot Sia 0vp.ov kuktjv (f)vaiv 
ap,a Kal Tpocfirjv yevopevrjv ot 8t) (Tpi/cpd<i e^6pa<i 
yevopevrjij TroXXrjv (fxovrjv ievT€<i kukc!)^ aW7)Xov'; 

E ^Xaai^rj px)vvre<; Xeyovaiv, ov irpeiTov ev evvopw 
TToXet yiyveadai roiourov ovSev ovhapbf) ov8apco<;, 
et9 St} irepl KUKiiyopla^ ecrTO) v6po<i irepX iravra^ 
oSe* Mrjheva KaKTjyopeiTco p,r)8ei<;' 6 Se ap^ia^rj- 
T(ov ev Ticrt \oyoi<i dXXo<; aWai SiSacrKerco Kal 
pavdaveTO) tov re ap(f)i(T^i]Tovvra Kal tou? 
TrapovTa^ aTre^^oyu.ei'o? irdvrw'; tov KaKrjyopelv. 
CK yap TOV KaTev^eadaL re aWTj\oi<; iirapoipevovi 
Kal Bl alaXpMV ovopuTcov €TTi(f)epeiv yvvaiKelov<i 
935 eavToi<i (pr]pa<;, irpSiTov p,ev eK \6ywv, koxx^ov 
7rpdyp,aT0<i, epyw pbiarj re Kal e^^pac ^apvTaTai 
yiyvovTar irpdypaTC yap d')(^apl(TT(p, 6vpa>, X^P'-' 
^6pevo<i Xeycov, epTrnrXcK; opyijv KaKwv kcTia- 
pcLTOiV, oaov viro Traiheiaq rjpepcodr] ttotc, irdXiv 
i^ayptiav t^? "^^XV^ '^^ tolovtov, 6T]pLovp,evo^ ev 
hv(TKo\ia ^(bv yiyvsTai, TriKpdv tov dvpov X^P'^^ 
aTTohexop'Svo's. p£TeK^aiveiv Be av ttco^ eldoOacrt 
irdvTC'i Oapa ev T0i9 ToiovTOi<i ei9 to tl yeXolov 

B irepl Tov evavTiov (pOeyyeaOar Tf9 eOi^opevof 

OvSel^ TTCOTTOTe 09 ov TOV (TTTOuhaioV TpOTTOV ■r]T0l 

TO irapdirav SiijpapTev rj peya\ovoia<; dircoXeae 
p^epr) TToXXd. d)V Bt] ^a/JfJ* ev p,ev lep& to irapd- 
irav p,riBel<i tolovtov (f)dey^TjTai pTjBeiroTe prjBev 
prjB^ ev Ti(Ti BrjuoTeXecri Overlaid, p,r)B^ av ev 
adXoi<i p,r]S' ev dyopa p,rjB^ ev BiKaaTijpla) p,r]B^ ev 

460 



LAWS, BOOK XI 

class shall pay four-fifths of a mina — one of the 
third class, three-fifths, — and one of the fourth class, 
two-fifths. There are many and various forms of 
madness : in the cases now mentioned it is caused 
by disease, but cases also occur where it is due to 
the natural growth and fostering of an evil temper, 
by which men in the course of a trifling quarrel 
abuse one another slanderously with loud cries — a 
thing which is unseemly and totally out of place in 
a well-regulated State. Concerning abuse there shall 
be this one law to cover all cases: — No one shall 
abuse anyone. If one is disputing with another in 
argument, he shall either speak or listen, and he 
shall wholly refrain from abusing either the dis- 
putant or the bystanders. For from those light 
things, words, there spring in deed things most 
heavy to bear, even hatreds and feuds, when men 
begin by cursing one another and foully abusing one 
another in the manner of fish-wives ; and the man 
who utters such words is gratifying a thing most 
ungracious and sating his passion with foul foods, 
and by thus brutalizing afresh that part of his soul 
which once was humanized by education, he makes 
a wild beast of himself through his rancorous life, 
and wins only gall for gratitude from his passion. 
In such disputes all men are commonly wont to 
proceed to indulge in ridicule of their opponent ; 
but everyone who has ever yet indulged in this 
practice has either failed to achieve a virtuous dis- 
position, or else has lost in great measure his former 
high-mindedness. No man, therefore, shall ever in 
any wise utter such words in any holy place or at 
any public sacrifice or public games, or in the market 
or the court or any public assembly ; in every such 

461 



PLATO 

^vWoyw KoivS fiTjBevL' KoXa^erco Be 6 rovTwv 
dp^^fov e/caaTO'i ^ [dvarc],^ i) ^rjheiTOT dpicrreicov 

C Trepi, <f3i\ov€i,K7]aij, vo/xcov (09 ov k7]86/x€vo<; ovSe 
TtoioiV TO, Trpocrra'x^devTa vtto rov vofioderov. iav 
he ri<i ev dWoi'i tottoi^ \ot8opLa<i dp)(^cov rj dfiv- 
vop.evo'^ oariaovv p,T) d7re)(^i]Tai tmv toiovtwv 
\6jcov, 6 7rpoaTU'y)(^dp(i)v Trpea^vjepo^ o)v tw 
vop^w (ifxvveTOi, TrXrjyalf; e^eipycov tov<; Ov/xw 
eraipw ^ kukw (f)iXo<f)popov/j,evov<;, rj ei/e;(;eo"^&) t^ 
Tejaypbevri ^rfpla. 

Aeyofxev 8r) ra vvv o)? 6 XoiSoplaii; crvfnrXeKO- 
fjL€vo<i dvev rod yeXola ^rjTeiP Xeyeiv ov Svvaroii 
ecTTt ')(prjcrdaL, koI rovro XoiBopovfiev, ottotuv 

D dvp,S) yiyvofxevov f). tL he hr] ; Tr]v rojv Kwpcphwv 
irpodvpLiav Tov yeXola et? tov<; dvdpaiirov^ Xeyeiv 
7] 'jTapahexa)p,eda, eav dvev dvpbov to toiovtov rjfuv 
T0v<i TToXiTW? eTTi-x^eipMcrc Ka)/jicphovvTe<i Xeyeif, rj 
hiaXd^a>p.€v hl)(^a to) Trai^ecv koL p,^, Kol irail^ovTi 
piev i^eaTco rivi irepl tov 'Xeyeiv yeXoiov dvev Ovpov, 

E avvTerapLevw he Kal perd Ovp,ov, Kaddirep €t7rofj.ev, 
pLT] i^earo) prjhevL ; tovto pbev ovv ovhapLco^ dva- 
deTeov, (p 8' e^eaTQ) koI pirj, tovto vop^odeTrjacopeda. 
TroirjTTJ hr) KcopL(phia<; rj tivo<; ldp,^(ov rj ^lovacov 
/xeX,ft)Sta9 pirj i^ecnw pirjTe Xoyw prjTe ecKovt purfTe 
6vpa> pLTiTe dvev Ovpov p,rjhapco<; pLrjheva tmv ttoXi- 
rajy Ka)p.o)helv' idv he Ti? direidfi, T0v<i dOXoOirwi 
936 e^elpyeiv ex t?}? ')((i)pa<i to irapdirav avdrjpepov, i) 

^ (KaffTos MSS. : eKacTTOv Znr., viilg. 

^ [avarl] wanting in best MSS. (added in niarg. ), and 
bracketed bj' England. 

^ kraipif England : eripif MSS. 

1 Cp. Rep. 394 ff., 606 ff. ^ Cp. Phileh. 49 E ff. 

462 



LAWS, BOOK XI 

case the magistrate concerned shall punish the 
offender ; or, if he fail to do so, he shall be dis- 
qualified for any public distinction because of his 
neglect of the laws and his failure to execute the 
injunctions of the lawgiver. And if in other places 
a man abstains not from such language — whether he 
be the aggressor or acting in self-defence — whoso- 
ever meets with him, if he be an older man, shall 
vindicate the law by driving off with stripes the 
men who pamper passion, that evil comrade ; or, if 
he fail to do so, he shall be liable to the appointed 
penalty. 

We are now asserting that a man who is gripped by 
the habit of abuse cannot avoid trying to indulge in 
ridicule ; and this is a thing we abuse when it is 
uttered in passion. What then .' Are we to counte- 
nance the readiness to ridicule people which is 
shown by comic writers,^ provided that in their 
comedies they employ this sort of language about 
the citizens without any show of passion ? Or shall 
we divide ridicule under the two heads of jest and 
earnest, and allow anyone to ridicule any other in 
jest and without passion,^ but forbid anyone (as we 
have already said) to do so in real earnest and with 
passion ? We must by no means go back on what 
we said ; but we must determine by law who is to 
be granted this permission, and who refused. A 
composer of a comedy or of any iambic or lyric song 
shall be strictly forbidden to ridicule any of the 
citizens either by word or by mimicry,^ whether with 
or without passion ; and if anyone disobeys, the 
Presidents of the Games shall on the same day 
banish him wholly from the country, failing which 

» Cp. Ar. Eth. N. 1128»20ff. ; Pol. 1336" 2ff. 

463 



PLATO 

^rjfiiovaOai uvah rpialv lepal^ tov Oeov ov av 
o a^cdv Tj. ol<i S ecprjTai, irpojepov i^ovcriav elvai 
[irepX roi)\ ^ iroielv eh aXX/]\ov<;, rovroi^; dveu 
dvpLOv /j,€v fiera 7rac8id<; e^ecrro), aTTOvBfj Be a/ia 
Kal du/j,ov/X€voicn /xrf i^earco. tovtov Sij Bid- 
>yvo)0'i^ €'7rir€Tpd(f)6co tS> rr}? 7rat,Beua€a><; o\r}<; 
iTTC/jLeXrjTt} roiv vewv, kol o fiev av ovto? iyKplvr], 
7rpo(j)€peiv €i<; to fieaov i^ecnco tm Troirjaavrc, o 
3' av diroKplvT], firjre avTb<; eTriBecKvvaOco firjBevl 
/jLjjre dWov BovXov firjBe ^ iXevdepov ttotc (fiavfj 
B BiBd^a<;, rj kuko^ etvac Bo^a^eaOo) xal aTreidr]^ 

TOt<i v6fJ,0l<i. 

OiKTpb^ S' ovx Treivcov rj ri toiovto Trda^cov, 
dX)C 6 aQ)(f)pova)v rj nva dperrjv rj jiepo<i ex^ov 
Tavrrj^i, av nva ^v/j.(f)opdv tt/jo? TovTOfj /ce/crijrai. 
Bio Oavfiaarov av yevono et rt? a)V toiovto^ 
djj,€\t]6eLrj TO irapdirav, &(tt e.l<i irTwx^iav Trjv 
icrxdTTjv eXOelv, Bov\o<i rj Kal e\evdepo<i, iv 
oiKOVjiivt] Kal /ii€Tplo)<; TroXiTeia t€ Kal iroXet. 
Bco tS) vofioOeTTj delvat vofiov dacpaXe^ tolovtoi<; 
C ToiovBe Tivd' riTWT^o? jirjBel^ rjfuv iv Tjj irokei 
'^L'^vkadon' TOLOVTOV S' dv Ti9 kiTiyeiprj Bpav, 
evyal'i ^iov dvrjvvT0L<i ^vXX.ey6fj,€vo<i, e« fiev 
■ d<yopd<; dyopav6p,oi e^ecpyovTcov avTOv, €k Bk tov 
daT€o^ rj TMV daTvvopcov dp^^, dypovojioi Be ex 
T/}? dXkrj^ ;\;&)/3a? et? Ttjv virepopiav eKTrejiirovTcov, 
07ro}<i rj x^P^ "^^^ ToiovTov ^coov Kadapd yiyvtjTai 
TO irapdirav. 

^ [ir«pi tov] bracketed by Ast {nrepi tov Burnet), 
« /ji-qU Bekker : /^^re MSS. 

1 Cp. 816 E, 829 C, I). 
464 



LAWS, BOOK XI 

they shall be fined three minas, dedicated to the 
god -whose festival is being held. Those to whom 
permission has been given^ as we previously said/ 
to write songs about one another shall be allowed 
to ridicule others in jest and witliout passion ; but 
they shall not be allowed to do so with passion and 
in earnest. The task of making this distinction 
shall be entrusted to the minister in charge of the 
general education of the young : whatever he shall 
approve, the composer shall be allowed to produce 
in public, but whatever he shall disapprove, the 
composer shall be forbidden either personally to 
exhibit to anyone or to be found teaching to any 
other person, free man or slave ; and if he does so, 
he shall be held to be a base man and disobedient 
to the laws. 

The man who suffers from hunger or the like 
is not the man who deserves pity, but he who, 
while possessing temperance or virtue of some sort, 
or a share thereof, gains in addition evil fortune ; 
wherefore it would be a strange thing indeed if, 
in a polity and State that is even moderately 
well organised, a man of this kind (be he slave 
or free man) should be so entirely neglected as to 
come to utter beggary. Wherefore the lawgiver 
will be safe in enacting for such cases some such 
law as this : — There shall be no beggar in our State ; 
and if anyone attempts to beg, and to collect a live- 
lihood by ceaseless prayers, the market-stewards 
shall expel him from the market, and the Board of 
city-stewards from the city, and from any other 
district he shall be driven across the border by the 
country-stewards, to the end that the land may be 
wholly purged of such a creature. 

465 



PLATO 

AoOXo? S' av rj SovXr) ^Xdyjrr] tcov aXXorpicov 
D Kol OTLOvv fir) ^vvanlov rov j3Xa^ivro<i avrov 
yevo/xevov Kar aTreipiav rj tiv erepav ')(^peiav fir) 
aaxppova, 6 rov ^XdyjravTO<; SeairoTr)^ rj Tr)v 
^Xd^ijV i^idaOoi fit) evBeco^ rj rov ^XdyjravT^ avrov 
TTapaBoro)' iav B'' irrairLooixevo^ o BecrTrorrji; koipjj 
rov ^Xdyp-avro<; re-)(VD kol rov ^Xa^ivro^ eV* 
aTroareprjcreL <f)fj rov SovXov yeyovevai rrjv air iav, 
BiaSiKa^iadco /lev KaKore')(yioiv r^ cfidaKOvri 
^Xa^rjvat, Kal iav eXr), SiTrXacrlav rrj<i d^la^ rov 
BovXov KOfit^ecrOco 779 av rifirjcrr) to SiKaarrjpiov, 
E iav Be r)rrr)6f}, rrjv re ^Xd^rjv i^idadco Kal rov 
BovXov irapaBorco. Kal iav viro^uyiov 7) itttto^; r) 
Kvcov r) ri rcov aXXcov Ope/ifidrcov aivr)rai ri rcov 
rriXa^, Kara ravra iKrcveiv rr)v ^Xd^rjv. 

'Etti/ Tt9 eKMV fir) ^OeXr) fiaprvpe.lv, irpoKaXela- 
dai -"^ rov Beofievov, Be 7rpoKXr]0el<i diravrdrod 
7rp6<; rr)V Blktjv, Kal iav fiev elBfj Kal ideXr) fiaprv- 
peiv, fiaprvpeiro), iav Be elBevai fir) (pfj, roi/s rpel<; 
deov<i Ata Kal 'A-rroXXcova Kal %efiiv drrofioaa'i 7) 
937 fir)V fir) elBevai diraXXarrecrddi rrj<i B[Kr)<;. 6 8' 
eh fiaprvpiav KXrjdeh, fir) diravrSyv Be rS> KaXeaa- 
fiev(p, r-ij'i /3Xa/3?;? V7r6Bi,KQ<i eario Kara vofiov. 
iav Be rCf riva BiKd^ovra dvaa-rrfarfrai fidprvpa, 
fiaprvpq<Ta<i fir) Bia-\lrr)(f)i^ea6co irepi ravrr)^ t?}? 
BiKr)'?. yvvatKl 8' i^earco iXevOepa fiaprvpelv Kal 
avvrjyopeiv, iav virep rerrapdKovra err) rj yey ovvia, 

^ irpoKa\e7<T6ai Cobet : npoaKaXflardai MSS. 
466 



LAWS, BOOK XI 

If a slave, male or female, do any injury to another 
man's goods, when the injured man himself has had 
no share in causing the injury through his own 
clumsy or careless handling, then the master of him 
that has done the injury shall fully make good the 
damage, or else shall hand over the person of the 
injurer : but if the master brings a charge affirming 
that the claim is made in order to rob him of his 
slave by a privy agreement between the injurer and 
the injured party, then he shall prosecute the man 
who claims that he has been injured on the charge 
of conspiracy ; and if he wins his case, he shall 
receive double the price at which the court shall 
assess the slave, but if he loses he shall not only 
make good the damage, but he shall also hand over 
the slave. And if it be a mule or horse or dog 
or any other animal that causes damage to any 
property belonging to a neighbour, its master shall 
in like manner pay compensation. 

If anyone is unwilling to act as witness, the man 
who requires his evidence shall summon him, and 
the man so summoned shall attend the trial, and if 
he knows the facts and is willing to give evidence, 
he shall give it ; but in case he denies knowledge, he 
shall take an oath by the three gods, Zeus, Apollo, 
and Themis, that of a truth he has no knowledge, 
and this done, he shall be dismissed from the suit. 
And if a man summoned as witness does not attend 
with his summoner, he shall be legally liable to be 
sued for damages. And if one of the judges be 
summoned as a witness, he shall not vote at the trial 
after giving evidence. A free woman, if she be over 
forty years old, shall be allowed to give evidence 
and to support a plea, and if she have no husband, 

467 
H H 2 



PLATO 

Kul StKTjv Xajx^veLV, iav avavSpo^ jj' ^(ovTO<i 8e 
B dv8pb<; e^ecTTO) /xaprvpija-ac [xovov. hovXrj he koX 
BovXai KOI iraiol (f)6vov fiovov i^earco paprvpelv 
KoX crvvijyopelv, iav e'yyvtjTrjv a^ioxpecov y p-rjp 
pevelv Karaar^crr) pe^pi StA:?79, iav iTria-K^jcpOf) ra 
■yfrevSij fiapTvprjcrai. iinaKrjTTTeadai he rS)v dvTi- 
Blkcov eKcirepov oXr) rfj paprvpla Kal p,epei, eav ra 
ylreySf] (pfj riva p,€paprvpriKevai, irplv rrjv Slktjv 
BiaK€Kp[adai' ra? 8' eina Ki^-^eL^ ra? dp)(^d<i 
<f)v\arTeiv KaTacT€ai]/xaapeva<; vtt dfM(f)olv, kuI 
napex^civ el<i ttjv tmv yjrevSo/MapTvpiayv BiaKpcaiv. 
C icLv Be Tt? dXo) Bl<; -^IrevBopaprvpfov , rovrov firfKeri 
v6po<; dvayKa^eTQi pijBelf paprvpeiv, iav Be Tpis, 
firjKeT i^earco rovTO) fiapTvpelv iav Be ToXfiijar) 
paprvprjcrai rpt? eaXtu/cto?, ivBeiKvvTco piv tt/do? Tr}v 
dpxv^ ^ovX6pevo<i avrov, r} S' fipx}) BiKaarrjpitp 
TrapaBoTOi, iav Be o(f)Xr), Oavdrw ^r]p,Louado). otto- 
acov B' dv paprvpiai dXaxri Blktj yjrevBi] Bo^dvrwv 
p,apTvp€iv Kal rr)v vlktjv tm eXovrt ireTTOirjKevai, 
iav TMV ToiovTo)v vTrep ijpiav paprupiwv KaraBi- 
D KacrdcoaL TLve^, rrjv Kara Tavra<i dXovaav BIktjv 
dvdBiKOv jiyvecrdai, dp.(^L<T^i']Trjaiv 8' elvdi KaX 
BiaBiKacrlav etVe Kara raura? eire p,r} rj BiK^i iKptOrj, 
07roTe/xu9 8' dv KpiOfj, ravrr} yiyveadco to Te\o<; 
TOiv ep^TTpoadev Bckcov. 

TloXXwv Be ovTcov Kal KaXcov iv Ta> tmv dvOpooTrmv 
/9tm rol^ irXeiaroi^ avjoiv olov Krjpe<i i7n7recf)VKaaiv, 
468 



LAWS, BOOK XI 

she shall be allowed to bring an action ; but if she 
have a husband alive, she shall only be allowed to 
give evidence. A male or female slave and a child 
shall be allowed to give evidence and supjwrt a plea 
in murder cases only, provided that they furnish a 
substantial security that, if their evidence be de- 
nounced as false, they will remain until the trial. 
Either of the ojjposing parties in a suit may denounce 
all or part of the evidence, provided that he claims 
that false witness has been given before the action 
is finally decided ; and the magistrates shall keep 
the denunciations, when they have been sealed by 
both parties, and shall produce them at the trial for 
false witness. If any person be twice convicted of 
false witness, no law shall compel him any longer to 
bear witness, and if thrice, he shall not be allowed 
to bear witness any longer ; and if, after three con- 
victions, a man dare to bear witness, whoso wishes 
shall reix)rt him to the magistrates, and they shall 
hand him over to the court, and if he be found 
guilty, he shall be punished with death. In the 
case of all those whose evidence is condemned at 
the trial, — they being adjudged to have given false 
witness and thus to have caused the victory of the 
winner, — if more than the half of their evidence be 
condemned, the action that was lost because of them 
shall be annulled, and there shall be a disputation 
and a trial as to whether the action was or was not 
decided on the evidence in question ; and by the 
verdict then given, whichever way it goes, the 
result of the previous actions shall be finally 
determined. 

Although there are many fair things in human 
life, yet to most of them there clings a kind of 

469 



PLATO 

at Karafxiaivovai re koI KaTappviralvovaiv avrd. 

E KoX Brj Koi Slkt) iv avd ptoTTOi'; ttw? ov koXov, o 
irdvra rj/jiepcoKe to, dvOpwiriva ; Kokov he 6vro<i 
Tovrou TTeo? ov Koi to ^vvSiKelv rjfiiv ylyvon^ av 
Kokov ; ravra ovv roiavra ovra Sia^dWei rt? 
KUKi] KcCkov ovofia TTpoarrjcrafievri Te')(v'q,^ rj 
TTpoiTov fiev hi] (f)r)cnv elvai riva hiKO)V iirj-^avrjv, 
elvai S" av ttjv tm ^ re hiKiiaaaOai kuI ^vvhiKelv 
aWfp vifcav hvvafiivTjv, dv t' ovv hixaia dv re /xt) 
938 ra irepX ri-jv hiKrjv eKdarrjv ^ ireTrpayfjiiva' hwpedv 
h avTrj<i elvat t?}? Te')(yri<i Kai tmv Xoycov rcov ck 
Trj<i ri^vi]^, av dvrihcoprJTai ri<; ■)(p7J/j,aTa. Tavrrfv 
ovv iv rfi Trap r)puv TroXei, etV ovv Te;\;i^>; etVe 
dTe)(vo<i iari. ti<; e/jtireipia Koi rpL^rj, /idXicTTa fiev 
hi] XP^^^' ^'^T* P'h <^vvai\heoixevov he TovvofioOerov 
ireiOeadai Kal jxr] evavria hiKj] (fiOeyyecrOai, Trpo? 
dWrjv he diraWuTTeadai x^P^v, TTeidojievoi^ 
fiev (Tvyr], direidovcri he (f)0)vr] vofxov rjhe' "Av rt? 

B hoKj) TTeipdadai Tr]v tmv hiKaiayv hvvafiiv iv 
rah TMv hiKacr-TOiv yjrvxal'i eVi rdvavria rpeTreiv 
Kal irapd Kaipov iroXvhifceiv [tmv rotovrcov] ^ rj 
Kal ^vvhtKetv, ypa(f)ecrd(o fiev 6 ^ovXo/nevo^ avjov 
KaKohiKia^ 7] Kal ^vvhiKLa<; KaKrj<;, KpiveaOco he iv 
Tft) Tcbv iKXeKTOiv hiKaaTTjpifp, ocfiXovra he Tifidro} 
TO hiKaaTijpiov etre (f)iXo)(pr]fiaTLa hoKel hpdv to 
ToiovTov eiTe (piXoveiKia, Kal edv fiev (fiiXoveiKua, 
Tifiav avTU) TO hiKaaTijpiov ocrov ^PV XP^^^^ "^^^ 
TOIOVTOV fi7]hevl Xax^cv hiKr]v firjhe ^vvhiKrjcrai, 
edv he ^iXo;^pi7/x.aTta, tov fiev ^evov diriovTa e'/c 

^ TfX''V Hermann : rfxyrj" MSS. 

^ o5 tV '''¥ • avrT)v ry Cornarius, Zur. : auTTj tov MSS. 

' [ra>f TotovTuv] bracketed by Stephens, Stallbaum, 

470 



LAWS, BOOK XI 

canker which poisons and corrupts them. None 
would deny that justice between men is a fair thing, 
and that it has civiHzed all human affairs. And if 
justice be fair, how can we deny that pleading is 
also a fair thing ? But these fair things are in dis- 
repute owing to a kind of foul art, which, cloaking 
itself under a fair name,^ claims, first, that there 
exists a device for dealing with lawsuits, and further, 
that it is the one which is able, by pleading and 
helping another to plead, to win the victory, whether 
the pleas concerned be just or unjust ; and it also 
asserts that both this art itself and the arguments 
which proceed from it are a gift offered to any man 
who gives money in exchange. This art — whether it 
be really an art or merely an artless trick got by habit 
and practice ^ — must never, if possible, arise in our 
State ; and when the lawgiver demands compliance 
and no contradiction of justice, or the removal of 
such artists to another country, — if they comply, the 
law for its part shall keep silence, but if they fail to 
comply, its pronouncement shall be this : — If anyone 
be held to be trj-ing to reverse the force of just pleas 
in the minds of the judges, or to be multiplying 
suits unduly or aiding others to do so, whoso wishes 
shall indict him for perverse procedure or aiding in 
perverse procedure, and he shall be tried before the 
court of select judges ; and if he be convicted, the 
court shall determine whether he seems to be acting 
from avarice or from ambition ; and if from the 
latter, the court shall determine for how long a 
period such an one shall be precluded from bringing 
an action against anyone, or aiding anyone to do so ; 
while if avarice be his motive, if he be an alien he 

» i,e. " Rhetoric' * Cp. 6<n-g. 463 B. 

471 



PLATO 

C T% ^copa? fi,7]iT0T€ iraKtv iXOelv, rj Oavdra 
^rjfiiovcxOai, top darov he reOi'dvai (f)i\o')(^pr]fxo- 
avP7]<; €V€Ka t?}? e« ttuvto^ Tpoirou Trap* avrw 
Ti/j,o)fxevy]<;' koX idv rt? ^iXoveiKia KpiOfj SI9 to 
TOiovTOV Spap, reOvdro). 



472 



LAWS, BOOK XI 

shall be sent out of the country and forbidden to 
return on pain of death, but if he be a citizen he 
shall be put to death because of his unscrupulous 
devotion to the pursuit of gain. And anyone who 
has twice been pronounced guilty of committing 
such an act from ambition shall be put to death. 



473 



IB 

941 A0. 'Eat/ &)9 7rpe(T^€vrr]<; rt? >/ Krjpv^ Karay^ev- 
86fievo<i Trj<i TToXeo)^ Trapairpecr^evrjTai irpo^ riva 
iroXiv, rj TrefiTTopevo^ /jlt) ra? ovcra^; 7rpea^€La<; 
e(ji at? irefiTrerai airwyyeWr), rj ndXiv av irapa 
TMV TToXe/xLcov TJ Kul (piXfov fiT) TO, TTup' eKeivoov 
6p6co<; aTro7rp€a^€vaa<i yevrjrai <f)avepo<i rj Krjpv- 
K€vcra<;, <ypa(f>al Kara Tovroiv earayv o)? 'Epfiov 
Kal Ato? djyeXia^ Kal eTrtra^et? Trapd vofxov 
dae^rjadvTWV, ri/xr^pa Se 6 tc xPV '^da')(eiv r] 

B diroTiveiv , edv 6(f)Xr}. 

KXoirr) fx,ev ')(pr]p,dr(ov dveXevdepov, dpTrayr} 8e 
dvai(T')(yvTov' rcbv Ato? Se vliwv ovBelii ovre hoXoa 
ovre ^ia ')(^aip(ov €Trtr€Ti]8evK€ rovrotv ovherepov. 
fjLijSel^ ovv VTTO iroLTjrwv p,rj8^ aXXto? vtto tivcov 
/jLvdoXoyoov TrXrjppeXcbv irepl rd roiavra i^aira- 
Tcopevo^ dvaireideadu), Kal KXejnwv rj ^ia^6pevo<i 
oleaOd) pr]8ev ala^pov Troielv aXX' direp avrol 
6eol SpMcTLV ovre yap dXr)de<; ovt €Ik6<;, dXX' 
ocTTt? Spa ToiovTOV 7rapav6p,(o<;, ovre 0e6<i ovts 

C 7rai9 ecTTt irore 6eo)V' raina he vofioderr} p^aXXov 
Trpoar]K€i yiyvcoaKeiv rj 7rpirjTat<; ^vpiracnv. 6 
pev ovv ireiadei^; rjpwv tw Xoyw €vrv')(^el re Kal 
et? 'xpovov diravra evTV')(olri, 6 8 dmaTijaa^ to 
p,€Td ravra roiwSi rivt ive)(^€adco ^ v6p,a)' 'Eav 

^ «j'«X*<''^<^ Ast : fjiaxf<r6a) MSS. 

^ Son, and herald, of Zeus, and a master of speech (and of 
lies). 

474 



BOOK XII 

ATH. If anyone, while acting as ambassador or 
herald, conveys false messages from his State to 
another State, or fails to deliver the actual message 
he was sent to deliver, or is proved to have brought 
back, as ambassador or herald, either from a friendly 
or hostile nation, their reply in a false form, — against 
all such there shall be laid an indictment for break- 
ing the law by sinning against the sacred messages 
and injunctions of Hermes^ and Zeus, and an assess- 
ment shall be made of the penalty they shall suffer 
or pay, if convicted. 

Theft of property is uncivilized, open robbery is 
shameless : neither of these has any of the sons of 
Zeus practised, through delight in fraud or force. 
Let no man, therefore, be deluded concerning this 
or persuaded either by poets or by any perverse 
myth-mongers into the belief that, when he thieves 
or forcibly robs, he is doing nothing shameful, but 
just what the gods themselves do.^ That is both 
unlikely and untrue ; and whoever acts thus un- 
lawfully is neither a god at all nor a child of gods ; 
and this the lawgiver, as it behoves him, knows 
better than the whole tribe of poets. He, therefore, 
that hearkens to our speech is blessed, and deserves 
blessing for all time ; but he that hearkens not shall, 
in the next place, be holden by this law : — If anyone 

* Cp. Sep. 378 ff. , 388 ff. Hermes is specially in mind, as 
notorious for his thefts and frauds ; cp. Horn. 11, 5. 390 ; 24. 
395, etc. 

475 



PLATO 

Tt9 Ti KXeiTTr} hrjfiocnov jxe'ya rj koX afiiKpov, tt)9 
avTT]^ BiKi]f; Set. a/j,i.Kp6p re yap 6 KXeTncov 
epwTL fiev ravTU), Bvvdfiei 8e eXdjJovi KeKXocpev 
6 re TO /xel^ov kivmv ov KaTa6e/j.€vo<i oXov dSiKer 

D B[Kr)<i ovv ovherepov ovherepov i\dTTovo<i eveKa 
/xeyiOovi rov /cXififiaTO^ 6 v6fio<i d^iol ^rjfiiovv, 
dWa rut rov fiev iaco<; av idaLfxav er' elvat, rov 
S" dviaTov. ^evov fiev 8r) rcov 8i]/xo(tI(ov r/ SovXov 
dv Ti9 Tf KkeTTTOVTa iv BiKaarrjpirp ekr), cl)? laaiixo) 
eK Tcoi^ el/coTcov ovri, ri 'x^pt] rradelv rj riva ^T]p,iav 
942 diroTLveiv avrov, t) Kptai^; yiyveaOay rov 8e darov 
KoX TeOpafMfjbevov o)? earai re6pap,pbevo<i, dv irarpiha 
(TvXcov rj ^la^ofievo^; dXicTKrjTai, idv t eir avro- 
(f)copa) idv T€ fi7], (T'^eSbv a)9 dviarov ovra davdrtp 
^rjfiiovv. 

STpareiMV Be eveKa ttoXXt) /xev ^vp^^ovXi], 
TToXXol 8e vo/ioc ytyvovrat Kara Tporrov, p^eyiarov 
8e TO fMTjSeTTOTe dvap^ov /jLijBiva elvai, p.i^T dppeva 
fi7]T€ drfKeiav, ixrjhe tivo<; e$ec ^lrv)(^f]v eWiadai 
fiijre cnrovBd^ovTO<; firjr ev TraiBtat^ avTov e^' 
eavrov ri Kara /j,6va<; Bpav, dXX' ev re 7roXe/.tq) 

B Travrl koX ev elprjvrj Trdarj irpo^ rov dp)(^ovTa del 
^XeTTOvra koI ^vveTrofxevov ^jjv, kuI rd ^pa')(ina6^ 
vir eKeivov KV^epvco/Mevov, olov ecrrdvai 6^ orav 
iiriTdTTr) Ti<i koX iropevecyOaL Kot yv/jLvd^ecrdai 
Koi XovaOai /cal (TiTeicrOai koI eyeipecrOai vvKTwp 
eX<; TC (j)vXaKd<; koI irapayyeXcrei^, koI iv avTOi<; 
Tot9 KivBvi'OL<i jxrjre Tivd Bicoxeiv fi^jd^ vTro'X^copelv 
dXXo) dvev t% rcov dp-)(0VTCi)v BrfKctitreux;, evi re 



1 But cp. 857 A, B. 
476 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

steals any piece of public property, he shall receive 
the same punishment, be it great or small. For he 
that steals a small thing steals with equal greed, 
though with less power, while he that takes a large 
thing which he has not deposited does wrong to the 
full ; wherefore the law deems it right not to inflict 
a less penalty on the one offender than on the other 
on the ground that his theft is smaller, but rather 
because the one is possibly still curable, the other 
incurable. So if anyone convict in a court of law 
either a resident alien or a slave of stealing any 
piece of public property, in his case, since he is 
probably curable, the court shall decide what punish- 
ment he shall suffer or what fine he shall pay. But 
in the case of a citizen, who has been I'eared in the 
way he is to be reared, — if he be convicted of 
plundering or doing violence to his fatherland, 
whether he has been caught in the act or not, he 
shall be punished by death,^ as being practically 
incurable. 

Military organization is the subject of much con- 
sultation and of many appropriate laws. The main 
principle is this — that nobody, male or female, should 
ever be left without control, nor should anyone, 
whether at work or in play, grow habituated in 
mind to acting alone and on his own initiative, but 
he should live always, both in war and peace, with 
his eyes fixed constantly on his commander and 
following his lead ; and he should be guided by him 
even in the smallest detail of his actions — for 
example, to stand at the word of command, and to 
march, and to exercise, to wash and eat, to wake up 
at night for sentry-duty and despatch-carrying, and 
in moments of danger to wait for the commander's 

477 



PLATO 

C X07&J TO %<wyot9 Tt rSiv aWa>v Trpdrreiv BiSd^ai 
rrjv -yfrvx^rfv eOeai /x?;t6 ytyvcoaKeiv jjn^r iirlaTaadai 
TO Tvapdirav, aX,X' ddpbov de\ /cal djxa koI kolvov 
Tov ^lov on /xdXiara iraaL Trdvrcov yiyveaOar 
TOVTOV yap ovr ecrriv ovre irore fir] yevrjrai 
Kpeirrov ovre dp-eivov ovre re')(yiKdi}Tepov eZ? 
acoTijpiav rrjv Kara iroXepiov koI vlkijv. tovto 
Kal ev elprjvr) fieXerrjTeov ev6v<; ex tmv iraihcov, 
dpy^eiv re dXkcov dp)^ea6aL 0^ u^' erepcov tijv 

D K dvap-^iav e^aipereov ck ttuvto^ tov ^lov 
dirdvTUiV TMV dv0pu)7Ta)V re Kal TOiv vir' dvd poiiroi^ 
6ripL(ov Kal 8rj Kal yopeia^ 7rdcra<; eh ra? dpLcneia'^ 
Ta? Kara iroXefiov 0\67ropra<i ^ 'X^opevetv, Kal oXrjv 
evKoXiav re Kal ev)(epeiav eTrcTTjSeveiP twv avTcov 
elvcKa, KapTepi]aeL<i re av aiTLcov re Kal ttotmv 
Kal ')(eLfi(i)V(ov Kal tcov ivavTLwv Kal K0LTT)<i 
(TKXrjpd^, Kal TO ye ixeyiaTOv, ttjv t?}? K€^aXrj<; 
Kal TToBcav Bvva/Jiiv /xtj 8ia(f)0eipeiv rfj twv dXXo- 
Tpidiv (TKeiraafidTcov 7r€piKaXv(pfj,Ti]V tcov olkclcov 

E dTToXXvvra^ nriXcov re Kal VTroSrjjj,dTa)v yeveaiv 
Kal (fivaiv TavTa yap aKpcoTtjpia ovTa crco^ofjievd 
re €)(^€i fxeyiarriv <Tr)v> ^ Bvpafxiv iravTof; tov 
awp.aTO'i Kal TovvavTiov ivavTLO}^, Kal to fiev 
VTTijpeTiKcoTaTov diravTi tw aciifiaTi, to he dp^i- 
KcoTaTov, e^ov Td<; Kvp[a<; dirdaa^ aladijaei.^ 
avTov <f)vaei. 
943 "Eiraivov /xev 8t) tovtov uKOveiv tov veov 
'^(^prjvai SoKel^ iroXe/xiKov nrepl ^iov, v6/xov<: S' 
av TovaSe' XTpaTevecrOai, tov KaraXeyevTa 

1 ^\eirovras AV. R. Paton : ^Xfirovaas MSS., edd. 

'^ <T^v> added by England. 

* Xpvvai SoKf7: XP^" ^oKelf MSS., edd. 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

signal before either pursuing or retreating before an 
enemy ; and, in a word, he must instruct his soul by 
habituation to avoid all thought or idea of doing 
anything at all apart from the rest of his company, 
so that the life of all shall be lived en masse and in 
common ; for there is not, nor ever will be, any rule 
superior to this or better and more effective in 
ensuring safety and victory in war. This task of 
ruling, and being ruled by, others must be practised 
in peace from earliest childhood ; ^ but anarchy must 
be utterly removed from the lives of all mankind, 
and of the beasts also that are subject to man. 
Moreover, with a view to excellence in war, they 
shall dance all kinds of dances,^ and with the same 
object they shall cultivate in general suppleness and 
dexterity, and endurance also in the matter of foods 
and drinks and cold and heat and hard beds ; and, 
what is most important, they shall accustom them- 
selves not to spoil the natural powers of head and feet 
bv wrapping them in coverings of alien material, and 
thereby ruining the production and growth of their 
own natural liair and soles. For when these extremi- 
ties are conserved, they keep at its highest the power 
of the whole body, but they effect the opposite when 
spoiled ; and of these two extremities, the one is the 
chief minister of the whole body, and the other the 
chief master, inasmuch as, by the ordinance of 
nature, it contains all the leading senses of the 
body. 

Such is the laudation of the militar}' life to which, 
as we hold, the youth ought to hearken, and its laws 
are these : — He that is enrolled or put on some rota 

' Cp. 803 C, D ; Soph. Antig. 668 flf. 
» Cp. 795 Dtf., 829 B. C. 

479 



PLATO 

rj Tov ev fiepet, tivI rerajfievov. iav Se 
Tf9 e/cXetTT?; twi kclkt] firj a-TpaTijyaw a(j)evTCOv, 
'ypa<^a<i daTpaT€La<; etvai tt/oo? to 1/9 TTo'Xe/xiKov'; 
apxovTa<;, orav eXdcocriv dno aTparoTriSov, hiKci- 
^eiv 8e Toi)? (TTpaT€VcravTa<i itcdaTovi %w/3i9 
oTrXiTUii T€ Kal iTTirea^ koI rdXka ifiTroXe/xia 

B €Kaara u)aavrco<i, fcal elcrdyeiv OTrX/ra? fiev ei? 
Tov<i OTrXtra?, linrea'i he el<i tov^ i7nTia<; koI 
Tov<i aXXov<; Be Kara ravja et? TOv<i avTMv ^vv- 
vo/jLovi' idv Be ri<; o(f)Xij, V7rdp)(^€tv fiep avrcp 
/xijiroTe T/}? 6Xr]<i dpLcneia^ dycovtar^ yeveadai 
fjirjBe daTpareia<i dXXov ypdyjraa-dai TTore fxijBe 
KaTr)y6p(p toutcov irepi yeveaOai, irpo^ TOVTOi<i 
8' en TTpoarip-av avro) rb BiKaarrjpiov 6 Ti 'y^prj 
iradelv y d7rorlv€ii>. perd Be ravra eKBiKaadeitrrcv 
T&v T?79 darpareLa^ Bikmv ttuXlv eKdarcov tovtcov 
dp^ovra^; iroiijcTai ^vXXoyov, upicrTeloyv Be irepi 
Kpiveadai tov ^ovXopevov ev tol^ avroiv Wveai, 

C /xj; irepX rrporepov 7roXep,ou priBev '7rap€')(ppevov 
py]Te TeKpr]piov p,i]Te p,aprvpa)V 7rtcrT(joaeL<i Xoycov, 
avTfj<i Be irepl Trj<i a-rpareia'i t/}? rore yevopevj]<i 
avTOi<;. (TTe(f)avov Be to viKrjT^piov eKd(TTOt<; eivai 
OaXXov' rovTOV Be eh tu tmv TroXepiKcov Oewv 
lepd, a)V civ ti<; ^ovXrjrai, ypd-yjravTa dvadeivai 
papTvpiov eh ttjv tmv dpLcneiwv Kpicriv 7ravT0<i 

D TOV ^iov Kal Ti]V tmv BevTepcov xal TptTcov. edv 
Be arpaTevcnjTai p,ev rt?, pbrj dfrayayovTOiv Be 
rSiv dp')(^6vTU)V oiKaBe TrpoaTreXOrj tov ;Y/3ovof, 
Xenrora^lov tovtcov elvai ypacf)d^ ev T0t9 avToh 
olaTTCp Tfj<i doTparela^, ocpXovat re ripcopLUi 



480 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

must perform military service. If anyone, through 
cowardice, fail to present himself without leave from 
the commanders, lie sliall be indicted for desertion 
before the military officers when they return from 
camp, and each class of those wlio have served shall 
sit by themselves as judges — that is, hoplites, cavalry, 
and each of the other branches, — and they shall 
summon hoplites before the hoplites, cavalrymen 
before the cavalry, and all others in like manner 
before soldiers of their own class ; and any man that 
is convicted shall be debarred from ever competing 
for any distinction and from ever prosecuting another 
for shirking service, or acting as accuser in con- 
nection with such charges ; and, in addition to this, 
what he ought to suffer or pay shall be determined 
by the court. Next, when the suits for shirking 
service have been fully decided, the officers shall 
again hold a review of each class of soldiers, and he 
who wishes shall be tried before a court of his own 
colleagues on his claim for an award of merit ; but 
any proof or verbal testimony which the claimant 
produces must have reference, not to any previous 
war, but solely to that campaign in which they have 
just been engaged. The prize for each class shall be 
a wreath of olive leaves ; and this the recipient shall 
hang up, along with an inscription, in whatever 
temple of the war-gods he chooses, to serve through- 
out his life as a proof that he has won the first, 
second or third prize, as the case may be. If a man 
goes on military service, but returns home without 
leave from the officers, he shall be liable to be 
indicted for desertion before the same court which 
deals with cases of shirking service, and the same 
penalties which have been already prescribed shall 

481 



PLATO 

€Tre(TT(oaav atirep koI irpoadev iredrjaav. ^PV 
fxev 8r) Traaav iirKpepovra Slkiju apBpl "TravT 
difSpa cfio^eiadai to fxt]Te inreve'^iceiv y^revhrj ti/jlco- 
piav, [xrjT ovv eKovra /jliJt^ ctKovra Kara Svvafiiv 
E 7rap6evo<; jap AlSov<;^ Aikt] Xeyeral re kuI ovtui^ 
etprjraiy yfr€u8o<; Se alSoi Kol SIkt] vepearjrov Kara 
(pvaiv. TMV re ovv dWcov evXaffelaOat Set iripc 
irXrj/jLfieXetv ei? Si/cyv, 8ca(f)€p6vro)<i 8e koX Trj'i tmv 
Kara iroXefiov oirXcov a7ro/So\^9, /xtj Sia/xaprcop 
Tf<? dpa TMV dvayxaicov a-Ko^oXoiv, f'o<i al(T')(^pa<i 
avTa<; et? ov€i8o<} Tidei'i, ava^iw ava^ia<i eTrdyr) 
hiKa<i. paStov /xev ovv ovSa/xM'i Bioplaai tovjcov 
944 ddrepov, o/xax; Be xph "^^^ vofiov d/jL(a<i 76 7r&)9 
opi^eiv ireipdadai Kara {xepr}. fxvdw Br) Trpoa^pd)- 
fxevoL dpi ei7ro)/j,ev, el Kopi,adei<i eirl aKtjvrjv dvev 
rtav ottXcov IlaTpo/cXo? ep,7rvov<; ^ e'yeved\ olov Brj 
pLvpCoi^ (XvveTrecre, rd Be Trporepa eKeiva oirXa, d 
TlrjXel (f)'r]alv 6 7rotr)Trj<i irapd 6eo)v vpolKa ev TOi? 
ydfioL'i eiTiBodrjvai SeTiBi, ravra Be "Ektcop et;^ev, 
e^rjv dv rwv Tore oaoi kukoI oveiBi^eiv BttXcov 
aTTO^oXrjv rSi rov Mevoiriov. en Be oirocroi Kara 
B Kpr]/j,vcov pL(f)evre<; dirdoiXeaav orrXa, r) Kara ddXar- 
rav, 7) "X^eipdppfov ^ ev roiroi'i viroBe^afievri^ avrov^ 
e^aL(f)vr)<; 7roXXr]<; pvaeo)^ vBaro'i' r) pvpC dv e^oi 
Tf9 roiaura 7rapap,vdovp,evo^ erraBeiv, evBid^oXov 
KUKov KaXXvvcov. re/xeiv Bt] ■^(^pecov Kara Bvvap.Lv 

^ alSovs MSS. : aiSolr) Steph., Zur. 
^ ifiirvovs MSS. : tKirvovs MS. marg. , Zur. 
* Xf^l^a-plx^y Madvig, Apelt : xfinuvwv MSS., edd. {k6wois 
for r6iroii Stallb., al.) 

1 Cp. Hesiod, Op. D. 192 ff., 254 ff., J, te re TrapSeVos iarl 
AiKTj . . . KuSpi) t' aiSoiti re Ofo7s kt\, 

482 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

be imposed upon him, if he is convicted. Every 
man, when bringing an action against another, ought 
rightly to dread bringing upon him, whether in- 
tentionally or unintentionally, a wrongful punish- 
ment (for Justice is, and has been truly named, ^ the 
daughter of Reverence, and falsehood and wrong are 
naturally detested by Reverence and Justice) ; and 
he should beware also of trespassing against Justice 
in any matter, and especially in respect of loss of 
arms in battle, lest by mistakenly abusing such 
losses as shameful, when they are really unavoidable, 
he may bring undeserved charges against an un- 
deserving man. It is by no means easy to draw 
distinctions between such cases ; but none the less 
the law ought to try by some means to distinguish 
case from case. In illustration we may cite the story 
of Patroclus:^ suppose that he had been brought to 
his tent without his arms and had recovered — as 
has happened in the case of thousands, — while the 
arms he had had (which, as the poet relates, had 
been given to Peleus by the gods, as a dowry with 
Thetis) were in the hands of Hector, — then all the 
base men of those days would have been free to 
abuse Menoetios' son for loss of arms. Moreover, 
there are instances of men losing their arms through 
being flung down from cliffs, or on the sea, or in 
ravines, when overwhelmed by a sudden great rush 
of water, or from other mishaps, countless in number, 
which one could mention by way of consolation, and 
thereby justify an evil which lends itself to calumny. 
It is right, therefore, to separate, as best one can, 

- Cp. Horn. IL xvi., xvii. 125 £F., xviii. 84 flF. Patrochis 
(son of Menoetios) was wearing the arms of Achilles (son of 
Peleus) when slain by Hector. 

483 



PLATO 

TO fxel^ov Kal to 8vcr')(ep€<TTepop kukov airo tov 
evavTLOv. cr)(e8ov ovv ev rol<i oveiheaiv e^et jtva 
TOfirjv t) TOvrcov t5)v ovo/jLcitcov iirccpopd' piy^acnTi<i 
fiev yap ovk iv iraauv ovopbd^oiT av 8tKai,co<i, diro- 

C ySoXeu? he ottXwv. ovx ofioLco<i yap 6 re d(j)aipe6€l<i 
per eiKviwi /3ta? yiyvoir av p(,yfraa7ri,<i 6 re d(pel<i 
€Koov, Bia(f)€p€t Be 6\ov TTOU Kol TO TTav. 0)6' ovv 
Br] Xeyeadw vdpcp' 'Eat' KaTa\ap^av6pev6<i ti<; 
VTTO TToXepifjov Kal e;\;a)i' oirXa prj dvaaTpe(f)r) Kal 
cipvvtjTai, u(f>f} Be ckcdv rj plyjfr], ^a)7]v al(T')(^pdv 
dpvvpeva yLtera Td')(^ov<{ pdWov rj p.eT dvBpla<i 
Kokov Kal evBaipova OdvaTov, ToiavTT)'; p.ev onXrov 
d7ro^oXrj<i eaTO) Blkt] pic^devToov, ttj^ Be elprjpevijf; 
epirpoadev 6 BtKd^cov [/i')] ^ dpeXeiTO) aKomelv 

D TOV yap KaKov del Bel KoXd^eiv, 'iv dpeivwv y, ov 
TOV BvcTTVxr]- ovBev yap irXeov. ^rjpia Brj Ta> ttjv 
TOiavTrjv dpvvTrjplcov ottXcov et? TOvvavTiov d(fievTi 
Bvvapiv Tt9 dpa yiyvoiT av •7Tp6cr(f)opo^ ; ov yap 
BvvaTov dvOpcoTTO) Bpav TovvavTiov <^> a><; ^ ttotc 
deov <}}aac Bpdcrai, K^acvea tov @eTTaXov eK 
yvvaiKO^ peTa^aXovTa et? dvBpo<i (pvaiv rjv yap 
dv dvBpl pi-^jraa-TriBt Tpoirov Tivd irpeTTOvaa Traacov 

E p,dXi(na 7] ^KeivTj ttj yeveaei evavTia yeveaif, eh 
yvvaiKU i^ dvBpo^ peTa^aXovaa, Ttpcopta tovtco 
yevopevrf. vvv 8' o tc tovtwv eyyvTaTa ^iXoy}rv^ia<; 
ev€Ka, iva tov eTTiXotTTov ^iov prj KivBvvevrj, ^fj 
Be ft)? TrXetcTTOv xpovov [o)v] KaKw ^ oveiBei ^vve^o- 

* [yit)j] bracketed by Herm. : om. by Zur., vulg. 
" <^> added bj' H. Richards : S>v for &s Ast, Zur. 
^ [iv] KaK<f Hermann : iiv Kaxhs (or KaKws) MSS 

* Cp. Ovid, Met. 8. 305 ff., 12. 189 ff. Tim. 90 E. 
484 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

the greater and more serious evil from its opposite. 
As a rule, indeed, the employment of the names in 
question by way of abuse admits of a distinction ; 
for the term "shield-flinger " would not properly be 
applied in all cases, but rather the term " arms- 
dropper." For the man who by a fair amount of 
violence is stripped of his arms will not be as much 
of a "shield-flinger" as the man who has voluntarily 
thrown them away — rather there is a vast difference 
between the two cases. So let the pronouncement 
of the law be this : — If a man is overtaken by his 
enemies and, having arms, instead of turning and 
defending himself, voluntarily drops his arms or 
flings them away, thereby gaining for himself a life 
that is shameful by speed of foot, rather than by 
bravery a noble and blessed death, — concerning the 
arms flung away in a loss of this sort a trial shall be 
held, but the judge shall pass over in his enquiry a 
case of the kind previously described. For the bad 
man one must always punish, in order to better him, 
but not the luckless man ; for that profits not. What, 
then, would be a proper penalty for the man who 
has thrown away for naught such powerful weapons 
of defence .' A god, it is said, once changed Kaineus 
the Thessalian ^ from woman's shape to man's ; but it 
is beyond human power to do the opposite of this; 
otherwise, the converse transformation — changing 
him from a man into a woman — would be, perhaps, 
the most appropriate of all penalties for a " shield- 
flinger." As it is, to get the nearest possible 
approach to this, because of the man's love of life 
at any price, and to secure that for the rest of his 
life he may run no risk, but may live saddled with 
this disgrace as long as possible, — the law dealing 

4«S 



PLATO 

/j.evo<i, euTft) v6/uLo<; oSe eVl rouToti?' *Avrjp 09 av 
6<p\T} 8i,K7]V 0)9 al(X')(pcb'i aiTO^aXcbv oirXa iroXe- 
IxiKu., TovTM /j,7jr ovv Ti9 aTpaTTj'yo'i p,r)'T aWo<i 
TTore TMV Kaia iroXe/jLOv ap-)(^ovT(i)v 0)9 avhpl 
945 cTTpaTKorr) '^prjcrrjTat firjS^ el<; rd^iv KaTard^p 
firjS' rjvTivovv el Se p,7], Karevdvveiv avrov rov 
evOvvov, av puev y rov fMeyiarov Ti/x^paTO^ 6 
rd^wi rov kukov, %iX,i^a9, av he tov Bevrepov, 
TreWe pvds, av he tov rp'nov, rpei^ fivd^, dv he 
TOV TCTdpTOV, fxvav. 6 Be otpXcov Trjv Blktjv Trpo? 
TO) d(f)€i<T6ai, Twv dvSpeicov kivSvvcov kutu <pvaiv 
Ttjv avTov TrpocraTTOTiadTco fxicrdov, %tXia9 pev, 
(IV TOV p,eyLaTOV Tip,7]p,aT0<; fi, trevTe he, tov hevTe- 
B pov, T/3ei9 he, dv tov Tp'iTov, p,vdv he u>aain(o<i 
Kaddirep ol irpoadev, tov TCTupTov pepov<;. 

ItLvOvvcov hr] irepi Tt9 't]p,lv X0709 dv ehj Trperrwv 
dpyovTwv yevo[iev(ov tmv p.ev KaTU tv^V^ K\i]pov 
Kal irr' iviavTov, t&v S' et9 TrXelova er?; xal etc 
irpoKp'iTOiV ; TMV hr] toiovtcov cvOvvti]^ t/9 iKavo^, 
dv Tt9 Ti 7777 (tko\lov aliTOiv Kap(^de\<; viro ^dpov^ 
p,ev TTpd^T], T?}9 3' avTOv hvvdpeco^ evheia irpo^ 
C TrjV T/79 dp-)(rj^ d^iav ; pahiov p,ev ovhap,oi)<; evpelv 
Toi)v dp')(6vT(ji)v dp'X^ovTa virep^dWovTa Trpo^ 
dp€T7]v, opa}<; he ireipaTeov evdvvTd<; TLva<i d}>ev- 
piaKeiv 6eiov<;. e^et yap ovv ovtco. ttoWoI 
Kaipol iroXiTelaf; Xvaed)^ el&i, KaOdirep veoo'i [rj 

^wou] '^ TIVOS, OV<i eVTOVOV^ T€ Kal VTTO^COpaTa 

Kal vevpcov eTrtTovovi, p-iav oixrav ^vcnv hieairap- 

^ [^ ^wov] I bracket {^ irXoiov ci. Stallb.). 

^ i.e. persons appointed to audit the accounts and 
scrutinize the conduct of public oflBcials at the expiry of 

486 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

with such cases shall be this : — If any man be con- 
victed on a charge of shamefully throwing away his 
military weapons, no general or other military officer 
shall ever employ him as a soldier or post him to any 
rank ; otherwise, the examiner shall fine the officer 
who posts the coward 1000 drachmae, if he be of 
the highest propertv-class, — if of the second class, 
five minas, — if of the third, three minas, — if of the 
fourth, one mina. And the soldier who is convicted 
of the charge, in addition to being debarred, as his 
own nature requires, from manly risks, shall also pay 
back his Mage — 1000 drachmae, if he be of the 
highest class, — if of the second, five minas, — if of 
the third, three, — and if of the fourth, one mina, 
just as in the previous cases. 

Respecting examiners,^ what would be a proper 
statement for us to make, seeing that some of the 
magistrates are appointed by the hazard of the lot 
and for a year, while others are appointed for 
several years and chosen out of a number of selected 
persons ? Of such, who will be a competent examiner, 
in the event of any one of them acting at all crookedly 
through being burdened by the weight of his office 
and his own inability to support it worthily ? It is 
by no means easy to find an officer of officers, who 
surpasses them in excellence, but still one must try 
to find some examiners of a divine quality. In fact, 
the case stands thus : — The dissolution of a polity, 
like that of a ship's frame, depends upon many 
critical factors : these (in the case of a ship) though 
one in nature are separated into many parts, and we 

their term of office. Note the play on the literal sense of 
ivdvvTf)s, " straightener " (of "crooked" actions). 

487 



PLATO 

fievrjv "TToWa^ov iroWoi^ oi'Ofiaav irpoaayopevo- 
fiev eh Be ovto^ ov aixiKp6raro<i Kaipo<; rou 
aco^eaOal re koI SiaXvdetaav oi'X^eaOai TroXneiav. 

D av fiev yap oi rov<; ap-)(^ovTa<; e^evduvovTe<i 
/3e\TL0v<; wcriv eKeivoyv, kol tovt iv SiKr] 
a/ie/ATTTft) re kuI d/xefiTrrco^ [vl'^ V T^o-ora ovrco 
OdWei, re koI evhaifxovel X^P^ *-^^ iroXis' eav 
S' dXXo)^ rd rrepl rd<i ev6vva<i rwv dp^ovroyv 
jiyv7]rai, rore \vdeiari<; t?}? rd irdvra iroXnev- 
fxara ^uve)(ovai]<i eh ev BLKrj<i ravrtj irdaa dp^j] 
BieaTrdadr] %<w/)i9 erepa utt dXX,'t]<;, Kal ovk et? 
ravrov en vevovaai, 7ToWd<; e« fiids rrjv iroXiv 
TTOiovcrai, ardaewv e/inrX^aaaai ra^v BieoXeaav. 

E Sio 8t] Set irdvrw'i rov<; evdvvov^ 6avfiaarov<; 
rrdaav dperrjv elvai. 

TeKraivMfieda S?; rtva rponov avrdv roidvhe 
yevecriv. Kar eviavrov eicaa-rov /xerd rpoird^ 
■qXiov rdfi ck 6epov<i eU x^ipwva ^vvievai XP^^^ 
rrdcrav rrjv iroXiv eWlUXiov kolvov koI 'ATToXXtwi^o? 
refievo^, rw dew d'no^avovpevov<i dvhpa<i avrwv 
946 T/9et9, ov av €Kaaro<; avrcov r^yrjrai rrdvrr] dptarov 
eivai 7rXr)v avrov, fir] eXarrov TrevrrjKovra yeyovora 
eroiv, rcov he irpoKpiOevrcov ou? dv irXelcrroi 
eveyKWGi, rovrov; cKXe^at P'^XP'' Twy rjp,l(Te(i)v, edv 
dprioi yiyvwvrai' irepirTol 8e edv o)aiv, eva 
d(f)eXelv, w dv eX-a^tarat ykvcovrai, KaraXirrelv 8s 
rov^ ripla€C<; avrcov "nXijOei roiv ylrtjiptov diroKpi- 
vavra<i' edv he ricnv taai yiyvcovrat Kal rov rfp^i- 

^ [p] wanting in MSS. : added in MS. marg., Zur. 

1 Cp. Rep. 422 E. 
» Cp. 767 C, D. 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

call them by many names — such as stays, under- 
girders, braciug-ropes. For the preservation, or 
dissolution and disappearance, of a polity the office 
of examiner is such a critical factor, and that of the 
gravest kind. For if those who act as examiners of 
the magistrates are better men than they, and if they 
act blamelessly with blameless justice, then the whole 
of the State and country flourishes and is happy ; but 
if the examination of the magistrates is carried out 
otherwise, then the bond of justice which binds 
all political elements into one is dissolved, and in 
consequence every office is torn apart from every 
other, and they no longer tend all to the same end ; 
and thus out of one State they make many,^ and by 
filling it with civil strife they speedily bring it to 
ruin. Wherefore it is most necessary that the 
examiners should be men of admirablv complete 
virtue. 

Let us contrive to bring them into being in some 
such way as this : — Every year, after the summer 
solstice,- the whole State must assemble at the 
common precincts of Helios and Apollo, there to 
present before the god the names of three out of 
their own number, — each citizen proposing that man, 
not less than fifty years old, Avhom (with the exception 
of himself) he regards as in all respects the best. 
Of those so nominated they shall choose out those 
who have gained most votes — half of the total number 
nominated, if that number l>e even, but if it be an 
odd number, they shall reject the one who has least 
votes and retain the even half, marking them off 
according to the number of the votes received ; and 
if several have an equal number of votes, thus causing 
the upper half-section to be too large, they shall 

489 



PLATO 

avf apiOfJLOv TT\ei(o iroiwcriv, a<^eKeiv to irXeov 
B atTOKpivavra^ veorijTi, rov<{ 8' dWov<; iyKp[vavTa<i 
(f)epeiv avdts, jxej^pnrep av rpet? \ei(p6(ocrtv aviant' 
iav he rj iraaiv rj toip Svolv laai yiyvcovTai, rfj 
dyaOi] fjLoipa Kal tvxi) eViT/ae'-v/rai'Ta?, K\rip(p 
hie\6vTa<i rov viKwvra Kal hevrepov Kal rpiTOv 
ar€(f)av(ioaai 6aX\a), Kal to, apicnela airohovra'i 
TTCLCTiv avenrelv oti M.ayv^Ta)V 7) Kara deov iroKiv 
Tv^ovaa arwTTjpia'i 7ro\i<i, airo^i^vaaa avTf)<i 
HXt'o) dvBpa<; rov<; dpiarovi -rpel^, uKpodiviov 
C KiroWcovi Kara top iraXaiov vofiov dvaridrjcri 
KOLVov Kal 'HXtw, oaovirep av eirfovrai j^povov 
rfj Kpiaei. TOiovTOv<i ^ Be irpdoTM fiev eviavrw 
BoiheKa evdvvov<i diroBei^ai, p,€-)(^pi7r€p dv eKacrra 
irevre Kal e^BofirJKovTa eTij ^vfx^fj yevofieva' to 
Xoiirov Be Tpel<i del irpocryLyveaQwv Kar eviavrov, 
ovTOL Be ra? dpya<i Trdaa^ [Kard^ ^ BtoBeKa fiepy 
BieXofievoi 7rdaai<; fia(jdvoi<; '^(pcop.evoi e\.evOepai<; 
eXeyxovrcov' oIkovvtcov Be, oaov dv eudvvcocri 
■^povov, ev rw rov ^ A7r6X\(ov6<i re Kal 'HXiov 
D Tefievei, ev wirep eKpiOrjaav Kal rd p.ev IBia 
e«acrT09, Ta Be Kal Koivfj fier dWtjXcov KpivavTe<i 
TOv<i dp^avra<i rfj TroXei, d'Tro(f)rjvdvT(i)v et? ttjv 
dyopdv ypdfXfiara KaTadevre<; irepl e«a<7T^? 
^PXV^ o Ti ')(pi] iradelv rj diroTiveiv Kara ttjv 
T(ov ev6vvQ)v yv(t)p.riv. ijri^ B' dv t(ov dp-^wv firj 
ofxoXoyfj KCKplaOai BiKaiwi, el<; tov<; eKXeKrov^; 
BiKaard<; eiaayero) tov<; evdvvov<;, Kal edv puev 

^ ToiovTovs England : tovtovs MSS. 

^ [(cara] wanting in MSS. : added by MS. marg., Zur. 

1 Cp. 855 C, 926 D. 
490 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

remove the excess by rejecting those that are 
youngest ; the rest being retained on the list, they 
shall vote again on these, and they shall continue the 
same process until three be left with an unequal 
number of votes. If, however, all of these, or two 
of them, have equal votes, they shall commit the 
matter to good luck and chance, and distinguish by 
lot between the first, the second, and the third, 
and crown them with olive- wreaths : and when they 
have thus awarded the distinctions, they shall 
make this public proclamation : — The State of the 
Magnetes, — which, by God's grace, has again won 
salvation, — has presented to Helios the three best 
of its own men, and now it dedicates them, according 
to the ancient law, as a joint offering to Apollo and 
Helios of its choicest first fruits, for so long a time 
as they pursue their judicial task. Twelve such 
examiners shall be appointed in the first year, until 
each of them has come to the age of seventy-five ; 
and thereafter three shall be added annually. And 
they, after dividing all the public offices into twelve 
sections, shall employ all tests, of a gentlemanly 
kind, in investigating them. So long as they are 
serving as examiners, they shall reside within the 
precincts of Apollo and Helios, where they were 
chosen. When they have judged — either each one 
singly or in consultation with one another — the State 
officials, they shall publish, by means of records 
placed in the market, a statement concerning what 
each official should suffer or pay according to the 
decision of the examiners. If any official claims that 
he has not been judged justly, he shall summon the 
examiners before the select judges ; ^ and if he be 
acquitted in respect of the examiners' charges, 

491 



PLATO 

airocjivyr) Tt<? ra<; evdvva<^, avrwv ro)v evOvvwv 
E KaTi'i'y opened, eav iOeXjj' eav he a\Q), eav fiev ij 
Tft) Oavdrov reTLfirj/uievov vtto roiv evdvvcov, axnrep 
dvdyKr}, a7rX,ci)9 OvrjaKeTco, rtav 8' dW(OV Tifirjfid- 
T(ov oov dv BvvaTov jj BittXtjv rlcrai, hnrXaa-iav 
Tiverat. 

Ta9 3' ev6vva<i avTOiv tovtcov aKoveiv ')(pr) 
TLve^ eaovrai koI riva rpoTTOv. ^oxtl fxev ovv 
TOVTOi^ Tot9 irapd Trdaijs t^9 TroXeto? dpiarelwv 
947 rj^ico/xevoi^ irpoehplaL t ev Tai<; Travrjyupecri 
Tracrat? eaTwaav, ert Be tcov et? tou? " KWtjvaf 
KOivfi Ovcribiv KoX OeccpiSiV koX oacov dv erepwv 
KoivoavMcnv lepcbv, eK tovtcov tou? dpXovTa<; Trj<i 
6e(opia<i €vd(TTT]<; eKTrefnreiv, koL toutou? p6vov<; 
Bd(f)vrj<; (TTe(f)dva) twv ev Trj iroXei K€KO(Tpr)pevov<; 
elvai,^ Kal iepea<f pev irdvTa^ tov ^ ATroXXayvof 
re KoX 'HXtou, dp-)(^iepeo)v Be eva KaT iviavrov 
TOV TTpcoTOV KpiOevTu TMV yevopevwv eKeivm Tm 
eviavTw lepecov, koI Tovvopa dvaypdcpeiv tov- 
B tov KaT eviavTov, ottux; dv ylyvTjTai fxeTpov 
dpiOp,ov TOV 'xpovov, e&)9 dv rj iroXa olxr^Tai. 
TeXevTijaaai Be Trpodeaei^ re Kal €K<f)opd<; koI 
drjKa<i Bia^opov^ elvai tmv dXXcov ttoXitcov, 
XevKTjv p,€v Tr)v aToXrjv ex^iv irdaav, dprivwv Be 
Kal oBvppcov %o)/C)l9 yiyveadai, Kopwv Be x^P^^ 
irevTeKaiBeKa Kal dppevcov CTepov 7repuaTap,evov^ 
Trj kXivt) eKaTepov^ olov vpvov •neiroirjpevov 
eiraivov el<i tou? lepea<; ev p,epei €KaTepov<; aBetv, 
evBaip,ovll^ovTa<i (pBfi Bid Trdatj'i Tf]<i rjpepa^' 
C ewdev B^ 6t<? Trjv drjKrjv (fyepeiv avTrjv pev rrjv 
KXivTjV eKaTov TOiV vecov tS)V ev T0i<i yvpvaa-Loi<;, 

1 thai MSS. : Ifvai MS. marg., Zur. 
492 



i 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

he shall, if he wishes, prosecute the examiners 
themselves ; but if he be convicted, in case the 
penalty imposed on him by the examiners be death, 
he shall simply be put to death (one death only being 
possible), but in the case of other penalties which 
admit of being doubled, he shall pay a double 
penalty. 

As regards the examinations of these examiners 
themselves, it is right for us to hear what they are to 
be, and how they are to be conducted. During their 
lifetime these men, who have been deemed worthy 
of the highest distinction by the whole State, shall 
have the front seats at every festival ; and from their 
number, too, shall be chosen the heads of every 
sacred mission sent out to take part in any public 
sacrifices, congresses or other such sacred assemblies 
of the Hellenes ; and these alone of all the citizens 
shall be adorned with a crown of laurel ; and they 
all shall be priests of Apollo and Helios, and every 
year that one of them who has been adjudged first 
of those appointed in that year shall be the high- 
priest, and his name they shall inscribe at the head 
of the year, that it may serve as a measure of the 
date, so long as the State remains. When they die, 
their laying-out, funeral and interment shall be 
different from that of other citizens : nothing but 
white raiment shall be used at it, and there shall be 
no dirges or lamentations ; a choir of girls and 
another of boys shall stand round the bier, and they 
shall chant alternately a laudation for the priests in 
the form of a hymn in verse, glorifying them with 
their hymnody all the day long ; and at the next 
dawn the bier itself shall be borne to the tomb by a 
hundred of the young men who attend the gymnasia, 

493 



PLATO 

ov<; av ol 7rpo(rijKOVTe<; rov rekevrr)<iavTO<i eino- 
yjrcovrai, tt/Ocotou? Se irpoievai TOv<i r/W €0v<; rrjv 
TToXe/JLiKTjv aKevtjv eVSeSuA:oTa9 eKaarov;, aiiv 
T0t9 LTTTTOKri ficp liTTTeafi, <7vv hk 07r\ot<; oTrXfcTa?, 
D Kal TOV'i dX\.ov<; waavrw;, TralSa^ Se Trepl avrijv 
rrjv kXlvijv enirpoadeu ro Trdrpiop p.e\o<; i(f)Vfxv€iv, 
Kal Kopa^ eTTO/xepa^ e^oTriaOev oaat r dv yuvaiKet; 
ri]^ 7rai8o7roir]a€co<i dirrfKXa'y fiivai Tvy^^^civcocr i , 
/xerd 8e ravra lepea<i re kol i€p€ia<; &)? KudapevovTi 
T« rdipo) €7recrdai, idv dpa Kal tmv dXXcov 
eipycovrai rdcfxov, idv Kal to tt}? IlvOla<i ovto) 
T€ Kal ravjT] avfiylrrjcfiov jj' drjKrjv he viro 77}? 
auTOt? elpjaafxevrjv elvat yfraXiBa irpop.rjKrj Xidwv 
TTOTLficov Kal dyrjpcov eh hvvaptv, €)(^ovaav KXiva<; 
E Trap' dXXt']Xa<i Xc0Lva<; Keifieua^, ov 8r) top jxaKa- 
piov yeyovora Oevre^, kvkXo) ^(oaavTe<i, irepi^ 
SevSpwv d\(TO^ 7r€pi<f)VTevaovcri ttXtjv kcoXov ev6<i, 
OTTO)'; dv av^rjv 6 Td(f)0<i e)(r) rainrj [rr}v\ ^ els 
rov diravra ')(^p6vov, dv eiriBerj ^ 'Xjcap.aro'i rol<; 
ridepbevoLS' Kar eviavrov Be ay cova p,ovcnK'fj<i 
avrol<i Kal yvpviKov Ittitlkov re di^aovai. 

Td pLev 8r] yepa roiavra to?? ra? ev6vva<i Sia- 
^vyovaiv' dv Be rf? rovrwv marevcov rat KeKpladai, 
rrjV dvOpcoTTLvrjv (f)v<Tiv eTTihet^rj KaKO'i yevopevos 
varepov r)]<i Kplaeco^;, ypd(f)eadai p,ev rov jBovXo- 
fievov avrov 6 v6po<i Trpoararrero), 6 8' dyd>v 
ev 8iKaarr]pL(p yiyveadco roiwBi rivi rpoTTW. 
948 rrpSirov p,ev vop.o(f)vXaKe<; earcocrav rovrov rov 

^ ravrri Ast : ravrrjv MSS. [tVI I bracket. 
* &v iTTiSeri Hermann: firiSerj MSS. : avciriSfri (MSS. niarg.) 
Ziir. , vulg. 

494 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

— they being selected by the relatives of the dead 
man, — and the procession shall be led by the men of 
war, all clad in their proper military garb, — cavalry 
with their horses, hoplites with their weapons, and 
the rest in like manner ; and round about the bier 
the lx)ys, being in front, shall sing their national 
anthem, and behind them the girls shall follow 
singing, and all the women who have passed the age 
of child-bearing ; and next shall follow the priests 
and priestesses as to a tomb that is sanctified — yea, 
though they be debarred from approaching all other 
tombs, — if so be that the voice of the Pythian^ 
approves that thus it shall be. Their tomb shall be 
constructed under ground, in the form of an oblong 
vault of spongy stone, as long-lasting as |>ossible, and 
fitted with couches of stone set side by side ; in this 
when they have laid him who is gone to his rest, 
they shall make a mound in a circle round it and 
plant thereon a grove of trees, save only at one 
extremity, so that at that point the tomb may for all 
time admit of enlargement, in case there be need 
of additional mounds for the buried. And every 
year contests of music, gymnastics and hoi"se-racing 
shall be held in their honour. 

These shall be the rewards for those who have 
passed the scrutiny of examiners. But if any of 
these examiners, relying on the fact of his election, 
shall give proof of human frailty by becoming 
evil after his election, the law shall enjoin on 
him who wishes to indict him, and the trial shall 
take place in the court after this manner : — The 
court shall be composed first of Law-wardens, next 

^ The priestess of Apollo at Delphi ; cp. Rep. 40 1 E. 

495 



PLATO 

SiKaa-TTjpiov, eireira auroiv rovrcov ol ^wvre<;, 

77/009 Oe T0V70L<i TO TWV CKXeKTCOV hlKacTTrjpLOV' 

ypa(fieaO(o Se o ypa<p6fi€vo<;, op av ypd(f)i]Tai, 
Xeyovaav ttjv 'ypa(f)rjv avd^tov elvai rov koX rov 
tS)V dpiareiwv Koi ttj<; upxV'*' '^"^ ^^^ f^^^ o 
(f)€vycov aXo), arepeadco t^<? dp-)(fi<i koX tov tcl^ov 
Kal TMv aWcov tcop BodeiaMV avrw TLixoiv, iav 
8e o StooKcov fiT) ixeraXd^r] to Trep.TTrov p,epo^ rSiv 
^lrtj(f)Q)v, Tiverci) 6 /xev rov /xeyiarov Tifii]fiaTO<; 

B BcoSeKU ixvd<i, OKTQ) Be 6 rov Bevrepov, rpirov Be 
e^, rerdprov Be Bvo. 

'PaBcf/j,dvdvo<i Be Trepl rrjv Xeyo/xevrjv Kpiaiv 
rSiV BiKOiv d^iov dyacrdai, Biori KarelBe rov<i rore 
dvOpcarrov; rjyovpevov; evapyo3<i elvai deoix;, 
ecKorco^;, are Kara rov rore ')(povov rwv iroXkwv 
CK deSiv ovrav, oov el<; rjv avro^, c5<? ye X0709. 
eocKe Brj BiKacrrfj fxev dvdpcoTrcov ovSevl Bt.avoov~ 
fievo^ Betv eiTirpeTrecv, 6eol<i Be, oOev d-TrXal Kal 
ra^eiat BiKai, eKpivovr avru)' BiBov<; yap irepl 

C eKdarcov ro)v dfi(f)t.cr/3r)rov/jLevcov opKOv r(fi<i 
dp,(f)ia^i]rovaLV dirrjXXdrrero ra')(^u Kal da(^aXoi<i. 
vvv Be ore Brj /xepo<; jxev ri, <\>ap.ev, dvOpooTrcov ro 
irapdirav oy^ rjyovvrai deov<;, ol Be ov <f)povri,^eiv 
rjfxcbv avTOv<i Biavoovvrai, rtov Be Bi] TrXelaraiv 
ecrrl Kal KaKcarcov rj Bo^a &)? apiKpd Be^o/jLevoi 
dvpara Kal doirreLa^i ttoXXo, (TVvaTroarepovcri 
'X^p)]/xara Kal fieydXcov a(f)d<; eKXvovrai Kara 
TToXXd ^i]fiia)V, ovKeri Brj rol^ vvv dv$p(i>rroi<; i] 
'PaBafidvdvof; av eir) Te^vrj TTpeirovcra ev BLKai<;. 



^ i.e. after superannuation, * Cp. 855 C. 

3 Cp. 886 Dff., 891 Bff. 

40 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

of the living^ members of the body of examiners 
themselves, and, in addition to tliese, of the Bench 
of select judges;- and he who indicts anyone shall 
state in his indictment that the person in question 
is unworthy of his distinctions and of his office ; and 
if the defendant be convicted, he shall be deprived 
of his office and of his tomb, and of the other privileges 
granted to him ; but if the prosecutor fails to gain 
one-fifth of the votes, he shall pay twelve minas if 
he be of the highest class, — if of the second, eight, 
— if of the third, six, — and if of the fourth, two 
minas. 

Rhadamanthys deserves admiration for the way in 
which, as we are told, he judged cases of law, in 
that he perceived that the men of his time had a 
clear belief in the existence of gods, — and naturally 
so, seeing that most men at that time were the 
offspring of gods, he himself among others, as the 
story declares. Probably he thought that he ought 
not to entrust lawsuits to any man, but only to 
gods, from whom he obtained verdicts that were 
both simple and speedy ; for he administered an 
oath to the disputants regarding each matter in 
dispute, and thus secured a speedy and safe settle- 
ment. But nowadavs, when, as we say,' a certain 
section of mankind totally disbelieve in gods, and 
others hold that they pay no regard to us men, 
while a third jjartv, consisting of the most and worst 
of men, suppose that in return for small offerings 
and flatteries the gods lend them aid in committing 
large robberies, and often set them free from great 
penalties, — under such conditions, for men as they 
now are, the device of Rhadamanthys would no 
longer be appropriate in actions at law. Since, 

497 

VOL. n. K K 



PLATO 

D /xera^e^XrjKviMv ovv tmu rrepi 6eov<> Bo^cov ev 
Tol<; av6pcoTroi<; p-era^aXXeiv XPV '^^'' tov^; v6/j,ou<;' 
ev <yap Xij^eai Sckcov toi)? fiera vov rcOe/xevov^ 
vopovi i^atpelv Sec rov<; 6pKov<; rcov dvTiBifcovprcov 
CKarepcov, Kal top Xay^dvovTci ra> riva hix-qv ra 
p,ev e^KXrjpara 'ypd(f)eiv, opKov he prj eiropvivai, 
Kal TOP (f)evyovTa Kara ravTO, rrjv dpvrjaiv 
ypd^^avra TrapaSovvai rol<i dp-^ovaiv dvcoporov. 
Beivop ydp irov Sikcov 7' ep TroXet, rroXXcop 
yepop,ej>(OP ev elBipai crfiiKpov Beip tou? r)p,ia€L<i 

E avTOiP eiTtcopKrjKOTaf;, ev ^vaaLrioif; re dXX7jXoi<i 
ev-)(epoi<; crvyytypofievovi Kal ip aXXai^i avpovaiai^; 
re Kal l8icoriKai<; avyy evrjaeaLP eKdarcov. popio<i 
8t] KeiaOco 8iKaarr)p /xep oppvpai StKd^etv p,eX- 
Xovra, Kal rov ra? dp'X^d^ rw kolpu> KaOicrrdpra 
949 Zt opKcop rj Bed (f)opd(; ^frr](f)Q)v, dcf)' lepSiP <f>epopra, 
Spap del ro roiovrop, Kal Kpcrrjp av ')(^op(op Kal 
7rdai]<; fiovacKr}!; Kal yvpbPiKMV re Kal ittttikmp 
dOXcop e7Ticrrdra<i Kal /Spa^ea^ Kal dirdvrcop 
OTToaa pJq (fiepei Kep8o<; Kara rrjv dvOpcoTrlvijp 
ho^ap ra> eTTCopKovprr reap he oiroaa e^apprjdevri 
Kal e^op.ocrap,epfp Kepho<i peya cf)avepbv elpai hoKei, 
ravra he hid hiKoyp opKcov X^P''^ Kpipeadai 

B ^vp7rapra<i rov^ €TnKa\ovpra<i dXX7]Xoi<i. Kal ro 
rrapdirap ep hiKr) rov<i rrpoehpov^ fir) emrperreLP 
p-7]re 6p,vvprL Xeyeip 'm6avori]ro<i X^'P''^ p^y^re 
eirapoopevov eavrw Kal yevei p,i]re 'iKereiaL<i 
Xpdtpievov dax^'lpoai p^rjre otKroi<i yuvaiKecoif, 
dXXd ro hiKaiov p,er^ ev<^rip,ia<i hihdaKOvra Kal 
pavOdpovra del hcareXeiP, el he prj, Kaddirep e^co 

1 Cp. 934 E. 
498 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

therefore, the opinions of men about the gods have 
changed, so also must their laws change. In legal 
actions laws that are framed intelligently ought to 
debar both litigants from taking oaths ; he that is 
bringing an action against anyone ought to write 
down his charges, but swear no oath, and the 
defendant in like manner ought to write down his 
denial and hand it to the magistrates without an 
oath. For truly it is a horrible thing to know full 
well that, inasmuch as lawsuits are frequent in a 
State, well-nigh half the citizens are perjurers, 
although they have no scruple in associating with 
one another at common meals and at other public 
and private gatherings. So it shall be laid down 
by law that a judge shall take an oath when he 
is about to give judgment, and likewise oaths shall 
be taken bv him who is appointing public officials 
by voting under oath or by bringing his votes from 
a sacred spot, and by the judge of choirs or of 
any musical performance, and by the presidents and 
umpires of gymnastic and horse-racing contests, or 
of any matters which do not, in human opinion, 
bring gain to him who commits perjury. But in all 
cases where it obviously appears that a large gain 
will accrue to him who denies stoutly and swears 
ignorance, all the contending parties must be judged 
by trials without oaths. And in general, during 
a trial, the presidents of the court shall not permit 
a man to speak under oath for the sake of gaining 
credence, or to miprecate curses upon himself and 
his family, or to make use of unseemly supplications 
and womanish sobbings, but only and always to 
state and hear what is just in proper language;^ 
otherwise, the magistrate shall check him for 

499 
K K 2 



PLATO 

Tov Xoyov \€yovTo<i, tou<; ap')(^ovTa<i rrdXiv eVa- 
vdiyeiv et9 tov irepl tov 7rpdyfia70<i del Xoyov. 
^eutp 8' elvai vrpo? ^ei>ov<i, Kaddtrep to, vvv, 
he)(^eadai re opKov<; Trap dXkrfKwv, av edeXaxri, 

C Kol BiBovai Kvpi(i)<i' ov 'yap KaTayrjpdaovcnv ouS' 
ivv€OTT€vovTe<; iv Trj iroXei eo? to ttoXv toiovtov; 
dXXov^ Kvpiov<; tj}? ')(^(*)paq Trape^ovTai ^vvrpo- 
(f)ov<;- SiKoov Te irepl X?;^e&)9 tov avTOv TpoTrov 
elvai irpo'i dXXrfXovi irdaL Tr}v Kpiaiv. 

"Oaa Tf? eXevdepof uTretdel Trj TroXei, p,r]T ovv 
'jrX^jycov d^ia p^rjB' av heatitav /jbtjhe davdTOV, 
irepl he j^opeia^; tivmv (fionrjaeayv rj Trofiirevcrewv 
rj TOiovTwv Tivcov dXX(ov koivmv KocTfiijaeayv rj 

D XeiTovpyiMv, oiroaa irepl dvaia<i elprjviKTjf; rj iroXe- 
p,tKcbv elacpopcov eiveKa, TrdvTcov tcov toiovtwv ttjv 
TTpcoTTjv dvdjKijv TdTTCiv elvai Taf ^ ^r)fit,a<;, Tot? Se 
fir] 'n-eidop,evoi<; ive')(ypaaLav tovtoi^ ot? av iroXi^; 
d/xa Kal vofio^ elairpaTTeiv TrpoaTdTTrj, twv he 
dveiOovvTcov rat? eve-)^vpaaLai<; trpdaiv tmv ive- 
y^vpoov elvai, to Be vo/xiafia yiyveaSai Trj iroXei- 
edv he ^rj/jLLa^ hecovTai TrXeioi'o?, to,^ dp')(^d<i €Kd- 
(TTa<i Tol<i direiOovcTL Ta'i irpeirovaa^ ^r)p,La<i iin- 

E 8aXXov(Ta<i elcrdyeiv eh to hiKaaTi]piov, eitu? av 
e6eXi]a(oai hpav to irpocrTa^dev. 

TioXei he r]Ti<; dv p.r)Te ')(^pr]fiaTi^r)Tai rrXi]V tov 
€fc yrj<; ')(^pr)paTi(Tp,6v fxrjT efiTTopevriTai, irepl diro- 
hr}fxla<i eavTMV e^o) tt)? ')((i>pa<i Kal ^evcov viroho)(^r}^ 
dXXodev dvdyKrj ^e/SovXevcrOai tl xPV hpav. 

^ TaTTfiv . . . Tas : laTTjU . . . Tr?s MSS. (raKTiiv Winck. ) 

» Op. 850 B flf. 

500 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

digressing from the point, and shall call him back 
to deal with the matter in hand. In the case of 
resident aliens dealing with aliens, it shall be 
permitted them, as now, to give and receive oaths 
of a binding character one from another, if so they 
choose, — for these men will not grow old in the 
State ^ nor, as a rule, will they make their nest in 
it, and rear up others like themselves to become 
naturalised in the country ; and in respect of the 
private actions they bring against ode another, 
they shall all have the same privilege during the 
trial. 

In all cases where a free man disobeys the State, 
not by acts deserving of stripes, imprisonment or 
death, but in respect of matters such as attendance 
at festivals or processions or public ceremonies of 
a similar kind — matters involving either a sacrifice 
in peace or a contribution in time of war, — in all 
such cases the first necessity is to assess the penalty ; 
in case of disobedience, those officers whom the 
State and the law appoint to exact the penalty 
shall take a pledge ; and if any disregard the pledg- 
ings, the things pledged shall be sold, and the price 
shall go to the State ; and if a greater penalty 
be required, the official proper in each case shall 
impose on the disobedient tlie suitable penalties and 
shall summon them before the court, until they 
consent to do what they are bidden. 

For a State which makes no money except from 
the produce of its soil, and which does not engage 
in commerce, it is necessary to determine what 
action it ought to take regarding the emigration 
of its citizens to outside countries and the admission 
of aliens from elsewhere. In giving counsel con- 

501 



PLATO 

avfi^ovXeveiv ovv tov vofiodeTi]v Sel tovtwv irepi 
TTpoyrov ireidovTa €i<i hvvajxiv. ire^VKS he rj 
TToXecov eiTiixi^ia irokecTLv fjdii Kepavvvvai iravro- 
oaird, KaivoTop,ia<i aWr]\oL<i ifXTTOiovvroov ^evcov 
950 ^evofi' hrj TOi^ /xev ev 7ro\iTevofievoi<i 8ia vo/ncov 
opdo)v /3\d^7]v av (j)€pot fjLejLaTTjv iracrcov, ral'i Se 
7r\eLaTai<; nroX-ecni', are ovSapcb<i evvofiovfievaii;, 
ovSev Bia(f)ep€i (f)vpecrdat hexofxevov; r ev ainolq "^ 
^evov<i Kal-avTOv<; ei? ra? aX\a<; e7riK(opd^ovTa<i 
7ro\ei<i, orav e7Tidv/j,7](Tr) xi? dTroSrjfila^; otttjovv 
Koi OTTore etVe veo<i etVe Kal TTpea^uT6po<; 0)v. to 
8' av p,i]T€ dXXov<; Ze'xeaOai fjLTjre auTov<i dWocre 
d7ToS-i]pelv dfia /xev ovk iyx^copel to ye irapdirav, 

B eVf he d<ypiov koI dTrrjve^ (patvoiT^ dv Tolf dWoi<i 
dvOpa>7roi<;, ovopaal re xaXeTTol^ Toicn Xejopevaif; 
^evi)\aaiai<; 'X,pfop,evou<i Kal t/jottoi? avOdhecn Kal 
^aXeTTOi?, ft)? hoKotev dv. ')^pr) he ouTroTe irepX 
a/iiKpou TToieladai to hoKeiv dyadov<; elvai Toc<i 
dWoi<i i) p7] hoKeiv. ov yap oaov oi^cria? dp€TTJ<; 
direcrc^aXpevoi Tvy)(^dvov(JLv ol iroWoi, ToaovTov 
Kal TOV Kpiveiv 701)9 dWov^, ocroi.^ irovrjpol Kal 
')(^prjcrToiy Oelov he tl Kal evaTO'X^ov eveaTi Kal 
Tolai KaKol<;, coaTe TrdfnroWoi Kal tcov a<^6hpa 

C KaKOiv ev rot? \6yoL<; Kal rat? h6^ai<i hiaipovvTat 

Toi.'9 dfxeivovi TOiv dvOpcoTTcov Kal T0v<i x^lpova';. 

hio KaXov rat? iroXXal^ iroXeai to irapaKeXev/jbd 

eaTC, TrpoTipav Trjv evho^iav 7rpo<; tcov ttoXXmv. 

' t' iy avToit Stallbautn : re axrrois MSS. 

» o<Toi MSS. marg., Stallb. : oi MSS., Zur., al. 

1 Cp. 704 E. 

- B\" a law of Lycurgus, strangers were forbidden to reside 
at Sparta ; cp. Aristoph. Av. 1012 8:<nrep iv AaKfSalixov 
^evri\aTovyTat. * Cp. Me7io 99 B, C. 

502 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

cerning these matters the lawgiver must begin by 
using persuasion, so far as he can. The intermixture 
of States with States naturally results in a blending of 
characters of every kind, as strangers import among 
strangers novel customs : ^ and this result would 
cause immense damage to peoples who enjoy a good 
polity under right laws ; but the majority of States 
are by no means well governed, so that to them it 
makes no difference if their population is mixed 
through the citizens admitting strangers and through 
their own members visiting other States whenever 
any one of them, young or old, at any time or place, 
desires to go abroad. Now for the citizens to refuse 
altogether either to admit others or to go abroad 
themselves is by no means a possible policy, and, 
moreover, it would appear to the rest of the world 
to be both churlish and cross-grained, since they 
would get the reputation of adopting harsh language, 
such as that of the so-called "Aliens Expulsion 
Acts," 2 and methods both tyrannical and severe ; 
and reputation in the eyes of others, whether for 
goodness or the reverse, is a thing that should never 
be lightly esteemed. For the majority of men, 
even though they be far removed from real goodness 
themselves, are not equally lacking in the power 
of judging whether others are bad or good ; and 
even in the wicked there resides a divine and 
correct intuition,^ whereby a vast number even of 
the extremely wicked distinguish aright, in their 
speech and opinions, between the better men and 
the Morse. According!}', for most States, the ex- 
hortation to value highly a good public reputation 
is a right exhortation. The most correct and most 
important rule is this, — that the man who pursues 

503 



PLATO 

TO fiep yap opdorrarov koX iikyioTov ovra ayadov 
dX,?;^w9 ovTco rov evSo^ov ^lov drjpeveiv, %'y/c)t9 Se 
/xi]8a/ii(o^, TOP ye TeXeov avBpa eaopevov. kul 8rj 
Koi rfi Kara KpjJTtjv olKi^o/j,eur] ttoXsi irpe-nov av 
etri ho^av Trpo? rwv dWcov dvdpcoircov ore KuWia-- 
TTjv re Kul apvcTTriv TrapaaKevd^eadac 7rpb<; dperrjV' 

D irdaa K eXTrl? aurrjv ck roiv eiKorcov, avnep Kara 
\6yov yiyvrjTai, ficT oiXiycov ^'fKiov oyfreadai kuI 
roixi dX\ov<; d€ov<i iv rai<i evp6fjiOi<; iroXeai koX 
X(tipai<;. 

^rihe ovv ')(pT) TToielv irepl diroZi-jpiia'; eh dWaf 
^(wpa? Kol TOTTOv; Kul irepl v7roSo)(t]^ ^evcov. 
TTpoiTOv fxev veoorepm eTWV TeTrapaKovra p,7] e^earw 
aTroSrjpyTJaat fir)8a/xfj ixrjhaix(»i<i, en t€ IBi'a pTqhevi, 
BijfioaLa 8' ecTTO) Kijpv^iv rj irpea^eiai'i rj kul ricri 

E 0€a>pol<;' Ta9 Be Kara TroXe/xov koI aTpareiai; 
dTToBrj/xia^; ovk ev iKBr]fj.lai^ Tr6\cTiKat<; d^iov 
dyopeveiv co? rovrtov ov(rav X\.vd6iBe tm 'AttoX,- 
\(ovi Koi eh ^0\vfi7riav rw Au koi eh Ne/^eai^ 
Kal eh*l(T0pov ^ph '^^P'T^giv, Koivo)vovvra<i OvaiSiv 
re Koi dydiivwv rovroi<i Toh deoh, 'rrepLireiv Be eh 
Bvvafxiv OTL irXelcTTOVi dfia kuI KaWlarov^ re Kal 
dpi(jTOV<;, o'lTive'i evBoKifMov rr]v iroXiv ev lepah re 
Kal elpTjviKah avvovaiai^ iroLrjcrovcn BoKelv, roh 
951 irepl rov TroXe/mov dvTiaTpo(f}Ov aTroBiBovre^ B6^r]<i 
7rapaaKevi]V, eX66vTe<; Be ocKaBe BiBd^ovai tov^ 
veov<i 07 L Bevrepa rd rcbv dXXtov earl j ofiipa rd 
irepl ra? TroXiTem?. Oewpov^ Be a\Aou? eKirep.- 
5°4 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

after a good reputation should himself be truly 
good, and that he should never pursue it without 
goodness (if he is to be really a |>erfect man) ; and 
furthermore, as regards the State we are founding 
in Crete, it would well become it to gain for itself 
in the eyes of the rest of the world the best and 
noblest reputation possible for goodness ; and if it 
develop according to plan, there is every hope that, 
as is natural, it (and but few others) will be num- 
bered among the well-ordered States and countries 
upon which the Sun and all the other gods look 
down. 

In regard, therefore, to the question of going abroad 
to other lands and places and of the admission of 
foreigners we must act as follows : — First, no man 
under forty years old shall be permitted to go abroad 
to any place whatsoever ; next, no man shall be per- 
mitted to go abroad in a private capacity, but in a 
public capacity permission shall be granted to heralds, 
embassies, and certain commissions of inspection. 
Military expeditions in war it would be improper to 
reckon among official visits abroad. It is right that 
embassies should be sent to Apollo at Pytho and 
to Zeus at Olympia, and to Nemea and the Isthmus, 
to take part in the sacrifices and games in honour 
of these gods ; and it is right also that the am- 
bassadors thus sent should be, so far as is practicable, 
as numerous, noble and good as possible, — men who 
will gain for the State a high reputation in the 
sacred congresses of peace, and confer on it a 
glorious repute that will rival that of its warriors ; 
and these men, when they return home, will teach 
the youth that the political institutions of other 
countries are inferior to their own. Also, they ought 



PLATO 

ireiv X/oecbi' roiovahe Ttva<i toi"? vo/j,o(fivXaKa(; 
7rapefX€vov<i' av rtve^ eTrtOvfjUMcTi tmv ttoXitcov to, 
TOiv aWwv avdpooTTcov 7rpdy/jt,ara dewprjaai Kara 
riva irXeioii <T)(oXrjv, dTreipyero) yxj^Set? rovrovi 

B v6fio<;. ovre yap aTTeipo<; ovcra 7ro\t? avOpunrcov 
KaK(hv Kal ayadSiV Svvatr av irore, avofiiXrjTOf 
ovaa, 7]/jL€po^ iKavo)^ elvai Ka\ TeK,eo<i, ovS" av 
Toi'9 vofiov; Si,a(f>v\dTT€tv avev tov yvcofirj \afielv 
avTov'i, dWa firj fxovov edeaiv. elal yap ev roL<; 
TToWoi^; dvOpcoTToi del deloi TLve<i, ov ttoWoI, irav- 
ro<; h' d^ioL ^vyyiyi'eadai, (f)v6p.€Vot ovSev fidWov 
iv evvop.ovfievai<i iroK-ecriv rj Kal fjurj, oiv Kar ixvo<i 
^^^ XP^ '^^^ ^^ rat<; evvofxovfievaL^ TroKecnv 
OLKOvvra e^iovra Kara OdXaTrav Kal yrjv i^rjrelv, 

C 09 av dBid(f)0apTO^ rj, rd fiev ^e^aiovfievov tcov 
vopi/jiwv, oaa AfaXw? auTot<? Keirai, ra h iiravop- 
Oovfxevov, €1 rt TrapaXeiTreTai. dvev yap Tavrrj^ 
Tr)<; deoopia'^ Kal ^rfTTjaea)^ ov fxevel ^ wore reXeto? 
7r6Xt9, ouS' dv KaK(o<i avrrjv deaypwaLv. 
KA. II(W9 ovv dv yiyvoLT dfj,(f)6r€pa ; 
A0. T^Se. irpSiTOv fxlv 6 6ea)po<; 6 roiovro'i 
■qfxiv yeyovoo^ €(ttco ttXccovcov ircov t) Trevr^Kovra, 
€Ti Be rmv evSoKLfKov rd re dXXa Kal elf tov 
TToXe/iiov earo) yeyevri/jbevci, el /jueXXei to rmv 

D vo/j,o(f)vXdKO)v Soy/Ml ^ €i9 Ta9 aXX.a9 /iiedijcreiv 
7roXef9" irXeov 8e e^rjKOVTa . yeyovd)<i erdv fiyjKeTi 
dewpetTW. de(oprjaa<i he oiroa dv exj; ^ovXrjOf) 



^ fxfvei Wagner : /utVei MSS. 
* S6yfia Madvig : Stly/ia MS 



Ivig : 5f7y/ia MSS., edd. 
1 Cp. iJep. 619 A. 



506 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

to send out other inspecting commissioners (when 
they have obtained leave from the Law-wardens) of 
the following kind : — -If any of the citizens desire to 
survey the doings of the outside world in a leisurely 
way, no law shall prevent them ; for a State that 
is without experience of bad men and good would 
never be able (owing to its isolation) to become 
fully civilized and perfect, nor would it be able 
to safeguard its laws unless it grasped them, not 
by habit only, but also by conviction.^ Amongst 
the mass of men there always exist — albeit in small 
numbers — men that are divinely inspired ; inter- 
course with such men is of the greatest value, and 
they spring up in badly-governed States just as 
much as in those that are well governed. In search 
of these men it is always right for one who dwells 
in a well-ordered State to go forth on a voyage 
of enquiry by land and sea, if so be that he himself 
is incorruptible, so as to confirm thereby such of 
his native laws as are rightly enacted, and to amend 
any that are deficient. For without this inspection 
and enquiry a State will not permanently remain 
perfect, nor again if the inspection be badly con- 
ducted. 

CLIN. How, then, might both these objects be 
secured ? 

ATM. In this way. First, our overseas inspector 
shall be more than fifty years old ; secondly, he 
shall have proved himself a man of high repute 
both in military and other affairs, if it is intended 
that he shall be despatched into other States with 
the approval of the Law-wardens ; but when he has 
passed sixty years of age, he shall -cease to act as 
inspector. When he has been inspecting for as 

507 



PLATO 

TMV BcKa Kal d<f>iK6fi€vo<i oiKaSe et9 tov avWoyov 
iTO) TOV roiv TTepl vofiovi iTToinevovTwv. oi>ro<i 8' 
ecTTft) v€0)V Kal Trpea-^vrepwv fxe/xty/xevo';, eKaarrj^ 
fiev r}fi€pa^ avWeyo/xevo'i e^ avdyKi]<; d-n opdpov 
fie^pnrep dv rfKio^ uvda)(r)} irpSirov /xev rcov 
lepecov rofv ra dpiajela elXrjcpoTcov, eirena rmv 

E uofio^vXaKcov Tov<i del Trpecr^evovTa^ Bexa, in Be 
6 irepl T?}? iraiBeia'i 7rda7]<; eiTip,e\riTrj'i 6 re i/€09 
01 re eK Trj<; dp-)(rj^ ravTrj^ dTrijX\ayp.€i'Oi. €Kaaro<; 
Be TOVTODP fiT} fiovo^, dXX' cto) jxeTci veov diro 
TpidKovTa eT(ou fi^XP'' TerTapuKovTa, tov dpea- 
KovTa avTot TrpoaXa/x^dvayv. ttjv Be avvovaiav 
elvai TOVTOi<i koX tov<; \6yov<; irepl vopnov del rf/? 
952 re olKeia<i TToXeto? Trepi, kol edv dWoOi irvvddvwv- 
Tai Tf, TTepl T(ov toiovtwv Biacjyepov, Kal B>] Kal 
Trepl /JLaOijfMaTcov, oiroa dv ev TavTj] ttj aKeyfreL 
BoKrj (TVfi(f)ep€iv [a] ^ fiaOovai fxev evayeaTepov 
yiyveadai, fir} [xadovari Be crKOTcoBeaTepa ra Trepl 
v6p,ov<i avT0c<i (Paiveadai Kal daa<pi]. d 5' dv 
TOVTfov iyKpivcocnv oi yepaiTepoi, T0v<i vewTepov<i 
Trda-f] (TTTOvBfi jxavddveiv, eav Be Ti<i dvd^io^ BoKjj 
TMV TrapaKeKXrjfiivcov elvai, tw irapaKaXovvTi 

B fiefM(f)€aOai tov avWoyov oXov tov<; 5' evBoKt- 
fiovvTas TOVTcov TMV vewv (f)vXdTTeiv TTjv dXXrjv 
TToXiv, dTTo^XeTTovTas €19 avTov<; Bia(f)€p6vT(o<; re 
T)]pouvTa<;, Kal Ti/xav fiev KaTopdovvTa<i, dTi/jLd^eiv 
Be fidXXov Tcov dXXcov, edv dTro^aivooat \elpov^ 
Ta>v ttoXXmv. 6t9 Brj tovtov tov avXXoyov o 

^ avdffxv MSS. : aviaxV Zur., vulg. 

2 [&] om. in MSS. : added by MS. marg. , Zur., vulg. 

1 Cp. 908 A, 909 A. ^ Cp. 807 D flf. 

508 



LAWS, BOOK Xir 

many years out of the ten as he wishes and has 
returned home, he shall go to the synod ^ of those 
who supervise the laws ; and this synod shall be a ^{i 
mixed body of young men and old which is obliged ,4^ 
to meet every day between dawn and sunrise ; ^ it •' ' ' 
sliall consist, first, of the priests who have gained . ;_^- ; 
the award of merit,^ and secondly, of the ten senior' ■ 
Law-wardens; and it shall also include the Presi- 
dent of Education who has been last apjiointed, and 
his predecessors in office as well. None of these 
members shall go alone, but each of them shall 
bring with him a companion — a young man, selected 
by himself, between thirty and forty years old. 
Their conference and discourse shall deal always 
with the subject of laws and of their own State, 
and with anything important they may have learnt 
elsewhere which bears on this subject, or any 
branches of knowledge which are thought likelv to 
assist in their enquiry, in that the learning of them 
lielps towards a clearer view of legal matters, 
whereas ignorance of them conduces to a view that 
is dim and blurred. Whatsoever of these matters 
are approved by the elder members the younger 
shall learn with all diligence ; and should any of 
the young men invited to attend be deemed un- 
worthy, the person who has invited him shall be 
censured by the whole synod, but such of them 
as are held in good repute shall be watched over 
by the rest of the citizens, who shall regard and 
observe them with special care, honouring them 
when they do right, but dishonouring them more 
than other men if they turn out worse than most. 
To this synod he that has inspected the legal in- 

» Cp. 946 E. 

509 



PLATO 

defoprjaa^ to, ev TOif aXXoi<i avdpcoiroi'i vofxifia 
d<f>iK6fi€vo<; €vOv<i •JTopeviadco, xal et riva (^rjixrjv 
rivu>v Trepl deaeco^ voficov rj iraiheia^i rj Tpo^rj<i 
evpe TLva<; e^ovra^i (f)pd^€iv, etVe koI avro'i vevotj- 
KU)<i UTTa rjKOL, KoivovTOi T&) avWo'^o) airavTL' koX 

C idv re fiijSev ')(eip(ov /jbi]Se ri /SeXrlcov ijxeiv So^y, 
Xdptv yovv Trj<i a(f)68pa tt pod v p.La<i alveiadw idv 
he iroXv /SeXTLCov, iroXv r eTraiveicrOo) fiaXXov ^mv 
reXevrrjaavrd re ri/nat^ avrbv TrpoarjKOvaai^ rj 
TMV (TvXXeyofievcov rifidra) Svi>afxi,<i. idv Se Bie- 
(pOap/mivo^ dcfyiKeaOat ho^rj, fiijSevl ^vyyi'yvecrOo) 
fn']T€ via) /jL7]T6 TTpea^vrepcp TrpoaTroiovfievo^ elvai 
ao(f>6<i. Kal idv [xev TTeiOi-jrat rol<i dp^ovaiv, 
tSttwrT?? ^TjTco, idv 8e p,i], TeOvdrco, idv y iv 
8i/caaT7]pia> dXw TToXvnpa'yfxovcav tc irepl t)]v 
TTatheiav koX rov<; v6/j,ov<i. idv Be d^iov ovra et? 

D BiKacTTrjpiov elcrdyeiv dp-^ovrcov /jLr}8el<i eladyr], 
6vei8o<i diroKeiaOo) tol<; dp^ovcnv et? T^y tmv 
dpiaretcov 8ia8t,Ka(7Lav. 

'O fiev ovv iKSrjficov ovtco kuI tolovto<; cov 
iKS7}p,eLT(o, rov S' elaeTnSrjfi^a-avra fierd rovrov 
')(^prj (j)iXo(jipou€tadai. TeTTape<; 8' elal ^evot 0)v 
Bel irepi Xoyov Tivd iroiecaOai. o fiev Brj Trpwro? 
re Kal Bid reXov<; del 0epivo<; &)? rd TroXXd 
BiareXcbv Tat<; (j)0iT7]aeai, KaOuTrep ol TOiv opviOcov 

E BiaTTopevo/jievoi, Kal tovtcov ol iroXXol Kurd 
ddXarrav drexv<*i<i olov TreTOfievoi p(;yO'?7/iaTiO"/ioO 

1 Cp. 915 D. 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

stitutions of other peoples shall repair immediately 
after his return home ; and if he has discovered 
any persons able to declare any oracle regarding 
legislation or education or nurture, or if he has 
brought back any personal observations of his own, 
he shall communicate them to the whole synod ; 
and if it appear that he has come back in no respect 
worse (nor yet any better) than when he went, still 
because of his extreme zeal he shall be commended ; 
while if it appear that he has come back much 
better, he shall be much more highly commended 
during his life, and when dead, due honours shall 
be paid to him by the synod's authority. But if, 
on the other hand, such an inspector appear to be 
corrupted on his return, in spite of his pretensions 
to wisdom, he shall be forbidden to associate with 
anyone, young or old ; wherein if he obeys the 
magistrates, he shall live as a private person, but 
if not, he shall be put to death — if, that is to 
say, he be convicted in a court of law of being a 
meddler in respect of education and the laws. And 
if, when such an one deserves to be summoned 
before a court, none of the magistrates summons 
him, the magistrates shall be censured at the ad- 
judication of awards of merit. 

Such, then, shall be the character and the pro- 
cedure of him that travels abroad. Next to him we 
must deal in friendly wise with the visitor from abroad. 
There are four types of stranger which call for mention. 
The first and inevitable immigrant is the one who 
chooses summer,^ as a rule, for his annual visits, 
in the fashion of migratory birds — and, like birds, 
the most of these cross the sea, just as if they had 
wings, for the sake of making gain by their trading, 

5" 



PLATO 

XO'Piv e/jLTTopevofievoi erovi Mpa irerovrai vpo^ 
Ta<? aWa^ 7r6\ei<;' ov ayopat<; koX Xi/j-ecri Kal 
8rj/j.oatOL<; olKo8ofj,rjfiaaLv e^o) Trj<; TroXeo)? 7rp6<; rf) 
TToXei virohex^adai, XPV Toy? eVt rovToi<; apxovTa^ 
TeTay/jIvovi;, (f)v\dTTOVTa<i fii] wcorept^r; rt? ri 
953 TMV Tocovrcov ^evcdv, koI SiKa^i avTol<i 6p6co<i 
Biav€fj,ovTa<;, avajKala fiei', w? oXtyiara S' evrt^pftj- 
fxevov^. 6 Be BeuT€po<;, 6fi/j,acnv oVtw? decopo^ oaa 
re ^ovacov a)a)v e^erat Oeoyp/jpara' r&i 8>) 
ToiovTO) Travrl ')(p}) Kara\vaei<; Trpo? iepot<; elvai 
<piKo^evlai<i dvdpfOTrcov nrapecTKevacTp.epa^, '^pi^ he 
Kal roiv roiovrwv i€pea<; re Kal veonKopov; eiri- 
fieXeiaOai Kal rij/iieXdv, ew? ^ av tov pA-Tpiov 
i'jrip.eii'avTe^ ')(^p6vov, Ihovra re Kal d/cova-avre^ 

B a>if %a/c»fv d(f}LKOi>TO, a^Xa/3et9 tov hpdaai re Kal 
iradelv diraWcmfovTar 8iKaard<; 8' avrol<; elvat 
TOv<; lepea^, edi> dSiKfj rt? avroiv riva rf riv aWov 
dSiKrj Tt9 rovrcov oaa evro^ 8pa)(^iJ.a)v 7revTi'}K0VTa' 
edv he Tc fiei^ov eyKXijfia avT0L<i yiyvTjrai, irpo^ 
Toi<i dyopai>6fioi<; elvai Bel BiKa<; rot? ToiovTOi<i. 
rpLTOV Be ^evov VT7oBe')(ea6ai XPV Bif/xocna tov 
Kara ri Bi]fi6aiov e^ dXXr)<i 'Xcopa<i d(f)iyfievov ov 
aTpaTrjyol'i re Kal liv'Trdpxoi'i Kal Ta^idp^oi^; 
VTToBeKTeov earl p.6voi<;, ti'^v t eirifieXeiav twv 

C ToiovT(ov perd tmv irpuTdvecov TroirjTeov eKeiv(p 
Trap OTft) Tf? dv avTOiv tiju KardXvaiv ^evojOelf 
ironjarjTai pLovm. TerapToq Be dv iroTe ti<; d(f)i/cij- 
rai, aTTuviO'i p.ev, dv 8' ovv TTore ti^ eXdr) tmv 
irap i)puv OewpoiV dvTi(TTpo^o<i e^ aW?;? ')^d)pa<i, 

^ i'wj MSS. ■• '6irus MSS. marg., Ziir. 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

and fly over to foreign cities during the summer 
season ; this stranger must be received, when he 
comes to the city, at the markets, harbours, and 
pubUc buildings outside the city, by the otlicials 
in charge thereof; and they shall have a care 
lest any such strangers introduce any innovation, 
and they shall duly dispense justice to them, and 
shall hold such intercourse as is necessary with 
them, but to the least extent possible. The second 
type of stranger is he who is an inspector, in the 
literal sense, with his eves, and with his ears also 
of all that appertains to musical exhibitions : for all 
such there must be lodgings provided at the temples, 
to affoi-d them friendly accommodation, and the 
priests and temple-keepers must show them care 
and attention, until they have sojourned for a 
reasonable length of time and have seen and heard 
all that they intended ; after which, if no harm has 
been done or suffered by them, they shall be dismissed. 
And for these the priests shall act as judges, in 
case anyone injures one of them or one of them 
injures anyone else, if the claim does not exceed fifty 
drachmae ; but if any greater claim is made, the trial 
for such strangers must take place before the market- 
stewards. The third type which requires a public 
reception is he who comes from another country 
on some public business : he must be received by 
none but the generals, hipparchs and taxiarchs, 
and the care of a stranger of this kind must be 
entirely in the hands of the official with whom 
he lodges, in conjunction with the prytaneis. The 
fourth type of stranger comes rarely, if ever : should 
there, however, come at any time from another 
country an inspector similar to those we send 

VOL. II. L L 



PLATO 

TTpwTov fiev eXarrov erSiv fxtjSev 7revri]Kovra 
yeyovco^ earco, Trpo? toutw Be d^iwv ri koKov IBeiv 
TOiV €V Tal<: dWai^ TToXecn Sia^epov ev KaWovai<i 
rj Koi het^ai ri Kara javra aWrj jroXei. ltco /xev 
D vvv Tra? aKeXevaTo^; 6 toiovto<; evrt ra? tmv 
TrXovcriwv koX aocpMv Ovpa<i, rotovTO'i erepof 
auT09 Ci>v' eirl yap rrjv rov t?}9 TratSeta? 
eTTLfiekovfievov 'rrdar]<i o'iKrjcnv ctco iriarevaiv 
iKavo)^ eivat ^evo<i tw toiovto) ^evo), rj r-qv r&v 
viKr}cf)6pa)v Tivo^ iir aperfj- ^vvoov Se tovtcov 
Tial TO /ji€V BiSd^a^, to Be fiaOcov cnraXXaTTecrOco, 
(f)L\o^ irapa (f>i\(ov BdipoL<; Koi TLp,al<i TrpeTrovaat^; 
TifirjOel,^. Toinoi'i Br) TOi? vo/xoi^ v7ToBe')(ea'0ai t€ 
')(pr} 7rdvTa<; ^evov<; tc kuI ^€va<; i^ a\Xr]<; ^copa? 
E Kal rou<; avrcov eKTrefnreiv, rt/xoovTa^i ^eviov 
Ala, /jLT) ^pcofjLaai Kal Oufxacri Ta? ^evrfKaaia^ 
iroiovfievovi, KaOdirep ttoiovcti vvv dpefifiara 
NetXoy, fiijBe Kr]pvy/xaaiv dypioL<i. 

^KyyvT]v rjv dv eyyvdrai Tf<?, BiapptjBnjv iy- 
yvdadco, ttjv irpd^iv rrdcxav Biofio\oyovfievo<i ev 
avyypacf)^ Kal evavriov fiaprvpcov fir] eXarrov rj 
954 rpicov, ocra evro<i ')(i\lwv, to, 5' virep ^i^iXta? p,r] 
eXaTTOV rj irevre. eyyvr]T7]<i /xev Br) kuI 6 
•jrpoircoXcov oriovv rov fir) evBiKO)^ ttcoXovvto^ rj 
Kal )ir)Bafico^ d^ioxp^co' v7roBiKO<i S" earco Kal o 
TTpoTTcoXatv, Kaddirep 6 dTroB6fi€vo<;. 



^ i.e. by forbidding their presence at ceremonial feasts ; 
or, because (as Grote says) "the Egyptian habits as to eating 
and sacrifice were intolerably repulsive to a foreigner." 

2 Cp. 950 A, B. 

5U 



I 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

abroad, he shall come on these conditions : — First, 
he shall be not less than fifty years old ; and 
secondly, his purpose in coming must be to view 
some noble object which is superior in beauty to 
anything to be found in other States, or else to 
display to another State something of that descrip- 
tion. Every visitor of this kind shall go as an 
unbidden guest to the doors of the rich and wise, 
he being both rich and wise himself; and he shall 
go also to the abode of the General Superintendent 
of Education, believing himself to be a proper 
guest for such a host, or to the house of one of 
those who have won a prize for virtue ; and when 
he has communed with some of these, by the giving 
and receiving of information, he shall take his 
departure, with suitable gifts and distinctions be- 
stowed on him as a friend by friends. Such are 
the laws in conformity with which they must receive 
all strangers, of either sex, from another country, 
and send out their own citizens ; thus doing honour 
to Zeus, Patron of Strangers, instead of expelling 
strangers by means of meats and ceremonies ^ (as is 
now done by the nurslings of the Nile), or else by 
savage proclamations.* 

If anyone gives a security, he shall give it in 
express terms, setting forth the whole transaction 
in a written record ; and this he shall do before not 
less than three witnesses, if the amount be under 
1,000 drachmae, and before not less than five, if it be 
over 1,000. The broker in a sale shall act as security 
for the seller should the latter have no real right to 
the goods sold or be quite unable to guarantee their 
possession ; and the broker shall be legally liable 
equally with the seller. 

L L 2 



PLATO 

^mpav he av iOeXr) rt? ri Trap' orrpovv, >^/vfivo<; 
[vl ^ 'X^LTOiviaKQv e^dov, a^(y<rT09, 7rpoo/x6aa<; rov<; 
vop,lp,ov<i deov<i »7 firjv iXTri^eiv evpijaeiv, ovtco 
(f)(opav' 6 Sk Trape^eTQ) Trjv oIkluv, rd re aearj- 
paapeva koI to, dat]p,avTa, (pcopav. idv Se rt? 
epevvav ^ovXo/xevo) (pcopdv firj SiSu), BiKu^eadai pev 
Tov direLpyop.evov Tipurjcrdp^vov ro epevv(i)p,6Vov, 

B dv hi Tt9 6(j)\r}, TT]v hnrXacTLav tov TLp.y]0€VTo<; 
^Xd^rjv ixriveiv. edv he d'nohrjp.wv olKia<; 
^ecTTTOTT;? Tvyx^dvT}, rd p.ev daijp^avra Trapexovreov 
OL ivoiKOvvT€<i ipevvdv, ra he aecn]paap.eva 
napaaTjprjvdadeo Kal op dv ideXij (f)vXaKa ku- 
racrrrjadTO) irevre rip,epa'i 6 cfycopcov eav he 
TrXeiova XP^^^^ o,'nfi, toix; d(XTVv6p.ov<; irapa- 
Xa^oov ovToo (jxopdTO), Xvcov koX rd aecnf}p,aap.eva, 

C TTaXiv he perd twv otKeiwv Kal tojv darvvop^wv 
Kara ravrd arjpLijvdcrdo}. 

Twv dpLcjjLa^rjrrjaLp^ayv ')(p6vov <ohe>^ opo<;, ov 
edv Tf? ^ KeKTrjpe.vo<i, p,r]Ker dpL(f}Lcr^i]Tetv i^elvai. 
')((i>piwv p,ev oiKijaecov re rfjhe ovk ear dp,(f)ta^^- 
TT](Ti<;- TCt)v he dXXcov 6 ri dv ti^ eKTrjp.evo^; 17, edv 
p.ev Kurd darv Kal Kar dyopdv koI iepd xp(op,evo^ 
(fiaivijTai, Kal pLrjhel^ eTriXd^rjrai, <^fj he ^rjrelv 
TovTOv TOV y^povov, he p,i} dTroKpv'm6p.evo<; 
<f)avepo<; rj, edv ovtco Tf<? eviavTOv otiovv eKT7)p,evo<i, 

Do he ^TjTMv hiayevavrai, p,r) e^eaTco toiovtov 

^ [^] bracketed by Hermann. 

* < S5« > added by W. R. Paton, England {Si some 

MSS.). 

^ Cp. Ariatoph. Nub. 500, 966. 
516 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

If anyone wishes to make a search ^ on any man's 
premises, he shall strip to his shirt and wear no 
girdle, and when he has first taken an oath by 
the appointed gods that of a truth he expects to find 
the object, he shall make his search ; and the other 
man shall grant him the right to search his house, 
including things both sealed and unsealed. But if, 
when a man desires to search, the other party refuses 
leave, the man so prevented shall take legal pro- 
ceedings, assessing the value of the object sought; 
and any man thus convicted shall pay as damages 
twice the value of the object assessed. And if the 
master of the house happens to be away from home, 
the occupants shall allow ^ the claimant to search 
what is unsealed, and he that searches shall counter- 
seal what is sealed, and shall set any man he chooses 
to stand guard over it for five days ; and if the 
master be absent longer, the claimant shall call in 
the city-stewards, and so make his search, in which 
he shall open also what is sealed, and he shall seal 
this up again in the same way in the presence of the 
household and of the city-stewards. 

In cases of disputed claims there must be a limit of 
time, after which it shall be no longer possible to 
dispute the claim of the person in possession. In 
our State no dispute is possible in respect of lands or 
houses ; but in respect of anything else which a man 
has acquired, if the possessor be seen to be using it in 
the city, market, and temple, and if no one lays claim 
to it, — then if some man asserts that he has been 
looking for it all this time, while it is plain that its 
possessor has made no concealment of it, and if this 
goes on for a year, the possessor still keeping the 
article and the other man still seeking, at the expir- 



PLATO 

KTij/j.aro'; eiriXa^ecrOat, /xrjBeva irapeXOovro^ iviav- 
Tov. iav Be Kar acrjv fiev fxr} /ji,r]8e Kar ar/opav 
'y^prjTat, Kar aypoit^ Be (f)avepa)<i, fit] TrpoaTv^hf 
Be ev Trevre erecn yevTjrai Tf?, tcov irevje 
e^e\66vT(i)v ercov /xrjKeTi [tov \017rov ■)(p6vov] ^ 
€^€(TTo) TOVTw TOV ToiovTov eTTiXa^icrdai. iav Be 
KUT OLKia^ ev dcTTet t€ Ti<; ■x^prjTai, TpieTrj ttjv 
TTpoOecTfiLav eivai, iav Be kut' aypoix; iv a^avel 

E KeKTTjTai, BeKa eTOiv, iav 8' iv dWoBrjfiia, tov 
7ravTo<; ')(^p6vov OTav avevprj irov, /i-qBefiiav elvai 
IT pod ecr pbiav Tr]<; eViXTf-v/rece)?. 

'Eai; Tt? Tiva Blkt} TrapayeveaOai KcoXvarj /9ta, 
elVe avTov etTe /xdpTvpa^f iav fiev BovXov elVe avTov 
etTC aWoTpiov, aTeXrj kcu uKvpov ylyvecrdat, ttjv 
955 BiKijv, iav 3' iXevdepov, irpo'i t5> aTeXrj Bedrjvai fiev 
iviavTov, vTToBiKov Be dvBpaiToBicrpiov t& ideXovTi 
jLyveaOai. iav Be dvTaycoviaTrjv yvpvaaTiKrjf; r) 
fiovcrcK't)^ 1] Ttro? dyS)vo<i eTepov BtaKcoXvrj Ti? /Sta 
fjLT) irapaylyveadai, ^pa^eTco fiev 6 ideXcov rot? 
ddXo6eTai<i, ol 8' ci? tov dywva iXevdepov d<^ievTa)v 
TOV idekovTa dycovi^eadat. iav Be dBwaTijcrcocnv, 
iav [xev 6 kcoXvcov dya/vi^eaOai vtKyjarj, Tci re 
VLKTjTrjpLa Tw BiaKwXvdevTL BiBovai Kal viKrjaavTa 

B ypd(f)eiv iv iepoL<; oU av ideXy, rw Be BiUKwXvcravTL 
[XTj i^eaTO) [xrjBev dvddr]p,a firjB^ imypacfyriv tov 
TOiovTOV dycov6<; iroTe yeveadai, ^Xd^T]^ Be 
v7r6Bi,K0<i yiyveado), iav re rjTTdTai dyo)vi,^6fi€VO<; 
iav Te Kal viKa. 

Eay Tf? KXe/xfidBiov ^ otlovv v'iToBe')(r}Tai 

* [tov Xoiirov xpivov'] wanting in best MSS., bracketed by 
England. 

* K\efi.fi<iSioy MSS., vulg. : K\4fifxa 5' MS. marg., Zur, 

S18 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

ation of the year no one shall be allowed to lay claim 
to its possession. And if a man uses an article openly 
in the country — although not in the city or market, 
— and if no claimant confronts him within five years, 
after the expiration of the five years no claim to such a 
possession shall be allowed. And if a man uses an 
article indoors in the city, the time-limit shall be 
three years ; if he uses it in a concealed place in 
the country, it shall be ten years ; while if it be 
in a foreign country, there shall be no limit of 
time set to making a claim, whenever it is found. 

If any man forcibly prevent any person from 
appearing at an action at law — whether it be the 
person himself or his witnesses, — in case that person 
be a slave of his own or of another man, the action 
shall be null and void ; and in case the person so 
prevented be a free man, in addition to the annul- 
ment of the action, the offender shall be imprisoned 
for a year and shall be liable to a charge of kid- 
napping at the hands of anyone who chooses. And 
if anyone forcibly prevents a rival competitor at 
a gvmnastic, musical or other contest from appear- 
ing, whoso wishes shall report the fact to the Presi- 
dents of the Games, and they shall allow him that 
wishes to contend to enter for the contest free ; but 
should they prove unable, in case he who prevented 
the competitor wins, they shall give the prize to the 
man prevented and shall inscribe his name as victor in 
whatever temples he chooses, whereas the pi'eventer 
shall be forbidden to put up any tablet or inscription 
regarding such a contest, and he shall be liable to 
pay damages, whether he be defeated at the contest 
or be victorious. 

If anyone knowingly receive any stolen article, 

519 



PLATO 

ytyvdiaKWV, rrjv avrrjv vvexira} Biktjv ra> kXc- 
yp-avTi' ^v<ydZo<; 8e L'ttoSo^/}? 9dvaT0<i ecnai ^rjfiia. 
rov avTov ^i\ov re KaX e')(6pov t'o/xt^eVo) irca 
rfi iroXei' eav Be tl^ ISia TroirjTaL 7rp6^ riva^; 
elpi^vrjv *] TToXefiov dvev tov kolvov, ddvaTos earco 

C xal rovT<p i^qfjbla. iav 8e rt fiepo<; tP]<; TroXeo)? 
elprjvqv rj iroXefiov 7rp6<; Tiva<; eavrto iroir^rai, 
TOi'9 aljiovi oi arpaTrjyol TavTT)<i tt}? Trpd^€co<i 
elaayovTcov eh ZiKaarrjpiov, 6(f>X6vTi 8e OuvuTOf 
eCTTCO BlKT). TOI'9 T^ TTUTptBc BiaKovovvrd'i rt 
Bcoptov X«f)/3t9 XPV BiaKovelv, 'Trp6(pacnv 5' eivai 
fjbrjBefjilav fxrjBe Xojov iiraivovfievov 0)9 eV dyadol'i 
fxev Bet Be^eadat Bcopa, eTrt Be <^\avpot<i ov' to 
yap yvoivai /cat yvnvra Kaprepetv ovk evTreTe<i, 

D uKovovra Be dacftaXeaTaTov TteldeaOai, rS) vo/j.o), 
/j,7)Bev eirl Bcopotcri BiaKovelv. 6 Be firj 7r€iff6/j.€vo<; 
a7rXa»9 Tedvdro) dXov<; rrj Blkt). 'X^prj/jtdTtov 
ela<popd<; irept rw Koiva>, Tertiirjadat fjtev eKaarov 
TTjv ova'tav eve/ca ttoXXcov ^peoov Kal rrjv eirereiov 
eTTiKapiriav ev ypdfjt/jtaaiv diro^epetv dypovo/jtoi^ 
(f)vXera<;, 07raj9 dv Bvolv o'vaaiv ralv €ca(f)opatv, 
OTTorepa to Btj/xoaiov dv ')(prjadat ^ovXrjTai, 

E XPV"^^^ ''°''^' €viavTov cKacTTOv ^ovXevofievov, edv 
re TOV TLfJtrjfiaTO'^ oXov fjtepet edv re Tr}9 yevofj,ev7]<i 
i'n eviavTov eKdaTore irpoaoBov, X(op\<i tmv et9 xa 
^vaatTta TeXovp,evcov. 

Seotat Be dva9i]pLaTa xp^^v efip^rpa tov p,€Tpiov 
dvBpa dvuTtOevTa Bcopeiadat. yr) ptev ovv earta 
re olKYjoew^ lepd irdat irdvTcov 6eo)V' p.r]8ei<i ovv 
520 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

he shall be liable to the same penalt}- as the 
thief; and for the crime of receiving an exile the 
penalty shall be death. Everyone shall regard the 
friend or enemy of the State as his own personal 
friend or enemy ; and if anyone makes peace or war 
with any parties privately and without public consent, 
in his case also the penalty shall be death ; and if 
any section of the State makes peace or war on its 
own account with any parties, the generals shall 
summon the authors of this action before the court, 
and the penalty for him who is convicted shall be 
"death. Those who are performing any act of service 
to the State must do it without gifts ; and it shall be 
no excuse nor laudable plea to argue that for good 
deeds a man ought to receive gifts, though not for 
bad : to decide wisely, and firmly to abide by one's 
decision, is no easy thing, and the safest course is for a 
man to listen and obey the law, which says, "Perform 
no service for gifts." Whoso disobeys, if convicted 
by the court, shall be put to death once for all. 
Touching money-contributions to the public treasurj', 
not only must the property of every man be valued, 
for many reasons, but the tribesmen also must furnish 
an annual record of the year's produce to the land- 
wardens, so that the Treasury may adopt whichever 
it may prefer of the two existing methods of con- 
tribution, and may determine year by year whether 
it will require a proportion of the whole assessed 
value, or a projwrtion of the current yearly income, 
exclusive of the taxes paid for the common meals. 

As regards votive offerings to the gods, it is proper 
for a reasonable man to present offerings of reasonable 
value. The soil and the hearth are in all cases sacred 
to all the gods ; wherefore no one shall consecrate 

5" 



PLATO 

BevTcpax; lepa Kadiepovroi 9eoi^. ')(pv(ro<; Be koI 
956 apyvpo^i iv aXkai<i TroXeaiv Ihia re koI iv iepot<i 
ia-Tiv €7rL(p6ovov Krrjfia, iXecftwi Be airokeXoi'iroro'i 
"^vxv^ cr(oixaro<i ovk €va<ye<i^ avddrjjxa, ai,Br)po<; Be 
Kol p^aX/fo9 TToXe/jLcov opyavw ^vXov Be [xovo^vkov 
Ti av eOekr) rt? dvarcdeTco, Koi Xtdov maavroo^, 
7r/)09 ra KOivd lepd. viprjv Be firj irXeov epyov <?;>^ 
yvvaiKO<i fiid<; efifirjvov' 'Xpoofiara Be XevKa 
TTpeirovT dv deol<i ehj koI dWoOi koX iv v(f>fj' 
^d/jL/jLara Be fit] 7rpocr<f)epeiv dX}C rj 7rpo9 rd 
B TToXefiov Koafjbrjpara. decorara Be Bcopa 6pvide<i' 
re Koi dyd\[JLaTa, ocraTrep dv iv fiia ^(i)ypd(f)0<; 
rj/xepa el? aTrojeXfj' kuI rdWa earco kutu rd 
roiavra dvaOrj/xara /iie/jLi/jLr]fieva. 

"Ore Be fieprj BieiprjTai rrj<i 7ro\ea>? ^Vfnrd(Trj<;, 
ocra T6 Koi d Bel yiyvecrdai, koX vofiou irepl rwv 
^v/x^oXaicov et? Bvva/ntv rSiv peylarcov irepi 
irdvTcov etprjVTai, to \olttov Br) Blku^ dv eirj 
Xpeibv yiyveadai. BiKacTTripiwv Be to fiev TrpwTov 
atpeTol BiKuaTal ylyvoivT dv, ou? dv o ^evycov 
C re Kol 6 Blwkcov eXcovTai Koivfj, BiaiTijTol BixaaTcov 
Tovvofia /jbdWov irpeirov e)(^ovTe<i' BevTepoi Be 
KcofirjTai re Kal (pvXerai, kutu to BcoBeKaTOV 
fi€po<i BirjprjfjievoL, iv oh, dv firj BiaKpidoocriv 
iv T0t9 Trp(OT0i<i, irepX ^r)fMla<; p^ei^ovo^; Iovtcov 
dycoviovfievoi, 6 Be (f)€vya>v, dv rjTTTjdfj to BeuTepov, 
TO 7rep,'rrTJ]p,6ptov diroTLveTca tov Tip,)]p,aT0<; tt}? 

^ fvayis Euseb., most edd. : evxepls MSS. 
^ < ^ > added by Stallbaum. 

^ Cp. Levit. 19. 11 : "He that toucheth the dead body of 
any man shall be unclean seven days. " 

522 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

afresh what is already sacred. Gold and silver, 
which in other States are used both privately and in 
temples, are objects liable to cause envy ; and ivory, 
which comes from a body bereft of soul, is not a pure 
offering ; ^ while iron and bronze are instruments of 
war ; of wood forming a single piece a man may 
offer in the public temples whatsoever he wishes, and 
of stone likewise, and of woven stuff an amount not 
exceeding a month's output by one woman. For 
woven stuff and other materials, white will be a 
colour befitting the gods ; but dyes they must not 
employ, save only for military decorations. Birds 
and statues make most godlike gifts, and they should 
be no larger than what one sculptor can complete in 
a single day ; and all other votive offerings shall be 
modelled on similar lines. 

And now that we have stated in detail what and 
how many the divisions of the State as a whole 
must be, and have also stated to the best of our 
power the laws regarding all the most important 
business transactions,^ it will be proper to deal next 
with judicial procedure.^ Of law courts the first 
will be composed of selected judges, selected jointly 
by both plaintiff and defendant, and these will be 
called "arbitrators," as being a more suitable name 
than "judges." The second court shall be formed 
of the villagers and tribesmen (the tribes being 
divided into twelve parts) ; and if the cause be not 
decided in the first court, they shall come before 
these judges to fight a case involving a greater 
injury, and if at the second trial the defendant is 
defeated, he shall pay as an extra penalty the fifth 
part of the assessed amount of the penalty recorded ; 

»Cp. 922A. »Cp. 766Dflf. 

5«3 



PLATO 

'ypa^€L(jri<; Blkt)!;. eav 6' ijKaXcou Tf? TOi<i 
hiKaaralf to rpirov dycovi^eadai ^ovXtjtui, dyiro) 
fiev eiTi Toi"? hiKacrraii tov^ eVXe/CTOi/s' rr]v BiKrjv, 
D iav Se Tvakiv rjTrrjdfj, rrjv rjixcoklav rov Ti,firifxaro<; 
diroTivero). iav Be 6 Biwkcov rjTTijdel'i iv toi<; 
TrpwTOt,^ fxri rjpeixfi, eh Be tou? BevTepov; ij), 
viK)]aa^ fxev Brj to irep^iTTOV /xepo^ aTroXafi^aveTO), 
viK')]Oel<; Be diroTiveTO} Tavrov fxepo^ Trj'i BlKr]<;. 
eav 8' el<i to TpiTOV eXdcoai BtKa(TT7]piov direidrj- 
aavTe<i Tat? efnrpoadev BiKat<i, 6 fiev ^ev>ya>v 
rjTTTjOei^, wairep el'pijTai, ttjv rjfjLioXiav, 6 Be 
BicoKcov Tr]V i)/jiLaecav tou TifxrjfiaTO^ diroTCveTO). 
E K\r]p(i)aei<; Be BiKaaTrjplcov Kal 7r\r)pcoaei<; Kal 
VTTrjpeaiMV eKd(TTai<i tmv dp')(^Mv KUTaaTaaeis Kal 
Xpoi'ov; iv ol<i eicaaTa yiyvecrdai, ')(^peoiv, Kal 
Biayjrrj(f)iaeQ)v irepi Kal dva^oXoiV, Kal irdvd 
oiroaa TOiavTa dvayKala irepl St/ca? yiyvecrdai, 
TTpoTepav re Kal ixTTepcov Xij^ei^ dnoKpLaecov re 
dvdjKa^ Kal TrapaKaTa^daecov Kal oaa tovtcov 
dBeX(pd ^vfiiravTa, etiTop,ev p,kv Kal Trpoadev, 
957 KoXov Be to ye opdov Kal Bl<i Kal T/)i9. TrdvTa 
S' ovv oTToaa cr/itKpa Kal pdBia v6/iiip,a eupiaKeiv, 
TTpecr/SuTOV vopoOeTOV irapaXnrovTO^ tov veov 
dvairXripovv xph vofxodeTrjv. to, jxev iBia Bc- 
KaaTi]pia TavTj] irr] yiyvofieva fjueTpov av €X,of 
TO. Be Brj/xoaia Kal Koivd Kal oaoi^ apx^^'i Bet 
')(p(o/j,eva<; to, TrpoatJKOVTa eKacrTrj tcov dp-)(^cav 
BtoiKetv, €(TT iv TroXXai<i iroXeaiv ovk da')(^r)fiova 
eineiKOiv dvBpwv ovk oXlya vo/j,oOeTi]/xaTa, 60ev 



> Cp. 766 D ff., 846 B fT. 
" Cp. 754 C. 



524 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

and if, dissatisfied with his judges, he desires to fight 
his case before a court a third time, he shall bring it 
before the select judges, and if he be again worsted, 
he shall pay one and a half times the assessed 
amount. Again, if the plaintiff, when worsted in 
the first court, does not rest satisfied, but goes to 
the second court, in case he wins, he shall receive 
the fifth part, but in case he loses, he shall pay the 
same fraction of the penalty. And if, through dis- 
satisfaction with the previous verdict, they proceed 
to the third court, the defendant (as we have said) 
shall pay, if worsted, one and a half times the 
penalty, and the prosecutor one-half of it. As 
regards the allotting of courts, the filling of vacancies, 
the appointing of Serjeants for the several boards of 
magistrates, the times prescribed for performing 
each of these duties, the recording of votes, adjourn- 
ments, and all other necessary judicial arrange- 
ments, — such as the fixing by lot of the order 
of trials, rules about counter-pleadings and counter- 
attendances, and all matters cognate thereto, — 
all these we have dealt with previously,^ but 
nevertheless it is a proper thing to reiterate twice, 
— yea, thrice, — the truth. ^ The old lawgiver, how- 
ever, may pass over all such legal observances as ai*e 
trivial and easy of discovery, and the young lawgiver 
shall fill up his omissions. In dealing with the 
private law courts this method would be reasonable, 
but in connection with the public courts of the State, 
and all those which the officials have to use in 
managing the affairs which belong to their several 
offices, there exist in many States quite a number of 
admirable ordinances of worthy men ; ^ and from 

• Alluding, probably, to Athenian law in particular. 



PLATO 

vo/jLO(f)v\aKa^ '^^prj tu Trpeirovra ttj vvv yevvcofxevrj 
B 7ro\iT€ia /caracTKevd^eiv avWoyiaafxevovi; Kal CTra- 
vop6ovfievov<;, rat? ifnT€ipt,ai<i Bia^aaavt^ovra^, 
e&)9 av iKavo)^ avrSiv eKaara So^j) Kelcrdai, tots 
he TeXo9 iiriOevTa^, aKLvrjra ovrca i7n(T(f)payiaa- 
fievov;, 'X^prjcrdai. rov airavra ^iov. oaa Be irepi 
re (Tiyrjv BiKaarwv Kal ev^rj pbia<i koX rovvavriov, 
Kal oaa irapaWdTrei rcov [ttoWcov] ^ ev Tal'; 
aWaa TToXeai BiKaimv Kal dyaddv [/cat KaX(iiv\^ 
TO, pev elprjTaL, ra S" eVi tt/jo? t« reXei prjdrjaerai. 
C 77/309 a TTavra xph "^ov peWovra SiKacrrrjv laov 
eaeaOai Kara Blktjv ^Xeireiv re Kal KeKTr)p,evov 
ypdp.paTa avrcov nrepi ^ pavdavecv. irdvrwv yap 
pLadrjpdrcov Kvpiwrara rov rov pavddvovra 
^eXrici) yiyveaOai ra irepX rov<i v6p,ov<i Kelpeva, 
etirep opOw'i etr) redevra, yiyvoir av, rj pdrriv 
rovvopa vw TrpoaPjKov KCKrfjr^ av 6 6elo<; rjpcv 
Kal 6avpaaro<i v6po<i. Kal 8t) Kal rSyv dWuiv 
D Xoycov oaoi re ev iroirjpaaLv eiratvoi. Kal y^oyoi 
irepi riVQiv Xeyovrac Kal oaoi KaraXoydBrjv, etr' 
ev ypdppacnv e'lre KaB" -qpbipav ev ral<i aXXai<i 
irdaaL'i avvovaiai<i Bia (f}iXoveiKLa<i re dp,cf)ia^r]- 
rovvrac Kal 8ia ^vyxwprjaewv ecrriv ore Kal p,dXa 
p,araicov, rovrcov Trdvrcov av ^d<ravo<; etr) aa(f>r}^ 
ra rov vop,oderou ypdppara, a hel K€Krr]p.evov 
ev auru), KaOdirep dXe^icftdppaKa rS)v aXXtov 
Xoycov, rov dyadov BiKaa-rrjv avrov re opOovv Kal 
rrjV TToXcv, rot? p,ev dyaOoi<; p,ova<; rwv hiKaiwv 



[ttoXXuv'] bracketed by Hermann, 
[(col KaXS>v'\ omitted by best MSS. 
ire'pj MSS. : iripa. Steph., Zur. 



526 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

these the Law-wardens must construct a code which 
is suitable to the polity we are now framing, partly 
by comparing and amending them, partly by sub- 
mitting them to the test of experience, until each 
such ordinance be deemed satisfactory ; and when 
they have been finally approved, and have been 
sealed as absolutely unchangeable, then the magis- 
trates shall put them into practice all their life long. 
All rules regarding silence and discreet speech, and 
the opposite of these, on the part of the judges, and 
all else that differs from the rules which obtain in 
the other States concerning justice and goodness, — all 
these have been stated in part,^ and in part they 
will be stated at the end. To all these matters he 
that purposes to be a righteous and just judge must 
attend, and that written exposition of them which 
he possesses he must learn. For of all studies, that 
of legal regulations, provided they be rightly framed, 
will prove the most efficacious in making the learner 
a better man ; for were it not so, it would be in vain 
that our divine and admirable law bears a name akin 
to reason.2 Moreover, of all other speeches — 
whether they be of personal praise or blame, com- 
posed in verse or prose, written down or uttered 
from day to day at some gathering by way of 
controversy or by way of consent (often of a very 
futile character), — of all such speeches the writings 
of the lawgiver ^ will serve as a test : and inasmuch 
as he possesses these within himself, as a talisman 
against other speeches, the good judge will guide 
both himself and the State aright ; for the good he 
will secure both the permanence and the increase of 



Cp. 766 D, 855 D. » v6noi = voZs ; cp. 714 A. 

» Cp. 811 D, 858 C. 



527 



PLATO 

E Kol €7rav^)]cnv TrapaaKevd^ovra, rot? Bk KaKol<i 
€^ a/jLa6La<i kuI dKo\a<Tia<; koI SeiXiaf kuI 
^vWtj^Stjv 7rdar)(; d8tKca<; et? to hvvarov /xera- 
^okrjv, 6aoL<; ld(Tt/j.oi ho^ai rSiv KaKOiv olai Se 
6vTa><; eTTiKeKXcocTfievai, Odvarov tafia Tal<; ovto) 
958 hLaTedel(Tai<; ■^v^^al'i Biave/JLOVTe<i, o BiKai(o<i etrj 
rroWaKi'i av ecprjixevov, a^ioi iiraivov 'yiyvoLvr 
av rfi TTaarj iroXei toiovtoi SiKacrral /cat ScKacrrcov 
Tj'ypfi6v€<;. 

^EiireiSav Se al kut iiaavrov ScKat reXo? 
eKhiKaadelaai (7)(^coai, ral^ Trpd^ecri v6/u.ov<i 
avTMV ■)^p€(t)V ybjveadat rovahe' irpwrov p.lv rj 
SiKa^ovcra ap')(r] rd rov 6(f)\6vTO'; rat viKijaavTL 

B y^prjp.ara irdvTa diroSiSoTCo %«i)pi9 rcov dvayKaicov 
KCKTrjcrOai, fierd rrjv hia-^rjcjiicnv e/cdcTTrjv ev6v<i 
VTTo K7]pvK0<;, uKOVovToyv Tcbv SiKacTTCoV eTTeiSdv 
Be 6 Tcop SiKaalfioyv p^Tjvcov 6;^o/ief09 yevTjrai firjv, 
eav Ti^ fiT) aTraWdTTT] top viKrjaavra eKovra 
eKcov, ?7 Si/cdaacra dp^V ^vveTTOfiivr) tw vikcovti, 
ra Tov 6(f)\6vTO<; TrapaSiSoTco ')(pr]fiara. idv Be 
fit] e'x^aicriv oirodev, iWeiirr) Be firj e\.arrov 
BpaXP'V'i) P'V TTpoTcpov elvai tovtw BiKa^; rrpo<i 
dWov fiTjBeva, irplv av iKTrXr/pcoar} to Xpeo<i 

C dirav T(p viKijaavrr dWoi^; Be 7rpb<; rovrov 
ecTTcoaav BiKai Kvplco^. edv Be rt? dc^yprjraL ttjv 
<jpXW '^W /caraBtKdcracrav KaraBiKaadel^;, elcra- 
yovTMV fieu avrov eh to tcov vopLo^vXaKMV 
BiKaaTijpiov 01 d(f)aiped€PTe^ dBiKco<i, edv Be Ti? 
6(f)\rj TT]V rotavTrjv BIkijv, o)? oX^jv ttjv ttoXiv kuI 
v6p,ov<i (jiOeipcov davdrw ^rjp^iovcrOo). 

^ i.e. men whose false beliefs are ineradicable, bej'ond hope 
of conversion. 

528 



Laws, book xii 

what is just, and for the bad a change as great as 
possible from their ignorance, intemperance and 
cowardice, and, in short, from their general iniquity, 
— that is to say, for all the bad whose opinions are 
curable ; but for those whose opinions are really fixed 
by Fate,^ — if they assigned death as a cure for souls 
in this condition (a statement that deserves to be often 
repeated), such judges and leaders of judges would 
merit praise from the whole State. 

When all the lawsuits for the year have been finally 
adjudged, we must have laws for the execution of the 
verdicts to this effect : — First, the magistrate who is 
acting as judge shall assign to the victorious party all 
the goods of the party convicted, excepting such as the 
latter must necessarily retain in his possession ; and 
this he shall do in each case immediately after the 
voting has taken place by means of a herald's proclama- 
tion made in the hearingof the judges ; and unless the 
loser settle with the victor to their mutual satisfaction 
by the end of the month next to those in which the 
courts are sitting, the magistrate who has tried the 
case shall, at the instance of the victor, hand over to 
him the goods of the loser. And if the means are 
not forthcoming, and there be a deficiency of not less 
than a drachma, the loser in question shall be pre- 
cluded from suing anyone else until he has paid to 
the full his w hole debt to the victor ; but others may 
bring valid actions against him. If anyone, when 
condemned, obstructs the court which condemned 
him, the officials thus wrongfully obstructed shall 
summon him before tiie court of the Law-wardens, 
and anyone who is cast in such an action, as being 
guilty of subverting the whole State and its laws, 
shall be punished by death. 

529 



PLATO 

^AvBpl Brj TO fiera tovto yevpijdePTi. koI 
eKTpacpevri koI yevvrjcravTL koI eKOpe^^avn reKva 

D Kol ^vfi/xi^avri ^vfj,,3oXaia /iex/aiet)?, ScSovti re 
BLKa<i et Tiva rjSiK^Kei /cal reap eripov ixXa^ovTi, 
<xvv TOi<i v6fJ.oi,<i iv fMoipa <yr]pdaavTi reXeuT^ 
yiyvoiT^ av Kara (f)vaiv. irepX reXevTrjaavra^; hrj, 
etVe Ti9 appt]v elre Ti? drfKv; Tjv, xa fxev irepl ra 
deia vofiifxa tcov re vtto yr']<; Oecov Kal tcov T^Se, 
oaa irpocn'iKei reXelcrOai., tou? e^ijyr)Ta<; yiyveadai 
Kvplov; (f>pd^eiv' ra? Ot]Ka<; 5' elvai tcov ')((i)pio>v 
oTToaa [xev ipydcri/JLa fMrjBa/xov, /XT/re Tt p,eya fnqre 
Ti afiLKpbv fjivrj^a, a 8e Si] ')(^copLa ^ tt/jo? tovt 

E avTO fiovov ^vcnv e^e<, ra TOiv TCTeXevTrjKOTOip 
(TcofiaTa /ndXicTTa dXv7n]T(o^ T0i9 ^coac Sexop'^va ^ 
KpvTTTeiv, TavTU eKirXripovv Tol<i Be dvdpco7rot<i 
oaa Tpo^rjv {_p-rjTr}p ova a rj yrj tt/jo? ravTa] ^ 
7ri(pvK6 ^ovXeadai <^epeiv, p,7]Te ^(ov p,r)T€ rt? diro- 
Oavcbv arepeLTCo top i^oivO^ t^/xwi'. %«o/ia he p-rj 
'Xpvv vyjrrjXoTepov irepre dphpSiv epyov, ep irepd^ 
rip,epai(; diroTeXovpiepop' XWipa h^ €7naTr]p,aTa 
p,rj fieL^o) TTOieiP rj oaa Be)(^ea6ai. rd rov rere- 
\6VT7]K6T0<i eyK(Mip,ia fitov, fiij rrXeiO) Terrdpcov 
959 T^pcocKMP aTi')(oip. Td<; Be TrpoOeaet^ tt/jcotov puev 
fiT) fiaKporepop '^(popop cpBop ytypeadav tou 
Br)\ovvro<; top re eKTedpeSiTa Kal top optco^ 
TedprjKOTa, etr) 8' ap aX^Bop ft)9 TavO poiTTLva p,eTpop 
e^ovaa rpLTala 7rpo<i to p,prjp,a eK(f)opd. Treideadac 



^ S); x^P** : V X^P" MSS. . edd. (^ ^ X'^P" Hermann). 
* Sex*^,"* *""' ■ Sexoyi*'''? MSS., Edd. 



530 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

Next, when a man has been bom and reared, 
and has himself begotten and reared up children, 
and has engaged reasonably in the transactions of 
business, giving or receiving (as the case may be) 
compensation for wrongs done, — when he has thus 
duly grown old in a law-abiding life, his end will 
come in the course of nature. Touching the dead, 
male or female, what the sacred rites are which 
require to be performed in respect of the gods 
of the underworld, or of this world, shall be 
declared by the Interpreters as the final authorities : 
no tombs, however, shall be put in places that are 
tilled, — whether the monument be small or great, — 
but they shall fill up those places where the soil 
is naturally fitted for this purpose only, — namely, 
to receive and hide the bodies of the dead with 
the least hurt to the living ; but as regards all 
the places which of their own nature desire to 
produce food for mankind, of these no one, living 
or dead, shall deprive us who are alive. And they 
shall not pile up a mound to a height greater 
than can be made by five men in five days ; nor 
shall they erect stone pillars of a size more than 
is required to hold, at the most, a eulogy of the 
dead man's life consisting of not more than four 
heroic lines. And as to the laying-out of the corpse, 
first, it shall remain in the house only for such 
a time as is required to prove that the man is not 
merely in a faint, but really dead ; and accordingly, 
in a normal case, the third will be the proper day 
for the carrying out to burial. As in other matters 

' [^7')T7jp . . . ravra] I bracket (England brackets wphs ravra) : 
op. Bep. 414 E. 

53» 

M M 2 



PLATO 

S' earl rS) vofioderj) %/06cbj/ rd re dXka koX 
Xiyovri '\{rv)^T]v (r(Ofiaro<; elvat to irdv Sia^epovcrav, 
iv avTU) T€ TO) /S/ft) TO rrape^ojiievov ■qfiwv exaaTOV 

B tout' elvat fir^hev aXV rj Tr)v '^v')(^rjv, to Be aSifia 
IvBaWofievov tj/mmv e/cd(7T0i<i erreadac, kol TeXevrrj- 
aavTOiv Xeyecrdai kuXo)^ etScoXa elvat, to, t&v 
vcKpwv aMfiara, rov Be ovTa rj/j,a)v €Ka<TTOV 6vTW<i, 
dOdvaTov elvat '^v)(r}v e7Tovofjia^6fj,€Vov, irapd 
$eoif<i aXXov^ dirievai BcocrovTa Xoyov, KaOdirep 
6 vop.o'i 6 TrdrptO'i \eyet, tw /xev dya6a> OappaXeov, 
TW Be KUKO) p.d\a (po^epov, ^orjOetdv re avTa> 
jjirjTtva /j,eydXrjv elvat reTeXevTrjKOTf ^oovrt yap 

C eBet /SorjOetv 7rdvTa<i TOv<i irpoarjKovra'i, ottq)^ 
OTi BiKaioTaTo<i wv Kal oaL(OTaTo<i e^j] tc ^oov Kal 
reXevTijaa^ aTtficopijro^ [av^^ KaKwv dfx,apTrjfj,dToov 
eyiyvero rbv fxeTct tov evddBe /Slav. eK Be tovtwv 
ovT(o<; exovTcov ovBeiroTe otKo^Oopelv XPV' Biaipe- 
p6vTco<; vofjLi^ovTa tov auTov tovtov elvat tov 
rSiV crapKOiv oyKov OairTOfievov, aX,X' eKetvov tov 
vlov rj dBeX^ov, tj ovTtvd Tt9 fidXiaO^ ijyetTai 
TToOSiv OaTTTetv, oX')(ea6at irepaivovTa Ka\ ip,7ri- 
TrXdvTa ttjv avTOv fiolpav, to Be Trapov Belv 

J) ev TTOietv, TO, fieTpta dvaXicr/covTa tu? ei<; dylrv)(ov 
')(dovia>v ^cofiov to Be fierptov vofiodeTr]<i av 
fiavT€V(TatT0 ovK da'^rj/jLovea-TaTa. ecTTW Brj vofio^; 

^ [&►] bracketed by Ast (avidToiy Winck.). 

1 Cp. Phaedo 63 B. « Cp. 717 E, 719 D. 

532 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

it is right to trust the lawgiver, so too we must 
believe him when he asserts that the soul is wholly 
superior to the body, and that in actual life what 
makes each of us to be what he is is nothing else 
than the soul, while the body is a semblance which 
attends on each of us, it being well said that the 
bodily corpses are images of the dead, but that 
which is the real self of each of us, and which 
we term the immortal soul, departs to the presence 
of other gods,^ there (as the ancestral law declares) 
to render its account, — a prospect to be faced with 
courage by the good, but with uttermost dread by 
the evil. But to him who is dead no great help 
can be given ; it was when he was alive that all 
his relatives should have helped him, so that when 
living his life might have been as just and holy 
as possible, and when dead he might be free during 
the life which follows this life from the penalty 
for wickedness and sin. This being so, one ought 
never to spend extravagantly on the dead, through 
supposing that the carcase of flesh that is being 
buried is in the truest sense one's own relative ; 
but one ought rather to suppose that the real son 
or brother — or whoever else it may be that a man 
fancies himself to be mournfully burying — has de- 
parted in furtherance and fulfilment of his own 
destiny, and that it is our duty to make a wise 
use of what we have and to spend in moderation,^ 
as it were on a soulless altar to the gods below : ^ 
and what constitutes moderation the lawgiver will 
most properly divine. Let this, then, be the law : — 

^ i.e. the corpse is like an altar which has no "real 
presence " to sanctify it ; hence it is less worthy of costly 
fiferings. 

533 



PLATO 

OVTO^' Tcp fi,€V Bt] TOV /XeyLCTTOV TlfjL7]/J,aT0<i 669 

TT}v irdaav Ta<pi]v avaXiaKo/xeva /xi] TrXeov irevre 
fivMv, Tft) 8e TOV SevTepov Tp€i<; fxval, koX 8vo 
TO) TOV rpirov, fiva he t5) tov reTcipTOV /xerpov 
av €^01 Twv dvaXfOfiaTcov. vo/xo(f)v\a^t Se iroWd 
re dXXa dvdyKT] irpdrTeiv Kal ttoWcov iiri- 
E ixeXeladai, tovtcov 8' ov^ ijKiara, ottco^ dv 
TralScov re koL dvSpcov kuI irdar)^ r)\iKLa<; iirc- 
fieXovfievot, ^coar koI Btj kol tt/jo? to TeXa 
diravTOiv vofx,o(f)v\a^ el? <ye rt? iiricrTaTf}, ov dv 
ol TOV TeTeXevTrjKOTo^; eirlaKoirov oIkcioi Trapa- 
Xd^foacv, w KaXov r ecrra) KaXoi<i koX fierplio^ 
rd irepl tov TereXevTtjKOTa yiyvo/neva koI /mt} 
«:a\G)9 al(T)(p6v. TrpoOetTi^ he koI ToXXa eaTO) 
fiev Kara rov rrepl tu toluvtu vofjuov yiyvop^eva, 
Tft) he ttoXltikS) vofiw vofioOerovvTi 'n-apa')(a)pelv 
')(^prj Ta TOidhe' Aa/cpveiv fiev tov TeTeXevTrjKora 
960 iircTaTreiv rj fxr) d/xop(f)ov, Oprjvelv he Kal e^co 
Tr]<t ot«m? (f)(ovr}V i^ayyeXXetv dirayopeveiv, Kal 
rov veKpov eU to (f>avepov Trpodyeiv tmv 6ha)v 
KdiXveiv, Kal ev raU 6hol<; iropevo/xevov (f)6ey- 
yecrdai, Kal irpo r}p,epa<; e^co t?}? 7roXeft)9 elvai. 
ravra hrj Keiadu) re ovt(o irepl rd rotavra 
vofMifia, Kal 6 fiev 7ret66fX€vo<; earto ^i]fiLa<; eKr6<i, 
6 he diretOcov evl rcov vofio(}>vXdK(ov viro iravrcov 
B ^rj/jLiovcrdo) rfj ho^dcrr) irdai Kotvfj ^Yjpbia, oaai 
S' dXXai yiyvovrai rrepl TeXevT)]aavTa^ ra<f)al 
534 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

An expenditure on the whole funeral not exceeding 
five minas for a man of the highest property- 
class, three minas for one of the second class, 
two for one of the third, and one mina for one 
of the fourth class, shall be held to be moderate 
amounts. The Law-wardens must of necessity- 
perform many other duties and supervise many- 
other matters, but by no means the least of their 
duties is to live keeping a constant watch over 
children and men and people of every age ; and 
at the end of his life above all everyone must have 
some one Law-warden to take charge of him — that 
one who is called in as overseer by the relatives 
of the dead man ; and it shall stand to his credit 
if the arrangements about the dead man are 
carried out in a proper and moderate way, but if 
improperly, to his discredit. The laying-out of 
the corpse and the other arrangements shall be 
carried out in accordance with the custom concern- 
ing such matters, but it is right that custom should 
give way to the following regulations of State 
law : — Either to ordain or to prohibit weeping for 
the dead is unseemly, but we shall forbid loud 
mourning and lamentation outside the house, and 
we shall prohibit the carrjing out of the dead on 
to the open roads and making lamentation while 
he is borne through the streets, and the funeral 
party must be outside the city-bounds before day- 
break. These shall be the legal regulations re- 
garding such matters : he that obeys them shall 
be free from penalty, but he that disobeys a single 
one of the Law- wardens shall be penalized by them 
all with the penalty adjudged by all in common. 
All other interments of the dead, or disposal of 

535 



PLATO 

eiVe Kai aTaj)OL irpd^ei<;, irepl irarpo^ovwv koL 
lepoavXwv kul rSiv toiovtwv ttuvtcov, elptjfievai 
iv Tol<; efiTrpoadev Kelvrai hia vofiwv, ware ayehov 
7) vofiodeaia reXo? av rjixlv e^ot. tS)v 'rrdvrwv 
8' eKaaTore reXo? ov to hpaaai ti a'^^eBov ovBe 
TO KTTjaaaOai, KaroiKLaai r iariv, aXka rS> 
yevvijSevTC awrripiav i^evpovTa TeXe«i>9 del tot' 
ijhr] vofMi^eiv irdv oaov eBei irpaxdrivai ireTrpa'xdat,, 
irpoTepov S' areXe? elvai to 6\ov. 

KA. KaXw?, (w ^€ve, Xeyefi' irpb^ 6 ti Se to 
vvv av pT]Oev ecprjTui, (f>pd^' €ti aa^eaTepov. 

A0. n KXeivia, TroXXd toov efiirpoaOev KaKSi<i 
vp,vr]Tai, (TXeBov Be ov^ rjKiaTa to. twv Moipcov 
TrpoaprjpaTa. 

KA. UoLa B^ ; 

A0. To Adxecriv fxev ttjv TrpdiTrjv ehai, KXcodo) 
Be TTjv BevTepav, ttjv "ATpoirov Be TpiTrjv (TWTeipav, 
[twv \ex0€VTQ)v, aTTeiKacTfieva t^] ^ tS)v Kkwcrdev- 
TOOV tG) Kvpei TT]p d/jLCTdaTpo^ov dTTepya^op,ev7]v ^ 
^ Bvpafiiv. ^v^ Bt} Kol TToXei koX iro\iTai,<i^ Bel 
./XT) /J.OVOV iiyieiav Koi awTrjpiav Toi<i aoo/jLaai irapa- 
aKeva^eiv, dWa kuI evvopbiav iv Tal<} yfrvxac<;, 
fidWov Be (TcoTTjplav toov vo/xcov. ripuv 8' eTt, /xoi 
^aivecrOai BokcI tovt eWecirov T0i<i v6jxol<; elvai, 
TTcb^; XPV '^h^ d/xeTaaTpocfiov avToh eyyiyveaOai, 

KUTCi ^V(TLV BvvafltV. 

^ [ruv \ex6fVTwv, oTrei/cair^eVa tt?] I bracket, and for irvpi, 
I read Kvpei (for t^ irvpi, Herin. ei^ aan-qpU, alii alia). 
- airfpyaCofievriv Schmidt, Stallb. : air(pya(ou(vwy MSS. 

* ^v Ast : & MSS. 

* iroklrats : iroXireia MSS., add. (TroA/rau /col voXlTifft 
Badh. ) 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

corpses without interment in the cases of parricides, 
temple-robbers, and all such criminals, — have been 
previously ^ dealt with and laid down by law, so 
that our task of legislation has nearly come to an 
end. But in every case, the full end does not 
consist in the doing, gaining or founding of an 
object ; rather our view should be that it is only 
when we have discovered a means of salvation, 
endless and complete, for our creation, that we 
are at length justified in believing that we have 
done all that ought to be done : until then, we 
must believe, the whole of our creation is incomplete. 

CLIN. You say well. Stranger ; but explain to 
us yet more clearly the purport of your last ob- 
servation. 

ATH. O Clinias, many of tlie sayings of old time 
have been nobly uttered, and of these not the least, 
I may say, are the titles given to the Fates. 

cuN. What titles, pray ? 

ATH. That the first of them is Lachesis, the 
second Clotho, and Atropos the saviour-third ^ — she 
that bestows on the dooms ratified by Clotho the 
quality of irreversibility. She it is that must 
furnish also to the State and its citizens, not merely 
health and salvation for their bodies, but also right 
legality in their souls, or rather the salvation of 
the laws. And this, as it seems clear to me, is 
what our laws still lack — namely, a right mode of 
naturally implanting in them this irreversible quality. 

1 Cp. 854 D ff., 873 C f. 

* Cp. lUp. 620 E. Atropos is called "the saviour-third" 
(cp. rh Tpirov ry 2»t5,p«) because she completes the work of 
the other Fates by making the thread of life (doom) spun by 
them irreversible, {fi-rpo-wos = " untumable.") 

537 



PLATO 

KA. Ov (TfjLiKpbv Xeyea, etirep earl [xi-j hvvarov 
6upe.LV OTTrj yiyvoiT av iravrX Krrjfid ri^ [to] 
roiovTOv. 
E A©. Aw ecrri firjv Svvarov, tw? ye /jloi to, vvv 
TTavTaTTaai Kara4>aiveTai. 

KA. Mr/ TOLvvv a(f)LaT(o/ji€6a fiijSevl rpoirfp, 
irplv av rovT avro eKTropicrcofieda Tot<; elpr)p,evoi'i 
v6/jloi<;' yeXolov yap to ye ^drrjv irovrjaavTa 
OTiovv el<; fMrjhev ^e/3acov Kura^aXelv. 

A0. ''Op0o)<; irapaKeXevei, kuI e/xe toiovtov 
€upr}aei<i dWov. 

KA. KaX,ft)? Br] Xeyei<;. rt? ovv Si], 4>r]<i, ao)- 
Tr)p(,a yiyvoiT av kuI rlva rpoirov TroXireta re 
Kal rot's vofioi^ rjfiiv ; 
961 A©. 'A/j' ovK eiTTOfxev on Bel crvWoyov fjixlv 
iv rfj TToXei yiyvecrOac rotovhe rtvd ; SeKa fiev 
rcov vofxo(f)vXdKO)v rov<; irpea^vrdrovi; del, rov^ 
Se rdpiareia elXi]^6ra<i diravra^ Selv et? ravrb 
(TvXXeyecrOai, rovroi^' en he rov<; eKBrjfi7](Tavra<i 
eVl t^rjrrjaiv et rl irov tt/jo? rrjV vofxo<f}vXaKiav 
yiyvoiro ey/caipov aKOvaai, Kai acoOevrw; oiKaSe 
Bo^av rovro ^ avrol<i, Bia^acraviaOevrwi, rod 
^vXXoyov d^LOKOivoivrjrovi elvar rrpo^ rovroi^ 
B Be eva eKacrrov Beiv TrpoaXafx^dveiv ro3v vecov, fir] 
eXarrov r) rpiaKovraeri] yeyovora, rrpwrov Be 
avrov Kpivavra eird^iov etvdi (pvaei Kal rpo(f)rj 
rov veov ovra><i et? roi/^ dXXov^ ela-cpepeiv, Kal edv 
fiev Bo^r) Kal rot? dXXoi.<;, vpocrXafi^dveiv, el Be 

^ Krrjfia rt Burnet : (cTrj/uaTt MSS. ; Kxrifxari rh Zur. , vulg. 
2 5<{|of rovro W.-Mollendorff : dolai rovrois MSS., edd. 

1 Cp. 961 D ffi 

538 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

cux. The point you mention is a serious one, 
if it is really impossible to discover a means whereby 
everything may acquire some such quality. 

ATH. Nay, but it is possible, as I now perceive 
quite clearly. 

CLIN. Then let us by no means desist until we 
have secured this very quality for the laws we have 
stated ; for it would be ridiculous for us to have 
wasted all this labour on an object, and then not 
base it on any firm foundation. 

ATH. You are right in your exhortation, and you 
will find me as ready as yourself to proceed. 

CLIN. Very good. Then what is it you say will 
prove a means of salvation to our polity and its laws, 
and how will it do so r 

ATH. Did we not say^ that we must have in 
our State a synod of the following kind : — The ten 
senior members, at the moment, of the body of 
Law-wardens shall form the synod, in company 
with all who have won the award of merit ; and, 
moreover, those inspectors who have gone abroad "^ 
to discover if they could hear of anything pertinent 
to the safe-keeping of laws, and who, in the belief 
that they have succeeded, have come safely home 
again, shall, after undergoing a searching test, be 
deemed worthy to take part in the synod ? In 
addition to these, every member must bring with 
him one of the young men, not less than thirty 
years old, whom he has first selected as being both 
by nature and training a suitable person ; after 
selecting him, he shall introduce him among the 
members, and if they also approve, he shall keep 
him as a colleague, but if they disapprove, the fact 

» Cp. 951 A fiE. 

539 



PLATO 

jXTj, uTToppijTOV elvat rrjv yejovviav Kplaiv rol<; re 
dWoi^ Si] Kol jxakicTT avrm tw aTTOKpidevrr Seiv 
Se opdpLov elvat rov avWoyov, rjViK av roiv dWfov 
TTpd^ecov IBlcov re kuI koivmv kol p,a\Lar^ rj TL<i 
(T')(^o\r} TTavTL. roiovTov TL 7T0V \e')(dev r)/jitv rjv ev 
C T0t9 e/xTrpoadev X6yoi<; ; 

KA. 'Hi^ yap ovv, 

A0. liOVTOV hrj ire pi rov avWoyov iraXiv dva- 
Xa^oov XeyoifM dv to roiovSe. (prjfii, et rt? 
TOVTOV ^dXoiTO olov dyKvpav 7rda7]<; ri]<; 7roX-ea)<?, 
TrdvTa e^ovaav rd 7rp6a(j)opa eavrfj aco^eiv dv 
^vfMTravra d ^ovXofieda. 

KA. IIw? 8i] ; 

A0. To /JLCTa TOVTO rjfi€Tepo<i dv Kaipo<i ytyvoiro 
opdco^ (ppd^ovra^; fxrjhev diroXeiiTeiv 7rpoOvnta<;. 

KA. Kat fidXa KaX(o<i etTre?, vrotet ^' Mcnrep 
Kal Siavoel. 
D A0. X/3^ rocvvv, (b KXeivia, iravro'i nript 
vorjaai acoTrjpa rov eiKora iv €KdaTOi<; rwv kpycov, 
0)9 iv ^(oo) '^v'X^r] Kal K€(f)aXr) to ^e fxejicrrov 
Tre^vKaTov. 

KA. Jlo)<; av ^779 ; 

A0. 'H Tovroiv dperr] St] ttov iravil 7rap€)(^ei 
fftift) (rcorrjpbav. 

KA. nco9 ; 

A0. "^vxfj f^^v 7rpo9 Tot9 dXXoi<; vov<; iyyiyvo- 
lx€vo<i, Ke(^aXfj 8' av irpo^ roi^ dXXoi<i 6-^L<i Kai 
aKor). ^vXXi]^Bt]v Be iov<; fxerd rcov KaXXiarwv 
aiaOrjaewv KpadeU y€v6fi€v6<i re eh ev awrr^pia 
eKaarcov BiKaioTaT dv e'lrj KoXovfievrj. 



540 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

of his original selection must be concealed from j'^Q 
all the rest, and especially from the person thus 1 ' 
rejected. The synod must meet at an early hour, fi J <^ 
when everyone has his time most free from other ' 
business, private or public. Was it not some such 
organisation as this that we described in our previous 
discourse ? 

CLIN. It was. 

ATH. Resuming, then, the subject of this synod, 
I will say this : — If one were to lay this down as 
an anchor for the whole State, possessing all the 
requisite conditions, — then, I affirm, it would secure 
the salvation of all that we desire. 

CLIN. How so ? 

ATH. Now will be the time for us to display 
no lack of zeal in declaring truly what follows. 

CLIN. Excellently spoken I Proceed as you pro- 
pose. 

ATH. One ought to observe, Clinias, in regard 
to every object, in each of its operations, what 
constitutes its appropriate saviour — as, for example, 
in an animal, the soul and the head are eminently 
such by nature. 

CLIN. How do you mean ? 

ATH. Surely it is the goodness of those parts that 
provides salvation to every animal. 

CLIN. How ? 

ATH. By the existence of reason in the soul, in 
addition to all its other qualities, and by the exist- 
ence of sight and hearing, in addition to all else, in 
the head ; thus, to summarize the matter, it is the 
combination of reason with the finest senses, and 
their union in one, that would most justly be 
termed the salvation of each animal. 

541 



PLATO 

KA. "EoiK€ ^OVV. 

E A0. "Eoi/ce 761/0. aXX,' o Trepl ri vov<; ^ler 
alaOijcrecov Kpadel^i crooTijpLa irXolcov ev ye 'x^eijjicoai 
KOI iv evhiai<i ylyvoiT av ; ap ovk ev vrj'l Kv^ep- 
VJ]Tr]<; afut Koi vavrac ra? alcrdijaei^; tw KV^epvi}- 
TiKw vm avyKepaadfievoL aco^ovaiv aiiTOU'i re koX 
TCL irepX rrjv vavv ; 

KA. Tt fi'^v ; 

A0. OvSev Sr) TToWwv Sel T(ov Trepl ra roiavra 
TrapaSeiyp-aTCOp, d\7C olov Trepl arpaTOTreBcov 
voi]cr(i)fJ,ev <r} aaifidT(ov>,^ riva de/Mevoi arpaTrjyol 
(XKoirov Koi laTpiKT) vTrrjpeaia irdaa aro')(^d^oir 
962 av T^9 cra)Trjpia<i 6p6cb<i.^ dp* ov^ V f^^^ viktjv koI 
KpdTO<i TToXefMioyv, rj Be larpwv re koI v'nr}peroiv 
vyieiwi crcofjiari TrapacTKevrjV ; 

KA. ITw? yap ov ; 

A0. 'IaT/309 Brj TO Trepl acofia dyvocov, b Trpo- 
aeiTTO/xev vyieiav vvv, rj viKtjv arpaTTjyb^ rj rwv 
dWcov ocra 8r) Bii]\Oo/xev, ead' oTTco'i av vovv TvepL 
Ti TOVTcov av e)(^(ov (f)aivoiTO ; 

KA. Kai TTW? ; 

A0. Tt he Zrj Trepl ttoXiv ; et Tt9 rov (tkottov ol 

^XeTreiv Bel rov ttoXltckov <f)aLvocTO dyvocov, apa 

dp-)(^cov fxev TTpwrov BLKat(o<; av TrpoaayopevoiTo, 

B eiTa ado^eiv av BvvaTO^; etrj rovTO ov tov (tkottov 

TO TTapdTrav firjB^ elBeirj ; 

KA. Kat 7r(M9 ; 

A0. Aet Br) KoX TO. vvv, eo? eoiKev, eiTrep /xeWei 

^ (^rj fftofxaTuyy I add (Baiter adds koI vScrwv after 
ffTpaToireSuv). 

* opdais is assigned by Zur. and most edd. (except Burnet) 
to Clin. 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

CLIN. That is certainly probable. 

ATH. It is probable. But what kind of reason is 
it which, when combined with senses, will afford 
salvation to ships in stormy weather and calm ? On 
shipboard is it not the pilot and the sailors who, by 
combining the senses with the pilot reason, secure 
salvation both for themselves and for all that belongs 
to the ship ? 

cuN. Of course. 

ATH. There is no need of many examples to illus- 
trate this. Consider, for instance, what would be the 
right mark for a general to set up to shoot at in the 
case of an army, or the medical jDrofession in the case 
of a human body, if they were aiming at salvation. 
Would not the former make victory his mark, and 
mastery over the enemy, while that of the doctors 
and their assistants would be the providing of health 
to the body } 

CLIN. Certainly. 

ATH. But if a doctor were ignorant of that bodily 
condition which we have now called " health," or a 
general ignorant of victory, or any of the other 
matters we have mentioned, could he possibly be 
thought to possess reason about any of these things ? 

CLIN. How could he ? 

ATH. What, now, shall we say about a State ? 
If a man were to be plainlv ignorant as regards 
the political mark to be aimed at, would he, first of 
all, deserve the title of magistrate, and, secondly, 
would he be able to secure the salvation of that 
object concerning the aim of which he knows 
nothing at all ? 

CLIN. How could he ? 

ATH. So now, in our present case, if our settle- 

543 



PLATO 

reXo^ o KaTOCKt(Tfi,o<i t% ^(opa^ ri/j,ip e^eiv, elvai 
TL TO f^iyvwaKOv ev avrS) irpcoTOV jxev tovto o 
Xeyofiep, rov (tkottov, 6o-ri<; irore o ttoXltiko'; mv 
rj/jbip rvy)(^dv€i, eirena ovriva rpoirov Set fiera- 
crj^elv TOVTOV koX ti? aura) Kd\(b<; rj fir) crv/x^ov- 
Xevet TOiv vopoav avrtov irpcoTOV, eVetra avOpwircov. 
el 5' earai rov roiovrov Kevrj tl<; iroXi^, ovBev 
C 6 av jxaarov avov<i ovaa koX avaiaOrjTOS el irpd^ei 
TO Trpoarvx^ov eKcicrroTe ev eKd(TTai<; twv irpd^ewv. 

KA. AXrjdrj Xeyei'i. 

A0. "Nvv ovv rjplv ev tlvl ttotc tmv Trj<; rroXeco^ 
fiepMv 7] eirLTrjhevfidTUiv earlv Ikuvov /caTcaKevacr- 
fjbevov OTiovv TOiovTOV (f)vXaKTr]pi,ov ; e^ofxev 
(f)pd^eiv ; 

KA. Ov SrJTa, M ^eve, cra^w? <ye' el S" ovv 
TOird^eiv Sec, SoKei fiot Tclveiv 6 X670? ovto<; eh 
Tov avXXoyov ov etTre? vvv St) vv/CTcop Selv ^vvievai. 
D A0. KaA-XfO"^' vTreXa^e<i, o) KXeivia, kcu hel 
8r) TOVTOV, 609 o vvv irapeaTrjKco'i tj/jlIv X6<yo<i 
/j,r)vvei, irdaav dpCTrjv e^eiv r)<; dp^ei to /xtj 
nrXavdadaL 7rpo<; TroXXd aTO'^^a^opuevov, afOC elf 
ev ^XenovTa tt/jo? tovto del tu TrdvTa olov ^eXrj 
d(f)ievai. 

KA. UavTUTTacn pbev ovv. 

A0. Nuj; hrj p,a0r)(r6pe0a otl davpaaTov ouSev 
irXavdaOac to, tmv iroXeoiv vopipa, on 7rp6<i aXXo 
dXXr] ^Xerrei tcov vopoOeaitov ev ttj jroXei exdaTrj. 
Kal TO, pev TToXXd ovSev davpaaTov to rot? pev 
E TOV opov elvat tmv BiKaicov, otto)? dp^oval TU'€<i 
iv Ty TToXei, eiT civ ^€XtIov<; etVe '^eipov'i 

1 Cp. 705 E, 934 B. 

544 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

ment of the country is to be finally completed, there 
must, it would seem, exist in it some element which 
knows, in the first place, what that political aim, of 
which we are speaking, really is, and, secondly, in 
what manner it may attain this aim, and which of the 
laws, in the first instance, and secondly of men, gives 
it good counsel or bad. But if any State is destitute 
of such an element, it will not be surprising if, being 
thus void of reason and void of sense, it acts at hap- 
hazard always in all its actions. 

CLIN. Very true. 

ATH, In which, then, of the parts or institutions 
of our State have we now got anything so framed as 
to prove an adequate safeguard of this kind ? Can 
we answer that question ? 

CLIN. No, Stranger ; at least, not clearly. But if 
I must make a guess, it seems to me that this 
discourse of yours is leading up to that synod which 
has to meet at night, as you said just now. 

ATH, An excellent reply, Clinias I And, as our 
present discourse shows, this synod must possess 
every virtue ; and the prime virtue is not to keep 
shifting its aim among a number of objects,^ but to 
concentrate its gaze always on one particular mark, 
and at that one mark to shoot, as it were, all its 
arrows continually. 

CLIN. Most certainly. 

ATH, So now we shall understand that it is by no 
means surprising if the legal customs in States 
keep shifting, seeing that different parts of the codes 
in each State look in different directions. And, in 
general, it is not surprising that, with some states- 
men, the aim of justice is to enable a certain class of 
people to rule in the State (whether they be really 

545 



PLATO 

TVy')(^dvovaiv 6vt€<;' rot? B\ oirco^ ifKovrrjcrovcnv, 
etT ovv BovXoi tivcov ovre^ ehe koX fir]' tcop 8' r/ 
TTpoOvfila 7r/J09 70V iXevOepov Srj ^iov <hp/xr]/x€vr)' 
01 he Kol ^vvhvo vofiodeTovvrai, tt/jo? dfi<f)a) 
^\€7rovre<;, iXevOepoi re ottoo^; aWmv re iroXecov 
eaovrai hecnroTai' ol he ao(f)(OTaTOt, co? otovrai, 
TTpo^ TUVTo. re Kul TO, Toiaura ^vp,7ravTa, ei9 €V 
he <ov,>^ ovhev hLa(f)€p6vra)<; jeTiprjpevov e)(0VTe^ 
(f)pd^eiv et9 raXX' avrot<; hel fiXeTrecv. 
963 KA. Ov/covv TO 7' rifierepov, & ^eve, 6p6w<i av 
etr] irdXai ridepevov ; tt/jo? yap eu ecpapev helv 
del irdvd' rjfilv to, tmv vofioov ^Xe-novr elvai, 
TovTO S' dpeTrjv TTOV ^vve)(^copov/jL€v irdvv opdoi'i 
XeyeaOai. 

A@. Nai. 

KA. Trjv hi ye dperrjv rerrapa edefiev ttov. 

A0. Yldvv p,ev ovv. 

KA. NoOi' he ye Trdvrcov tovtcov riyep,6va, 7rpo9 
ov hrj rd re dXXa irdvTa Kal rovreov ra rpia heiv 
fiXerreiv. 

A®. KdXXiar i'rraKoXovdel';, oi KXeivia. /cal 
ra Xonra he ^uvaKoXovSei. vovv yap hrj kv- 
^epvrjriKov /J-ev Kal larpiKov Kal arparrjyiKov 
B etirofiev et? to ev eKelvo ol hel ^Xerreiv, rov he 
TToXiriKov eXey)i^ovre<; ivravd^ eapev vvv, Kal 
KaOdirep avOpwirov eiravepatroivref; etiTOLp,ev dv, 
n Oavfidaie, av he hrj rrol cr/coTret? ; rl rror 

^ '(oC,^ added by Stephens, H. Richards. 

1 Cp. 630 E flf. 
546 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

superior, or inferior), while with others the aim is 
how to acquire wealth (whether or not they be 
somebody's slaves) ; and others again direct their 
efforts to winning a life of freedom. Still others 
make two objects at once the joint aim of their 
legislation, — namely, the gaining of freedom for 
themselves, and mastery over other States ; while 
those who are the wisest of all, in their own conceit, 
aim not at one only, but at the sum total of these 
and the like objects, since they are unable to 
specify any one object of pre-eminent value towards 
which they would desire all else to be directed. 

CLIN. Then, Stranger, was not the view we stated 
long ago the right one ? We said ^ that all our 
laws must always aim at one single object, which, as 
we agreed, is quite rightly named " virtue." 
ATM. Yes. 

CLIN. And we stated that virtue consists of four 
things. 

ATH. Certainly. 

cuN. And that the chief of all the four is reason,' 
at which the other three, as well as everything else, 
should aim. 

ATH. You follow us admirably, Clinias ; and now 
follow us in what comes next. In the case of the 
pilot, the doctor, and the general, reason is directed, 
as we said, towards the one object of aim which is 
proper in each case ; and now we are at the point of 
examining reason in the case of a statesman, and, 
addressing it as a man, we shall question it thus : — 
" O admirable sir, what is your aim ? Medical reason 

* Cp. 631 C ff. : "reason" (or "wisdom") as the most 
"divine" stands first, the others being temperance, justice 
and coarage. 

547 

N N 2 



PLATO 

iKelvo icrri to eV, o hrj (Ta(f)co<i 6 jxev laTpiKo<; vov<i 
e;^et (jypd^eiv cru S" oov Sij Siacjiepoov, co<; (pai,ri<; av, 
•ndvTwv Tcov ejx^povwv, ou^ e^ei<i elirelv ; *H av 
<ye, MeyiWe koL KXecvla, ej^erov BiapOpovvre'i 
virep avrov (ppd^eiv Trpo^ ip,6 rt Trore (pare elvai 
C rovTO, KaOdirep virep dWcov iyo) 7rpo<; v/xd<; 
av')(yoiv Btcopi^ofMrjv ; 

KA. OvhajJbOiq, 0) ^ev€. 

A0. Tt 8' ; OTi Set TTpodvfieicrdaL re ^vviSecu 
avTO Kol ev ol? ; 

KA. Olov ev TicL \€jei<i ; 

A0. Olov ore reTTapa i(f)7]a-afi€v dperrj^; etSt] 
ryeyovevac, 8i]\ov 0)9 ev eKaarov dvdyKr) ^dvai, 
rerrdpMv ye ovtwv. 

KA. Tt /JL7]V ; 

A0. Kal firjv ev ye a-navra raura irpoaayo- 

pevojiev. dvBpcav ydp (f)afiev dperrjv elvai, Koi 

D rifv (^povqaiv dperrji', kol to, Bvo raWa, a)? 

oVto)? ovra ov TroWa dW ev rouro fiovov, apenjv. 

KA. HdvV fJLtV ovv. 

A&. *Ht fjiev Toivvv Biacf^epeTov avjoiv rovro) 
Tct) Bvo Kol Bv' ovofiara eXa^erTjv kui rdWa, 
ovBev ')(a\e'irov elirelv y Be ev d/ji(J)olv iircovo- 
fidaafiev dperrjv Koi rol<i d\\oi<;, ovk evrrere^ en. 

KA. IIw? \eyei<i ; 

A0. OvBev ')(a\eTrov o ye \ey(ii BrjXcocrai. Bia- 
veifxto/xeOa ydp dWj]\oi<i rrjv epcorrjcriv Koi 
diroKpiaiv. 

KA. lift)? ai) ^/oa^ei? ; 
E A0. ^Epconja-ov fxe ri irore ev rrpoaayopevovre<; 

1 Cp. 893 A. 
548 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

is able to state clearly the one single object at which 
it aims ; so will you be unable to state your one 
object — you who are superior, as perhaps you will 
say, to all the wise ? " Can you two, Megillus and 
Clinias, define that object on his behalf, and tell me 
what you say it is, just as I, on behalf of many 
others, defined their objects for you ? 

CLIN. We are totally unable to do so. 

ATH. Well then, can you declare that we need 
zeal in discerning both the object itself as a whole 
and the forms it assumes ? 

CLIN. Illustrate what you mean by " the forms " 
you speak of. 

ATH. For example, when we said that there are 
four forms of virtue, obviously, since there are four, 
we must assert that each is a separate one. 

CLIN. Certainly. 

ATH. And yet we call them all by one name : we 
assert that courage is virtue, and wisdom virtue, and 
the other two likewise, as though they were really 
not a plurality, but solely this one thing — virtue. 

CLIN. Very true. 

ATH. Now it is not hard to explain wherein 
these two (and the rest) differ from one another, 
and how they have got two names ; but to exj^lain 
why we have given the one name " virtue " to both 
of them (and to the rest) is no longer an easy 
matter. 

CLIN. How do you mean } 

ATH. It is not hard to make clear my meaning. 
Let one of us adopt the role of questioner, the other 
of answerer.^ 

CLIN. In what way } 

ATH. Do you ask me this question — why, when 

549 



PLATO 

aperr]v afi(f)OTepa Bvo iraXtv avra Trpoaeiiro/xev, 
TO /xev avhplav, to hi (jjpovijcnv. ipSa 'yap aoi ttjv 
a It Lav, OTi to p.ev eaTi vepl <^o^ov, ov Kal to, 
Orjpia /x€T€')(€t' T^? dvSpia<; Kal to. ye tcov TralBcov 
rjOrj Tcov TTCLvv vicov avev yap \6yov Kal (pucret 
yiyveTai avhpeia "^VXV' ^vev he av \6yov '^v)(r) 
<f>povi/jL6^ re Kal vovv e^ovaa out'. iyevcTo TrcoTroTe 
ovT eaTtv ovh' avOi'i vroTe y€VJ]a€Tai, co? 6vto<; 
eTepov. 

KA. ^A\r)Or] \€y€l<;. 
964 A0. *Ht fjL€V Toivvv iaTov hia(f)6pQ) Kal hvo, 
(TV Trap ifiov aTreiXrj^a'i tm Xoyo)' rj he ev Kal 
TavTov, ai) irakiv airoho'i i/noL hiavoov he o)? 
ipwv Kal OTTT} TCTTapa oina ev iaTi, xal efxe he 
d^iov, aov hei^avTO^ co? ev, TvaXiv oirr} T€TTapa. 
Kal hi] TO fieTa tovto cTKOTrcofiev tov elhoTa 
iKavoi<i irepl covtipcovovv, oI? ea-Tl /xev ovofia, eaTc 
he av Kal X0709, iroTepov povov eiriaTaadai 
Tovvo/xa ')^p€a)V, tov he \6yov dyvoelv, rj tov ye 
ovTa Ti Kal irepl tcov hia(f)ep6vTwv p^eyedei t€ koi 
B KciWec irdvTa to, TOiavTa dyvoelv alcrxpov. 

KA. "EoiKe yovv. 

A0. Mei^oi/ hi] Ti vopLodeTT) t€ Kal vop,o<f)vXaKt. 
Kal 09 dpeTT] TrdvTcov hiacpepeiv oieTai Kal vikt)- 
T^pia TovTcov avTwv ei\')j(pev, rj TavTa avTa irepX 
(av vvv Xiyofiev, dvhpia, accxppoavvrj, hiKaioavvt], 
(f)p6vr]ac<; ; 

KA. Kal TTw? ; 

A0. TovT(ov hrj TTepi Tov<i e^T)yr)T(i<;, tov<; hi- 



Cp. Laches 196 D flf., Prolog. 349 B ff. 



550 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

calling both the two by the single name of "virtue," 
did we again speak of them as two — courage and 
wisdom ? Then I shall tell you the reason, — which 
is, that the one of them has to do with fear, namely 
courage,^ in which beasts also share, and the cha- 
racters of ver}' young children ; for a courageous soul 
comes into existence naturally and without reason- 
ing, but without reasoning there never yet came into 
existence, and there does not nor ever will exist, a 
soul that is wise and rational, it being a distinct kind. 

CLix. That is true. 

ATH. Wherein they differ and are two you have 
now learnt from my reply. So do you, in turn, 
inform me how it is that they are one and identical. 
Imagine you are also going to tell me how it is that, 
though four, they are yet one ; and then, after 
you have shown me how they are one, do vou again 
ask me how they are four. And after that, let us 
enquire regarding the person who has full knowledge 
of any objects which possess both a name and a 
definition, whether he ought to know the name only, 
and not know the definition, or whether it is not a 
shameful thing for a man worth anything to be 
ignorant of all these points in regard to matters of 
surpassing beauty and importance. 

CLIN. It would certainly seem to be so. 

ATH. For the lawgiver and the Law-warden, and 
for him who thinks he surpasses all men in virtue 
and who has won prizes for just such qualities, is 
there anything more important than these very 
qualities with which we are now dealing — courage, 
temperance, justice, and wisdom? 

CLIN. Impossible. 

ATH. In regard to these matters, is it not right 

551 



PLATO 

Ba<TKd\ov<;, Tov<i vofiodha^, rwv dWwv rov<; 
^vXa/ca^, Tft) heoixevw r^vSivai re Kal elSivac rj 
tS> Seofieva KoXd^ecrdal re Kal iir Lirkrj^ai, djxap- 
C ravovTL, TTOTepop ov Set SiBdaKovra fjv hvvafiiv 
e%6t KaKia re kcli dperr) Kal irdvrwi hrjXovvTa 
Bia(f)epeiv tcov dWcov, d\X* rj 7roL7]T7]v riva 
eXdovra et? rrjv ttoXiv rj TraiBevTrjv vewv (f)daK0VT 
eivai /3eX,Tt&) (j^alveaOaL rov iraaav dperrjv vevcKi]- 
KOTO<i ; elra iv rfj roiavTrj iroXec oirov firj Xoyqy 
epyo) re iKavol cf)vXaK€<i elev, dpeTrj<i irepi 'yi'^vdi- 
a-KOVTe<i lKavSi<i, davfiaaTov tc ravri^v Trjv iroXiv 
d(f)vXaKTov ovaav Trdax^tv a voXXal 7rd(T)(ovai 
D Twv vvv TToXeiov ; 

KA. Ovhev <ye, cu? cIko^. 

A0. Tt ovv ; Xiyofiev vvv, Troirjreov rjpZv, r) 
TTcii"? ; Tou? ^vXaKas aKpi^earepov^ Tcbv iroXXolyv 
irepl dpe'Trj<i epjM Kal Xoyw KaraaKevaareov ; rj 
Tiva rpoTTOv rfj tcov €/ji(f)p6vcov K€(paXfj re Kal 
alaOijaeaiv OfxaicodTjcrerai r]ixiv rj 7r6Xi<;, &>? 
TOiavTTjv Tiva (f)vXaKT]v KeKTrj/xevrj iv avrrj ; 

KA. Hco<i ovv St] Kal riva rporrov, co ^eve, 
a7reiKd^ovT€<i avro roiovrw rivl Xiyofiev ; 
E A0. AijXov 0)9 avrij^ jxev rrj<i iroXecoq ovctt]^ 
rov Kvrov<;, roiv Be (f)vXdK(ov tol'9 fiev veov<i olov 
€v uKpa Kopv(f)r] d7reiX€yfievov<; ^ rov<i ev(f)veard- 
T0U9 o^vrrjra'i ev rrdaij rfj '^VXV ^X^^'^^'^ irepl 
bXr]v kvkXw rrjv ttoXiv opav, ^povpovvra<i Be 
TrapaBiBovai /J,ev Ta9 al(Tdrja€L<i rai^ fxvrjfjiai<i, T0t9 
7rpea^vrepoi<; Be e^a<yyeXov<: yiyveaOai rrdvrwv 
965 rwv Kara iroXiv, rov<; Be v5> drreiKaafievov^ rw 

^ aweiAfyi^efovs MSS. : aireiArjufiiyovi MSS. marg., Zur., 
vulg. 

552 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

'•\that the interpreters, the teachers, the lawgivers, as 
the wardens of the rest, in dealing with him that 
requires knowledge and information, or with him 
that requires punishment and reproof for his sin, 
should excel all others in the art of instructing him 
in the quality of vice and virtue and exhibiting it 
fully ? Or is some poet who comes into the State, 
or one who calls himself a trainer of youth, to be 
accounted evidently superior to him that has won 
prizes for all the virtues ? In a State like that, 
where there are no wardens who are competent both 
in word and deed, and possessed of a competent 
knowledge of virtue, — is it surprising, I ask, if such 
a State, all unwarded as it is, suffers the same fate as 
do many of the States which exist to-day ? 

CLIN. Not at all, I should say. 

ATH. Well then, must we do what we now pro- 
pose, or what.^ Must we contrive how our wardens 
shall have a more accurate grasp of virtue, both in 
word and deed, than the majority of men ? For 
otherwise, how shall our State resemble a wise man's 
head and senses, on the ground that it possesses 
within itself a similar kind of wardenship ? 

CLIN. What is this resemblance we speak of, and 
wherein does it consist ? 

ATH. Evidently we are comparing the State itself 
to the skull ; and, of the wardens, the younger ones, 
who are selected as the most intelligent and nimble 
in every part of their souls, are set, as it were, like 
the eyes, in the top of the head, and survey the 
State all round ; and as they watch, they pass on 
their perceptions to the organs of memory, — that is, 
they report to the elder wardens all that goes on in 
the State, — while the old men, who are likened to 

553 



PLATO 

TToWa Koi a^ia Xoyov hia^ep6vT03<i ^povelv, toi"? 
yepovra^, ^ovXeveadai, koL v7n]p€Tai<; ')(p(o p,evov<i 
fiera ^VfJLJ3ov\ia<i toi^ veoi^, ovrco Br) KOivfj aoj^eiv 
afi,<f)OT€pov<; 6vT(0<i ttjp ttoXiv oXrjv. irorepov ovtw 
Xiyofxev, i] ttw? aX-Xw? Belv KaTaaKevd^eadai ; 
fioiv ofioLov; 7rdvTa<i KeKTrjfievrju ^ Kal fir) Birj- 
Kpi^(o/xev(a<; ecmv 01)9 rpa<pivTa^ re kuI ire-nai- 
Bevfievov; ; 

KA. 'AXX', oi dav/idcne, dBurarov. 

A©. ^Iriov dpa eVt riva aKpi^earepav iraiBelav 
Tij<; ejJLTTpocrdev. 

B KA. "lo-Q)?. 

A0. 'Ayo' ovv rj<i Brj vvv a')(eBov e(f>r]yp-dfie6a, 
Tuy^dvoi av ovaa J79 '^pelav e')(^o/x€V avrrj ; 

KA. Tlavrdiracn jiev ovv- 

A0. OvKovv eXeyo/jiev rov ye irpo'i eKaaja 
UKpov BrjixLovpyov re kcu (f>vXaKa p,T} fxovov Belv 
Trpo'i TO, TToXXa ^Xeneiv Bvvarov elvai, irpo^ Be to 
ev eTreiyeadai, yvwvai re koX yvovra 7rpo<i CKelvo 
avvrd^aadai Trdvra ^vvopSivra ; 

KA. 'Op^W9. 

C A0. 'A/j' ovv aKpi^earepa aKe-\jn<; dea t av 
irepX OTovovv orwovv yiyvoiTO rj to tt/so? /jlluv 
ISeav eK twv TToXXoiv koX dvo/jLoicov Bvvutov eivai 
^Xeireiv ; 

KA. ''laco<i<ov>.^ 

1 Ke«T77jue'»'7)j' W.-MoUendorfiF : Ke/crrjjueVoui MSS., edd. 

2 <o«;> I add. 

1 962 E, 963 B flf. ^ Cp. 903 C, D, 961 E. 

3 Cp. Eep. 537 B ff., where the "dialectic" method is 

554 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

the reason because of their eminent wisdom in many 
matters of importance, act as counsellors, and make 
use of the young men as ministers and colleagues 
also in their counsels, so that both these classes by 
their co-operation really effect the salvation of the 
whole State. Is this the way, or ought we to contrive 
some other? Should the State, do you think, have 
all its members equal, instead of having some more 
highly trained and educated ? 

CLIN. Nay, my good sir, that were impossible. 

ATH. We must proceed, then, to expound a type 
of education that is higher than the one previously 
described. 

CLIN. I suppose so, 

ATH. Will the type which we hinted at just now * 
prove to be that which we require ? 

CLIN. Certainly, 

ATH. Did we not say ^ that he who is a first-class 
craftsman or warden, in any department, must not 
only be able to pay regard to the many, but must 
be able also to press towards the One ^ so as to dis- 
cern it and, on discerning it, to survey and organise 
all the rest with a single eye to it ? 

ci.iN. Quite right. 

ATH. Can any man get an accurate vision and 
view of any object better than by being able to 
look from the many and dissimilar to the one 
unifying form ? 

CLIN. Probably not. 

described as a kind of induction {(rvvayaiyrt) whereby the 
mind ascends from " the many " particulars to "the one" 
universal concept or " idea " : a comprehensive view ^avvcnpis) 
of the whole is what marks the dialectician {6 awoicriKhs 

bia\fKTlK6s). 

555 



PLATO 

A0. OvK f'(j&)9, aXV ovrwf;, w Saifiovie, ravrr)^ 
ovK eari aacfiearepa fxeOoho^; avOpcoircov ovSevi. 

KA. Xol TTiarevcov, & ^eve, avj^oopa) Bij, koX 
ravrrj iropevwixeda Xeyovre'i. 

A0. ^ AvayKuareov dp*, co? eoiKC, koI TOv<i tj}? 
6ela<i TToA-treta? r]fxlv cf)vXaKa<i aKpL^oi<i Ihelv 
irpwrov rl trore Bia irdvrcov Tojv TeTTcipwv 
D ravTov Tvy')(^dv6i, o Si] cf)a/jL€v ev re dvBpca kuI 
aco(f)pocrvvT) koX SiKaiocrvvr) /cal iv (^povqaei. ev ov 
dpeTijV kvL StKaico<; dv ovofxari TrpoaayopeveaOai. 
TOVTO, Si (f)l\oi, el pev ^ovXopeOa, ra vvv olovirep 
(T(f)6Bpa TrtiaavTS^ p,r) dvcop^ev, irplv dv iKav(o<i 
ecTTcopev ri ttot iariv, eh o ^XeirreoVy etre eo? ev 
etre to? oXov eXre dp,(f>or€pa elVe ottci)? Trore ire^v- 
Kev. rj TOVTOV Biacfivyovra r]pd<i olopedd irore 
r)piv iKavM^ e^eiv rd, tt/oo? dper-qv, irepl 779 ovre 
el TToWd ear ovt el rerrapa ovd^ 0)9 ev hwarol 
E (fipd^eiv ecropLeOa ; ovkovv idv ye rjplv ^vp^ov\ot<i 
ireiOcopeda, dpS)^ ye iroi'i p^rj^^^avrjaSpeda ev tj} 
TToXet eyyeyovevai rovO^ rjplv el S' dpa to irapd- 
irav hoKel eav, idv Stj ^ •^pecov. 

KA. "HKiaTtt, vrj rov ^evtov, w ^eve, 6e6v, 
eareov irov to toiovtov, eirel 8oKei<; rjpcv 6p6o- 
Tara Xeyetv. dXXd B?) 7rw9 Tf9 tovt dv 
prj^avrjaairo ; 
966 A0. Mr^TTftJ TO 7rw9 dv prj^avrjaalpieOa XeyapLCV 
el Set Se rj pui], TrpwTov ^e^aiwacopeOa tj} ^uvo- 
pLoXoyla 7Tpo<; r}p,d<i auTOv<;. 

KA. 'AXXa firjv Sec ye, ecirep SvvaTov. 

^ eqv, 4av 5)) Baiter : iav Spr]i (al. bp7]i) MSS. : iav Zur. 
(eoc, bpav 5Jj Winck., Burnet). 

556 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

ATH. It is certain, my friend, rather than probable, 
tliat no man can possibly have a clearer method than 
this. 

cLi\. I believe you. Stranger, and I assent ; so let 
us employ this method in our subsequent discourse. 

ATH. Naturally we must compel the wardens also 
of our divine polity to observe accurately, in the first 
place, what that identical element is which pervades 
all the four virtues, and which, — since it exists as a 
unity in courage, temperance, justice and wisdom, — 
may justly be called, as we assert, by the single 
name of "virtue." This element, my friends, we 
must now (if we please) hold very tight, and not 
let go until we have adequately explained the 
essential nature of the object to be aimed at — 
whether, that is, it exists by nature as a unity, or 
as a whole, or as both, or in some other way. Else, 
if this eludes us, can we possibly suppose that we 
shall adequately grasp the nature of virtue, when we 
are unable to state whether it is many or four or 
one ? Accordingly, if we follow our own counsel, 
we shall contrive somehow, by hook or by crook, 
that this knowledge shall exist in our State. Should 
we decide, however, to pass it over entirely — pass it 
over we must. 

CLIN. Nay, Stranger, in the name of the Stranger's 
God, we must by no means pass over a matter such 
as this, since what you say seems to us most true. 
But how is this to be contrived ? 

ATH. It is too early to explain how we are to 
contrive it : let us first make sure that we agree 
among ourselves as to whether or not we ought to 
do so. 

CLIN. Well, surely we ought, if we can. 

557 



PLATO 

A0. Tt Bal Bt] ; irepi Kokov re koX ayaOov 
ravTov TOVTo BiavoovfieOa ; a)9 ttoXV iarl fiovov 
[ov] ^ €Kaarov tovtcov, tou? (jivXaKWi rjfuv 
jveoaTeov, rj /cal ottco? ev re Kol otttj ; 

KA. X^eSoi' eoiK i^ avdyKr]<; Beiv Kal otto)? €v 
SiavoelaOai. 
B A0. Tt 8', ipvoeiv fi€V, jr}v he evBei^iv rw \6y(p 
ahvvaretv ivhelKvvcrdaL ; 

KA. Kat 7rw9 ; dpSpuTroBov yap jiva ai) 
\e<yeL<; e^iv. 

A0. Tt Bat ; Trepl ttuvtwv rtov airovBaicov ap* 
^/jUv 6 avTo<; X.0709, otl Bel tou9 ovr(o<i (f>vXaKa<i 
iaofievovi; t(ov vojxwv 6vTo)<i elBevai to, Trepl rrjv 
akrjdeiav avrcov, Kal Xoyw re iKavovq epfirjiieueiv 
eivai Kal T049 epyoi,<i ^vvaKoXovdetv, Kpivovrwi 
TO, re Ka\a)<; yiyvofieva Kal rd firj Kara (f)vaiv ; 

KA. ITw? yap ov ; 
C A0. Meoy ovv ovx €v roi)v KaWiarcov ecril ro 
Trepl Tou? 6eov<;, Br) crTrovBfj Bieirepavapeda, &>? 
elai re Kal oarj^ (palvovrai Kvpioi Bvvdpeco^, 
elBevai re eh oa-ov BvuaTov icrrL Tavr dvdpcoTrov 
yiyvuxTKeiv, Kal roi<i fiev TrXetcTTOt? rmv Kara 
ttoXlv ^vyyiyvo}(T Keiv rrj (p^p^rj povov reap vopcov 
(jwaKoXovOoixTL, T0i9 Be c^vXaKr)^ pede^ovai prjBe 
eTTiTpeTreiv, 09 du pt] BuiTrovijaTjTai to Trdcrav 
TTiaTiv Xa^elv twv ovaiav Trepi ^ deStv ; Trjv Be p,r) 

D iTTLTpOTTTJV clvat TO pLrjBeTTOTe TCOP VOp,0(f)vXdK(OV 

aipei(T0ac rov p,r) Oeiov Kal BiaTreTrovrjKOTa Trpo<; 
aind, p,r)B^ av iSiV 7r/309 dperrjv eyKpiTcov ^ 
ytyveaOai ; 

^ [hv] wanting in MSS. : added by MSS. marg., Zur. 

^ ovaiav Ttfpi : ovauv vfpi MSS., edd. 

' iyKpiTuy L. Dindorf, Herm. : (yKpiTov MSS. 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

ATH. Very well then ; do we hold the same view 
about the fair and the good ? Ought our wardens 
to know only that each of these is a plurality, or 
ought they also to know how and wherein they are 
each a unity ? 

CLIN. It is fairly obvious that they must necessarily 
also discern how these are a unity. 

ATH. Well then, ought they to discern it, but be 
unable to give a verbal demonstration of it ? 

CLIN. Impossible ! The state of mind you describe 
is that of a slave. 

ATH. Well then, do we hold the same view about 
all forms of goodness, that those who are to be real 
wardens of the laws must really know the true 
nature of them, and be capable both of expounding 
it in word and conforming to it in deed, passing 
judgment on fair actions and foul according to their 
real character? 

CLIN. Certainly. 

ATH. And is not one of the fairest things the 
doctrine about the gods, which we expounded 
earnestly,^ — to know both that they exist, and what 
power they manifestly possess, so far as a man is 
capable of learning these matters ; so that while one 
should pardon the mass of the citizens if they merely 
follow the letter of the law, one must exclude from 
office those who are eligible for wardenship, unless 
they labour to grasp all the proofs there are about the 
existence of gods? Such exclusion from office con- 
sists in refusing ever to choose as a Law-warden, or 
to number among those approved for excellence, a 
man who is not divine himself, nor has spent any 
labour over things divine. 

1 In Book X. 

559 



PLATO 

KA. Alkuiop yovv, tu? \e7ef9, top irepl ra 
TOiavra dpjov y) dSvvarov diroKpiveaOai iroppco 

TCiiV KOkSiV. 

A0. 'Apa ovv lafxev on Bv iarov too irepl 
OeMV a<^ovT€. ei9 irlaTiv oaa BnjXOofiev ep rot? 
Trpoadep ; 

KA. Tlola ; 

A0. "Er fxep o irepl ttjp yfrv^VP eXeyofiep, (w? 
E Trpea^vTUTOP re kuI OeioTUTOP iaTt, irdpTcov wp 
KLvrjai<; yepeaip Trapaka^ovaa depaop ovcnap 
eiTopiaep' ep Be to irepl tt]p (f)opdp, co? ex^t 
Ta^eo)?, daTpcop t€ kuI oacop dXKwp i'^KpaTrj'i 
pov<; ecTTi TO Trap BiaKeKocTfirjKca'i. 6 yap IBcbp 
TavTU fjbrj (f>av\(o<; firjS' IBlmtckco^, ovBel<i oi/tco? 
d6eo<i dpdpooTrcop iroTe ire^vKep, 09 ov TOvpavTiop 
eiraOep rj to TrpocrBoKco/jLevop vtto tmp ttoWcop. 
967 ol iiep yap BiapoovPTai tov<; Ta TOiavTa ueTa- 
XetpKyap.ei'ov'^ aaTpopo/xia re Kai rat? /xctu 
TavTr}<; dpayKaLai<i dWai'i Tex^CLC^ ddeov<; ylype- 
adai, KadewpaKOTa^, ai<i otopTUi,^ yiypofieva 
dpdyKai^ irpdyfJiaT dXX! ov BiapoLai<; ^ov\i]creu)<i 
dyadcov irepi, TeXov/xevoyp. 

KA. To Be B?] 7roi<i e^op dp el'r] ; 

A0. Tldp, oirep eliTOP, TovpaPTiOP 6%ef pvp re 
Kal ore d-yjrvxct avTa ol BiaPQOVfiePOi BiepoovPTO. 
davfiuTa fiep ovp /cal Tore v-neBveTO irepu avTu, 
B Kul vTroTTTeveTO TO PVP 6ptco<; BeBoy/xepop, oaoi 
T>)9 dKpi^€ia<i avTCOP tjtttopto, ottco^ /iT/TTor up 
dyp-vxci opTa ovt(o<{ eh d/cpi^eiap 0avfiacrToi<; 

1 otovTui, Madvig, Apelt : oUv re MSS., edd. 

iCp. 893Bff. 2Cp. 898Cff. 

560 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

cLix. It is certainly just, as you say, that the 
man who is idle or incapable in respect of this 
subject should be strictly debarred from the ranks 
of the noble. 

ATH. Are we assured, then, that there are two 
causes, amongst those we previously discussed,^ 
which lead to faith in the gods ? 

ci.ix. What two ? 

ATH. One is our dogma about the soul, — that it 
is the most ancient and divine of all the things 
whose motion, when developed into "becoming," 
provides an ever-flowing fount of "being" ; and the 
other is our dogma concerning the ordering of the 
motion of the stars ^ and all the other bodies under 
the control of reason, which has made a " cosmos " 
of the All. For no man that views these objects in 
no careless or amateurish way has ever proved so 
godless as not to be affected by them in a way just 
the opposite of that which most people expect. For 
they imagine that those who study these objects in 
astronomy and the other necessary allied arts become 
atheists through observing, as they suppose, that all 
things come into being by necessary forces and not 
by the mental energy of the will aiming at the 
fulfilment of good. 

CLIN. What in fact is the real state of the case ? 

ATH. The position at present is, as I said, exactly 
the opposite of what it was when those who con- 
sidered these objects considered them to be soulless. 
Yet even then they were objects of admiration, and 
the conviction which is now actually held was sus- 
pected by all who studied them accurately — namely, 
that if they were soulless, and consequently devoid 
of reason, they could never have employed with such 

561 
VOL. n. o o 



PLATO 

\oyiafj,oi<; av i')(p7]T0, vovv fii-j KeKTij/xeva' Kal 
Tive^ iroXficov tovto ye avro TrapaKivSvveveiv 
Kai Tore, XeyovT€<; &)? vov'i eirj 6 SiaK€fcoa/xt]Ka)<i 
TTavO ocra kut ovpavov. oi he avrol irdXiv 
afiaprd.vovre'i i/ri'^^r}? (f)V(7eo)<;, oti Trpea^inepov 
€17) (Trofidruiv, Biavor)devTe<i Se &)<? vecorepov, 
C airavd w? elirelv eTro^ dverpeyfrav ttoXlv, eavrov<; 
oe iroXv /jidWov' rd yap Trpo to)v ofif^dTcov 
iravra avTOt^ e^dvrj rd kut ovpavov <f)ep6p€va 
fieara elvai \iOa)v Kal yr)^ Kal ttoWmv dWcov 
dyfrv'X^cov crcofidToiv Biavep^ovTcov ra? alrla<; Trarro? 
rov Koa/jLov. ravr yv rd Tore e^epyaad/xeva 
TToWa? dOeoTijTa^ Kal Sucr^e/3eta9 rwv tolovtwv 
dirreaOar Kal Si] Kal Xoi8oprj(rei<; ye eirrjXdov 
TToiijrai^, Toi)^ (f)i\o(TO(f)OuvTa<; kvctI fiaratai^ 
direLKd^ovra^i 'X^pwfxivaiaiv v\aKat<i, dWa re 

D dvorjra elirelv. vvv he, orrep eiprjrai, irdv 
rovvavTiov e)(^ei. 
KA. lift)? ; 

A0. OvK ecrri irore yeveaOai /3e/3at(«9 Oeoae^rj 
dvr]T(ov dvO pcoTrcov ovheva, o? dv p,r) rd Xeyo/xeva 
ravra vvv hvo Xd^rj, y\rv)(rj re &)<? ecm rrpea^vra- 
rov drrdvrmv ocra yovrj<; fieretXrjcpev dOdvarov re 
dpx^i Te hi] crcofidrwv Trdvrwv, eirl he rovroiai hi], 
TO vvv elprjpevov 7roXXdKi<i, rov re r]yr]/j,evov ^ 
ev rot<; darpoL^ vovv roiiv ovrcjov rd re nrpo rovrcov 

E dvayKaia jxadrifiara Xd^rj, rd re Kara rr]v 

^ ■^7?j/u<voj' : fiprifievov MSS. (add atriov after ovruv ci. 
Stallb.) 

* An allusion to the saj-ing of Anaxagoras, "All things 
were together ; then Reason (vovs) came and set them in 

562 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

precision calculations so marvellous ; and even in 
those days there were some who dared to hazard 
the statement^ that reason is the orderer of all that 
is in the heavens. But the same thinkers, through 
mistaking the nature of the soul and conceiving her 
to be posterior, instead of prior, to body, upset again 
(so to say) the whole universe, and most of all them- 
selves ; for as regards the visible objects of sight, all 
that moves in the heavens appeared to them to be 
full of stones, earth and many other soulless bodies 
which dispense the causes of the whole cosmos. These 
were the views which, at that time, caused these 
thinkers to incur many charges of atheism and much 
odium, and which also incited the poets to abuse 
them - by likening philosophers to " dogs howling 
at the moon," with other such senseless slanders. 
But to-day, as we have said, the position is quite 
the reverse. 

GUN. How so ? 

ATH. It is impossible for any mortal man to 
become permanently god-fearing if he does not 
grasp the two truths now stated, — namely, how 
that the soul is oldest of all things that partake 
of generation, and is immortal, and rules over all 
bodies, — and in addition to this, he must also grasp 
that reason which, as we have often affirmed, con- 
trols what exists among the stars, together with the 
necessary preliminary sciences ; ^ and he must observe 

order." But A. ascribed to Reason only the initiation of a 
world-order ; in all other respects his doctrine was material- 
istic, and he nsed purely physical causes and processes in 
explaining the world, regarding the stars as fiery masses of 
matter (" full of earth, stones," etc.). Cp. Fhaedo 97 B S. 

2 Cp. Hep. 607 B, C. 

« Cp. 818 A flF. 



PLATO 

M.ou(7av TOVTOL<i ■ T^? KOLvo)VLa<i crvu6€aadfji6vo<i 
'^pr]cn]Tat irpo^ ra tmv rjOSiv iTrLTrjEevfiara Kal 
vo/xifia avvapjJiOTTovjax;, oaa re \6yov e^ei, 
rovTWv BvvaTo<; y Sovvac top \6yov \oaa re /!■»;]. 
938 Be firj Tav9^ ol6^ t mv tt/jo? ra?? 8r]/xoaLai<; 
dperal'i KeKxr^aOai a')^eSov ap')(wv /xev ovk av 
TTore yevoiTO lKavo<; o\r/9 TroXew?, v7rt]peTT]<; 8' av 
dWoL'; dp^ovaiv. opav Brj %/36cbi/ vvv, w KXeivla 
Kol MeytXKe, i^hrj tt/jo? rol^ elprjfiivoi^ po/xoi'i 
diracTLV ocrov<; SieXrjXvOafxep, el Kal rovrov 
TTpoaoLao/jiev, eo? (f)v\aK7]v iao/xevov Kara vojiov 
Xdpiv cwTrjpiaq rov twv dpyovroiv vvKiepivov 
avKXoyov iraiBela^i oirocrri'i Biekr]\vd ap.ev KOivoivov 
B jevofMevov rj 7r&)9 iroLM/iev ; 

KA. 'AXV, o) Xware, 'rrSi<; ov irpoaoiaofiev, dv 
TTT} Kal Kara ^pa^v BwrjOcofiev ; 

A0. Kai fxrjv TTp6<; ye to tolovtov dfiiXXt]0do/jLev 
irdvTe^. ^uXXrjTTTCop yap rovrov ye v/xlv Kal 
eyoi yiyvoi/j,r]v dv 7Tpo6vfia)<;, tt/jo? S' i/nol Kal 
krepov; t'crco? evprja-w, Bid rrjv irepl rd roiavr 
ifjLTreipiav re Kal aKi-yjriv yey ovvldv [xoi Kal fidXa 
av^yrjv. 

KA. 'AXA,', w ^eve, •navro'i /xev fxdXXov ravrp 
TTopevreov yrrep Kal 6 Oeo<; '^fxd<; (T)(^e8ov dyer rl<i 
Be 6 rpoTTO'i rjpZv ytyv6fievo<i 6p6w<i ylyvoir dv, 
C TOfTt Br] rd vvv XeywyLev re Kal epevvcafxev. 

A0. OvKeri v6/jiov<i, o) ^liyiXXe koI KXeivia, 
rrepl rcov roiovroiv Bvvarov icrrt vo/xodereiv, irplv 
dv KoaiMTjOfj' rore Be Kvplov; mv avrov^ Bel 
yiyveadai vofioOereiv. dXXd i^Bt] to rd roiavra 

1 Cp. Hep. 401 D, 500 D, 531 ff. 
564 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

also the connection therewith of musical theory, and 
apply it harmoniously to the institutions and rules 
of ethics ; ^ and he must be able to give a rational 
explanation of all that admits of rational explanation. 
He that is unable to master these sciences, in ad- 
dition to the popular virtues,^ will never make a 
competent magistrate of the whole State, but only 
a minister to other magistrates. And now, O 
Megillus and Clinias, it is time at last to consider 
whether, in addition to all the previous laws which 
we have stated, we shall add this also — that the 
nocturnal synod of magistrates shall be legally es- 
tablished, and shall participate in all the education 
we have described, to keep ward over the State, 
and to secure its salvation ; or what are we to do? 

cuN. Of course we shall add this law, my ex- 
cellent sir, if we can possibly do so, even to a small 
extent. 

ATM. Then, verily, let us all strive to do so. 
And herein you will find me a most willing helper, 
owing to my very long experience and study of 
this subject ; and perhaps I shall discover other 
helpers also besides myself. 

ci.iN. Well, Stranger, we most certainly must 
proceed on that path along which God too, it 
would seem, is conducting us. But what is the 
right method for us to employ, — that is what we 
have now got to discover and state. 

ATM. It is not possible at this stage, Megillus 
and Clinias, to enact laws for such a body, before 
it has been duly framed ; when it is, its members 
must themselves ordain what authority they should 
possess ; but it is already plain that what is re- 

» Cp. 710 A. 



PLATO 

KaraaKeva^ov StSa^^ /xera ^vvovcria'i ttoW^? 
fyiyvoLT av, el yiyvoiro 6p6Si<;. 

KA. n&i? ; Tt rovTo elprjadac (pcofjuev av ; 

A&. UpMTOv fxev hrj ttov KaTaXeKT€0<; av etrj 
D KardXoyo'i roiv oaot eir ni']heioi, irpo<i rrjv t?}? 
(f)vXaK7](; (})vacv av elev r]XiKLai<; re Kal p^adiipbaTwv 
Svvdfj,€(TL Kal rpoTTcov rjdeai Kal eOeai. fieTo, Be 
TOVTO, a 8el fiavOdveLv, ovre eupetv pahiov ovre 
eupi-jKoTO'i aWov fiaOj]TT)v yevecrdai. 7rpo9 tov- 
Toi<i Se ;^/96t'OL'9 ou? re Kal iv oh Bel irapaXap,- 
^dveiv eKaarov, [xdraiov ravr iv ypd/jifxacn 
E Xeyeiv ovBe yap avToi^ rot? [xavddvovaL Brjka 
yiyvoir av 6 ri 7r/509 Kaipov pLavOdverai, irplv 
evTo<; T^9 '^v)(fi<i eKdarw tov fiad7]fxaTo<i eiTLCTTrj- 
firjv yeyovivai. ovrco Brj irdvra ra irepl ravra 
diroppira /xev Xe')(j9evTa ovk av 6pdoi<i Xiyoiro, 
dirpoppriTa Be Bid to fiy]Bev irpoppijOevTa BrjXovv 
TMV Xeyo/xevcov. 

KA. Tt ovv Bt] iroirjTeov e')(pvT(ov rovrcov oin(o<i, 
0} ^eve ; 

A0. To Xeyofievov, w (^iXoc, ev koivcc koI /jbeaq) 
eoiKev r)fuv Kelcrdai, Kal elirep KivBvvevecv irepl 
Trj<i 7roXtrei,a<i iOeXofiev ^vp,7r d(Tr]<;, rj rpU e^, 
(f)aalv, T] rpetf kv/3ov<; ^dXXovTe<;, ravra ■"■ ttoli]- 
969 reov eyu> S' vpZv avyKivBvvevau) rep (f)pd^ecv re 
Kal e^rjyeladai rd ye BeBoyp,eva ip,ol irepl rf]<i 
rraiBela^ re Kal rpo(pr]<i rfj<; vvv av KeKivr]fievr]<i 

^ ravra some MSS., Stallb. : irdvra al. MSS., Zur. 

1 Cp. Rep. 528 B ff. 
? Cp. Upp. 7. 341 C. 

S66 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

quired in order to form such a body, if it is to be 
rightly formed, is teaching by means of prolonged 
conferences. 

CLIN. How so ? What now are we to understand 
by this observation ? 

ATH. Surely we must first draw up a list of all 
those who are fitted by age, intellectual capacity, 
and moral character and habit for the office of 
warden ; but as regards the next point, the subjects 
they should learn, — these it is neither easy to 
discover for oneself^ nor is it easy to find another 
who has made the discovery and learn from him. 
Moreover, with respect to the limits of time, when 
and for how long they ought to receive instruction 
in each subject, it were idle to lay down written 
regulations ; ^ for even the learners themselves 
could not be sure that they were learning at the 
opportune time until each of them had acquired 
within his soul some knowledge of the subject in 
question. Accordingly, although it would be wrong 
to term all these matters "indescribable," they 
should be termed " imprescribable," seeing that the 
prescribing of them beforehand does nothing to 
elucidate the question under discussion. 

CLIN. What then must we do. Stranger, under 
these circumstances } 

ATH. Apparently, my friends, we must "take 
our chance with the crowd " (as the saying is), and 
if we are willing to put the whole polity to the 
hazard and throw (as men say) three sixes or three 
aces, so it must be done ; and I will go shares 
with you in the hazard by declaring and explaining 
my views concerning education and nurture, the 
subject now started anew in our discourse ; but 

567 



PLATO 

7019 \oyoi<i' TO [xevTOL Kivhvvevjxa ov afiiKpov ouS' 
ere/JOt? Ticrl 7rpoa(f)€pe<; av eh], crol Brj tovto ye, 
0) KXeivia, fieXeiv TrapaKeXevofiac av yap ttjv 
M.ayvi]TO)v ttoXiv, r) w av deo^ eiroivvpiov avTtjv 
TTOiricrri, K\eo^ apel p-eyiarov KaTa(TKevdaa<i avrijv 
6p9oi<i, rj TO ye av^peioTaTd elvat Bo^ai TOiv 
B vcTTepov eTriyiyvofievcov ovk iK(f)€v^et, ttotL edv 
ye /XTjv ovTO<i rjfxiv 6 delo<i yevrjTai ^vX\.oyo<;, Si 
(piXoi eTaipot, trapahoTeov tovtw ttjv ttoXiv, 
d[i(^i(T^rjTi1(TU T OVK ecTT ovhefiia ovhevl twv 
vvv irapa Tavd^ co? e7ro9 elireiv vo/j-odeTwv, ovTWi 
Se ecTTat cr^eSoi' virap cnroTeTeXea/xevov ov crp^iKpu) 
irpoadev 6veipaT0<; w? ro) Xoytp iiprjyp-d/xeda, 
Ke(f)aXi]<i vov re Kotvcovia<i elKova Tivd ttw? 
^vfifxi^avTa, iav apa rj/xiv ol re dvhpe<i dKpi^o}<; 
C eKXe')(doicn} iratBevdcoai re Trpoaij/covToj'i, iracSev- 
6evT€<; Te ev aKpoiroXei t?}? 'Xj^pa^ KUTOiK^jaavTe^ 
(pvXaKC'; diroTeXeaOcocriv o'iov<i rjp.ec<i ovk eiSofiep 
ev Tft) irpoadev ySt'w 7r/309 dpcTrjv acoTijpiaq 
yevo[ievov<i. 

ME. 'n ^iXe K-Xeivia, ck tcov vvv rj/xlv elprjfie- 
voiv dirdpTaiv rj ttjv ttoXiv euTeov r?}? KaTOCKiaeco<; 
rj Tov ^evov TovSe ovk dcpCTeov, dXXa Sei]aeai. Koi 
fxi]Xavai<; Tracrat? KOivcovov TTOirjTeov eirX ttjv t^<j 
7r6A.eft)9 KaTOLKiatv. 

KA. ^AXrjOea-TaTa Xeyei^;, Si ^eyiXXe, Ka\ 
eydi Te iroirjaoi Tavd ovtco koi <crv> ^ ^vX- 
J) Xdfi^ave. 

ME. "SvXXijyfrofxai. 

^ €(c\6xOw<r« some MSS,, Herm.: ^v/i/^ixOufft al. MSS., Zur., 
vulg. 
^ <(Tv> added by Ast. 

568 



LAWS, BOOK XII 

truly the hazard will be no small one, nor com- 
parable to any others. And you, Clinias, I specially 
exhort to take good heed to this matter. For as 
concerns the State of the Magnesians — or Avhoever 
else, by the god's direction, gives your State its 
name,^ — if you frame it aright, you will achieve 
most high renown, or at any rate you will inevitably 
gain the reputation of being the boldest of all your 
successors. If so be that this divine synod actually 
comes into existence, my dear colleagues, we must 
hand over to it the State ; and practically all our 
present lawgivers agree to this without dispute. 
Thus we shall have as an accomplished fact and 
waking reality that result which we treated but 
a short while ago in our discourse as a mere dream, 
when we constructed a kind of picture of the union 
of the reason and the head,- — if, that is to say, we 
have the members carefully selected and suitably 
trained, and after their training quartered in the 
acropolis of the country, and thus finally made into 
wardens, the like of whom we have never before 
seen in our lives for excellence in safeguarding. 

MEG. My dear Clinias, from all that has now 
been said it follows that either we must forgo the 
idea of settling the State, or else we must detain 
this Stranger here, and by prayers and every possible 
means secure his co-operation in the task of settling 
the State. 

CLIN. That is most true, Megillus ; I will do as 
you say, and do you yourself assist me. 

MEG. Assist you I will. 

* i.e. if the god should direct the State to be named, not 
after the Magnates, but after some other person or place : 
cp. 704 A, 919 D. » Cp. 964 D S. 



INDEX 



Abouhox (o£ debts), I. 193, 353 
Absolute power (dangers of), I. 217, 

285; n. 271-3 
Abu^, n. 461 flf., 483 ff. 
Achaeans, I. 187, 197, 263 
Acrop<dis, I. 381 

Action (and pasion), n. 219, 363 
Actocs, n. 99 
Admonition, I. 331 
Adoption, n. 281, 424 ff., 443 
Adolteration, n. 401 ff. 
Adultery (penalty of), I. 497 ff.; n. 

167 fL 
Aegina, I. 265 
Agamemnon, I. 263 
Agrarian legislation, i. 193 
Agreement (breach oO, n. 413 ff. 
Agriculture, I. 377; II- 171, 313 (cp. 

Farm) 
Aim, I. 223, 259, 297, 455; n. 543 fL 
Alcman (quoted), L 257 
Alien, I. 327; n. 169, 501 ff. (cp. 

Foreigner, Stranger) 
Aliens, resident, n. 179, 195, 243, 

289, 293, 397, 501 
All, the, n. 363 ff., 561 
Allotments, I. 357, 3C9, 379 ff.; n. 

£06, 209 
Amazons, n. 63 
Ambassadors, II. 475 
Ambition, I, 29 ; U. 255 ff., 471 fL 
Amphion, I. 169 
Amusements, see Flay. 
Amycas, n. 29 
AmynttH-, n. 449 
Anarchy, I. 247 ff. ; n. 479 
Anasagcxas (alluded to), n. 333 n., 

662 ff. 
Ancestors, L 121, 319, 365 
Andior, n. 541 
Ancients, n. 95, 497 
Anger, I. 27; n. 419 (cp. Passion, 

Bage) 



Anting, II. 121 

Animals, I. 349, 491, 493 ; n. 165, 267, 

393, 397, 467 
Antac»s,ll. 29 
Apollo, L 3, 29, 91, 93, 199; XL 491, 

493, 495 n. 
Appeal, court of, I. 447 
Arbitrators, I. 443 
Archers, 1. 7, 259; n. 59, 63, 87, 141, 

143 
Archons, tee OflScials, etc. 
Arcturus, n. 177 
Ares, 1.153; n. 141, 413 
Argos, I. 189, 221, 265, 267 
AiistocracT, L xri, 183, 187 n., 247, 

281 ff. 
Aristodemus, I. 219 
Arithmetic (number), I. 359, 387 ; n. 

73, 101, 102 n., 105 n. 

(in games), n. 105 

Arms, L 7, 261 ; n. 23, 25, 57 ff. 

— '— loss of, n. 483 ff. 

Art (Arts), I. viii, x, rr, 103, 136 n., 

139 ff., 167 fL, 2n, 305; n. 311 ff., 

413 ff. 
Artemisium, I. 265 
Artificial (products), n. 311 
Assaults, n. 285 ff. (cp. Outrage) 
Assembly, I. 435 ; n. 195, 461 
Assessment, n. 239, 283 ff., 289, 295, 

457, 521 ff. 
Association, I. 27, 53, 459 
Assyrian Empire, L 197 
Astronomy, n. 101 f., 113, 561 (cp. 

Star) 
Astyhis, n. 163 
Atheism, I. xl; n. 299 ff., 563 
Athma, I. 9, 381 ; n. 29, 63, 413, 415 
Athenians, Athens,!. 47, 59, 61, 221 ff., 

239 ff., 399 
Athletes, n. 121 
AthleUc contests, n. 131 fL, 139 ff. 

V.cp. Gymnastic) 

571 



INDEX 



Athos, I. 241 

Atomfets (doctrines of), n. 313 n. 

Atonement, n. 229, 243, 265 ff, 

Atropos, n. 537 

Audience, 1. 109 (cp. 245 S. ; n. 99) 

Avarice, II. 255, 471 S. 

Avenger, n. 263, 291 

Bacchic dances, n. 93 

Bacchus, see Dionysus. 

Bachelors (penalized), I. 313, 465 

Bail, n. 261 

Ball(games), n, 132w. 

Banquets, I. 49, 153 (cp. Feasts) 

Baths, warm, I. 427 

Beauty, I. 143; U. 219 ff., 315, 551 

Becoming (and perishing), II. 321, 

329 n. (cp. Generation) 
Bees, I. 267; n. 175 (cp. 171) 
Begging (forbidden), n. 465 
Beginning, I. 471 
Belief, n. 235, 299 fl. 
Bequest, right of, U. 419 ff. 
Best polity, I. 361 (cp. State) 
Betrothal, I. 467 

Bkds, I. 7, 121, 179 ; II. 7, 89, 165, 511 
BW;h (gods of), I. 331 ; n. 287 
Birthday feasts, I. 499 
Birth-rate, I. 367 
Blasphemy, n. 43, 113 
Body, I. 329, 377; n. 5, 27, 255, 323, 

339, 365 ft., 533, 563 
Boeotians, I. 41 
Borrowing, I. 373 
Boundaries, n. 171 ff. 
Boxing, n. 29, 105, 127, 131 
Branding, n. 203 
Briareus, II. 27 

Bribe, I. 427; U. 357, 371, 381 
Bronze, n. 105, 523 
Biu-ial, I. 27 (cp. Fimeral) 
Buying (and SeUing), n. 191 ff. 397 fl. 

Cadmean victory, I. 57 

Cadmus, 1. 123 

Calculation, I. 67 ff., n. 339 (cp. 

Keason) 
Cambyses, I. 227 ff. 
Cancelling (Debts, etc.), n. 185, 195 fl. 
Cannibalism, I. 493 
Careless (gods not), n. 351 fl. 
Carian masic, n. 45 
Carthaginians, I. 45, 161 
Cause, I. 223; n. Ill, 135, 139, 233, 

255 fl., 329, 333 fl. 

572 



Cavalry, I. 409 

Ceians, I. 47 

Celts, I. 45 

Censure, I. 35 f ., 49 ; U. 433, 511 

Cercyon, U. 29 

Ceremonies, II. 501 

Challenge, I. 409, 443 

Chance, I. 269 fl. ; n. 311 fl. 

Change, I. 165 fl.; U. 33 fl., 329, 333, 

365 fl., 443 
Chant, 1. 113, 131, 135, 183 ; n. 99, 115 
Chariot,', II. 145 
Charm, I. 113w., 137fl. 
Cheerfulness, n. 13, 17 fl. 
Cheese, I. 47 
Children, I. 57, 63, 89, 111, 127, 133, 

289, 300 fl., 313, 463 ff., 471 ; n. 7ff., 

51, 65, 70 H., 89 fl., 445, 449 ff. 
Choice, I. 343 ff., 361 
Choirs, I. 193, 127 ff. 
Chords, I. 149 

Choristry, I. 95, 129 ff., 155 ff. ; n. 97 
Chorus, II. 99 
Cinvras, I. 115 

Circular motion, n. 327 ff., 342 fl. 
Circumference, II. 345 
Citations, n. 183 

City in mid-countrv, I. 381 j 

City-stewards, I. 419 ff., 433 ff., 483; | 

n. 23, 177, 181, 185, 191 ff., 287, I 

293, 391, 405, 413, 465, 517 
Civic (life, etc.), I. 135, 449; U. 27 
Civil War, 1.19 ff. 
Claim, n. 181, 393, 513, 517 ff. 
Clan, I. 179 ff., 187 n., 267 
Classes, I. 379 fl., 405 (cp. Property- 
class) 
Climate, I. 387 
Clotho, U. 637 
Club collections, n. 205, 397 
Cnosus, I. 5, 253, 399, 405 
Cock-fights, n. 9 
Coin, Coinage, I. 371 fl., 387 
Collusion, II. 285 
Colonists, Colony, I. ix, 253, 353, 367, 

399, 403 ; n. 423, 429 
Colour, I. 97; n. 523 
Combination (and separation), n. 

329 ff. 341 
Comedy,'l. 107; n. 97, 463 
Commanders, I. 49 fl., 53, 407 ff., 421 

(cp. Oflicer) 
Commensurables, n. 107 
Common meals, I. 5 ff., 29, 429, 481, 

485 fl. ; n. 65, 161, 169 (cp. Mess) 



INDEX 



Community (of goods), l. 363 ; n. 65 

Compensation, n. 229 

Competition, 1. 107, 433 (op. Contest) 

Confederacy, 1. 187 n. 

Confidence, 1. 67, 83 ff., 249 

Confiscation, T. 373 ; n. 205 

Conspiracv, n. 407 

Coastitution, I. 167, 171, 223, 277, 

287, 411 ; n. 49 (cp. GoTemment, 

PoUtv), 213, 329 
Contests, I. 31 ; n. 31, 129 ff., 139 ff. 
Contract«, I. 331 ; n. 413 S. 
Contribution, 1. 339 
Convention (and Nature), n. 314-13 
Cord, I. 69, 343 
Corpses, n. 265, 531 ff. 
Correctness, 1. 137 ff. 
Corsairs, I. 477 
Corvbantism, tr. 11 
Cosmos, n. 343, 561 
Cknincil (Bonle), 1, 161, 409 ff., 417 
Country-stewards, see Land-stewards. 
Courage, I. 21, 25, 29, 137, 233, 345: 

n. 127, 547 ff. 
Courts, !«e Law-courts. 
Cowardice, I. 77, 81, 111 ; n. 335, 359 
Crafts, Craftsmen, I. 223, 271, 371; 

n. 183 ff., 191 ff., 411 ff. 
Credit (forbidden^ I. 373 
Cresphontes, 1. 189, 219 
Crete, Cretan, I. 3 ff., 59, 159, 187, 

257 ff.; n. 145, 187 
Crime, Criminal, n. 203 ff., 223 ff., 

379 ff. 
Crison, n. 163 

Criterion, I. 139 (cp. Standard) 
Criticism, I. 37, 385 
Cronos, I. 283 ff. 
Crypteia, I. 31, 431 
Curetes, n. 29 

Curse, I. 204 n.; n. 203, 449, 461, 499 
Custom, 1. 7, 45, 181, 493; n. 19 ff., 

167, 535 
Cyclopes, 1. 179, 183 
Cypress, I. 5, 369 
Cyprus, I. 359 
Cyrus, I. 225 ff. 

Daedala«, 1. 169 

Daemons, 1. 285 ff., 299, 341 n., 359 ff., 

365; n. 49, 125, 189, 277 n., 373, 

385 
Damage, n. 175 ff. (cp. Injury) 
Dancing, i. 91 ff., 159, 459 ; n. 13, 

27 ff., 91 n. 



Dardania, 1. 183 

Dardanus, I. 251 

Darius, I. 229 ff., 239 fl. 

Datis, I. 239 ff. 

Davs (appointed), n. 45, 125, 147, 

191 ff. 
Dead, ttie, n. 45, 257, 263 ff., 435, 

493 fl., 531 ff. 
Death, n. 127, 367 ff., 485 
penalty, I. 351 ; n. 203 ff., 221, 

231, 291 ff., 529 
Debtor, I. 299 

Debts (cancelling of), see Abolition. 
Decrease, see Increase. 
Definition, n. 335 ff. 
Degradation,!. 81,429; n. 21, 71, 133, 

183, 205, 317, 497 (cp. Disquali- 
fication) 
Delphi, I. 359, 421 ; n. 391, 495 n. 
Deluge, 1. 167, 185, 251 
Demeter, I. 491 
Democracy, I. ix, xv, xvl, 223 ff., 247, 

277, 281 ff. 
Democritus, n. 302 n., 313 n. 
Deposit, Depositor, n. 391 
Desertion, I. 429; n. 481, 559 
Desire, I. 203 ff., 493; n. 149 ff., 153, 

407 
Despot, Despotism, I. 237 ff., 251, 361 ; 

n. 217 (cp. Monarchy) 
Deucalion, I. 166 n. 
Device, 1. 53, 177, 383, 453; n. 

135, 157 ff., 417 
Dialectic, n. 555 n. 
Diet, n. 35 
Dionysia, I. 43 

Dionysiac Chon^s, I. viii, xv, 129 ff. 
Dionysus, I. 43, 87, 129, 153, 155, 

245; n. 177 
Diopompus, n. 163 
Dioscori, n. 29 
Disease, L 269, 343 ff.; n. 237, 373, 

399 
Disinheritance, n. 441 ff. 
Dispensary, I. 73 
Disposition, I. S3 ff. ; n. 339, 381, 419. 

445 
Disqualification, I. 429, 499; IT. 7.5, 

169, 179, 463, 481, 661 (cp. Degra- 
dation) 
Dissolution, 1. 191 ; n. 200, 489 ff. 
Distribution (of produce), n. 1S7 ff. 
Dithyramb, I. 245 ff. 
Divioer, I. 199, 227; n. 381, 389, 

457 

573 



INDEX 



Divisions, (twelve), of city and 

country, I. 383 

of land, I. 195, 357 S. 

Divorce, I. 499; n. 445 

Doctors, I. 307 ff., 315 ff., 427 ; n. 213 

(cp. Physic) 
Dogs, n. 121, 375 ff. 
Donkey, I. 249 
Dorians, 1, 187 

Dowries (forbidden), I. 373, 4G7 
Drachma, n. 417 

Draughts (game of), 1. 301; n.l09,3G5 
Dreams, n. 385 
Drinking, I. 37, 493 ff. 
Drones, II. 355 
Drug, I. 83 
Drunkenness, I. 43 if., 131 ff. (cp. 

Wine) 
Dwellings, I. 381 ff. ; n. 189 
Dyes, n. 185, 523 

Early man, I. 167 ff. 

Early rising, n. 67 

Earth, n. 301, 303, 313 

Education, I. 63 ff., 101, 111, 115 ff., 

157 ; n. 27 ff., 57 ff., 69 ff., 145, 149 

(early), I. x; II. 5 ff. 

(higher), I. xiv ; n. 561 ff. 

(officer of), I. 439 ff.; n. 71, 79, 

83 ff., 129, 147, 465, 509, 515 

(officials), I. 435 ff. 

Egypt, I. 101 ff., 113 ; n. 37 
Egyptian, I. 389 ; n. 105, 514 n. 
Eileithyia, I. 497 
Elder (as superior), I. 179, 211, 289, 

313; n. 285, 401 
Election (of officials), I. 403 ff.; n. 

489 ff. 
Elements (four), n. 313, 321 
Embassies, I. 241, 371 
Emigration, I. 351 ff.; n. 429, 441 ff., 

501 ff. 
Emmeleiai (dances), n. 95 
Encroachment, I. 483; n. 173 
Endurance, I. 31; n. 479 
Epeius, n. 29 
Ephors, I. 219, 281 
Epic poetry, I. 109 
Epilepsy, n. 398 n. 
Epimenides, I. 61, 169 
Epitaphs, n. 531 
Equality, I. 193, 379, 413 
Eretria, I. 239 ff. 
Etymologies, I. 9, 93, 287; n. 41, 

527, 537 

574 



Eulogy, n. 531 (cp. Praise) 

Eunuch, the, I. 229 

Eurysthenes, I. 189, 197 n. 

Even numbers, I. 297; n. 337 

Evidence (law of), n. 467 ff. 

Evil, I. 337, 339 ff. 

Examiners, II. 487 ff. (cp. Scrutiny) 

Example, I. 33 

Excellence, I. 335 ff., 439, 463, 473 

(cf . Goodness, Virtue) 
Excess profits, II. 195 
Executioners, n. 261 
Exercise, n. 5 ff., 67, 167 
Exile, n. 237 ff., 279 ff., 293, 521 
Expectations, I. 67 
Exports, I. 257 : n. 185 ff. 
Expvdsion (of aliens), n. 503, 515 
Extremes (political), I. ix, 225, 251 

Faction, I. 177, 215 (cp. Feud) 

Falsehood, n. 401 ff. 

False witness, n. 469 ff., 499 

Family, I. 13, 187 n. 

Farm, Farmer, I. 63, 181, 365, 431; 

n. 63, 171, 175 ff., 191 ff., 373, 375 
Fate, n. 407, 537 
F'ather, see Parents. 
Fear, I. 67, 75 ff., 81 ff., 153; n. 13 
Feasts, I. 91; n. 73, 85, 125, 141 ff., 

601 
Festivals, see Feasts. 
Feud, I. 329, 355, 413; n. 209, 461 

(cp. Strife) 
" Feudality," T. 291 
Fiction, I. 125 
Fiddle, n. 25 

Fighting, n. 27, 87 ff., 141 
Figs, n. 177 ff. 
Fines, I. 381, 405, 411, 435; n. 205, 

211 
Fishing, n. 119 ff. 
Flattery, I. 33, 329; n. 421, 497 
Flood, see Deluge. 
Flute, 1. 147, 247 
Folly, I. 209, 217 
Food, I. 137, 493 ff.; n. 187 
Footraces, I. 7; n. 139 ff. (cp. 

Running) 
Force, 1. 11, 213 ; n. 315 (cp. Violence) 
Foreigner, n. 97, 179 ff., 191 ff. (cp. 

Alien, Stranger) 
Fountain, I. 41, 305, 425, 435; n. 321 
Fowling, n. 119ff. 
Frankincense, n, 185 
Fraud, n. 401 ff., 475 



INDEX 



Freedmen, n. 395 

Freedom (libertv), I. ix, it, 223 B., 

237 a., 245 ff." 
Friend, I. 203, 217, 243 
Friendliness, Friendship, I. 223 £f., 

237, 331 ff., 377, 419, 457, 471; n. 

152 ff. 
Fruit-harvest, n. 177 
Funerals, 1. 299 ff.; n. 493 ff., 531 ff. 
Future Life, n. 257, 291 ff., 367 ff., 

533 (cp. Hades) 

Games, I. 449, 459 ; n. 23 
Ganymede, I. 41 
Gaol, n. 237 ff. (cp. Prison) 
Generals, n. 513, 521 (cp. Com- 
manders) 
Generation, n. 330 ff. 
Genius, n. 277 
Grentleman, n. 411 
Gentleness, I. 337 
Geometry, n. 101 ff. 
Geryon.n. 27 

Gesture, I. 95, 145 ff. ; n. 33 
Gifts, n. 299 ff., 371 ff., 521 ff. (cp. 

Bribe) 
Girls (drill for), n. 21 ff., 87 ff., 143 ff. 
Goats, I. 49 
Qod, I. 219, 271, 293 ff., 367, 415; 

n. 355, 361 ff. 
Gold, n. 47, 105 
Golden leading-string, I. 69 
Goodness, 1. 21 ff., 29 ff., CI, 65 ff., 

89 ff., 97 ff., 139 ff., 373 ff., 493 ff. ; 

n. 127, 353 ff., 367 ff., 559 (cp. 

Eicellence, Virtue) 
Goods (classified), I. 25, 117, 235 ff., 

329, 377 
Gortys, I. 267 
Govern, Government, I. 5, 13, 177 ff., 

211, 219, 223, 239, 289 (cp. PoUty) 
Graces, 1. 185 
Grapes, 1. 177 ff. 
Greece, Greeks, I. 177, 221 (cp. 

Hellas) 
Guarantors, n. 261, 393 
Guardians, see Orphans. 
Oynmasia, I. 41, 75, 427; n. 57 
Gymnastic, I. 41, 435 ff. ; n. 27 ff., 85, 

139 ff. 

Habits, I. 99 ff., 123, 261, 267, 463; 

n. 19, 27, 145, 471 
Hades, n. 257, 291 ff., 367 ff., 533 
Hair, n. 479 



Half (and Whole), I. 215 (cp. Whole) 

Hands, n. 25 ff. 

Happiness, 1, 116 ff., 373 ff. ; H. 255 ff. 

Harbours, I. 255 ff. 

Harmony, I. 93, 129, 147 ff., 211; 

n. 37, 51, 75, 81 ff., 373 n. 
Harp, I. 107, 147; n. 83 
Head, n. 479, 541, 553 
Headship, I. 177, 183, 187 n. 
Health, I. 25, 161, 193, 309, 329, 

345 ff.; n. 447, 545 
Hearing, n. 541 
Heaven, n. 339 ff., 369 
Hecate, U. 390 n. 
Hector, n. 483 
Heiresses, I. 23; n. 423 ff. 
Helios, n. 489, 493 
HeUas, n. 107, 255, 307 
Helots, 1. 31 n., 473 
Hephaestus, n. 413 
Hera, I. 155, 465 ff. 
Heracleotes, I. 473 
Heracles, I. 197 
Heraclidae, I. 353 
Heraclitus (alluded to), n. 76 n. 
Heralds, n. 441, 475 
Herd, Herdsman, I. 49, 167, 351; 

n. 69, 373 
Hermes, n. 475 

Heroes, I. 299, 361; n. 49, 199 
Hesiod, 1. 109, 169, 215, 303 ; n. 302 n., 

355 n., 482 n. 
Hestia, I. 381 ; n. 189, 207 
Hipparchus, I. 407 ff. 
Hippolytas, I. 205; n. 449 
Homer, I. 107, 177 ff., 263, 475; n. 

55, 217, 368 n., 371 n., 375 n., 

448 n., 483 n. 
Honour, I. 105, 231, 235 ff., 263, 297, 

313,323ff., 331, 377ff.; n. 179, 231, 

407, 417, 515 
Hope, I. 341 

Horn-struck (bean), n. 201 
Horse-races, I. 437; n. 57 ff., 115, 

121,145 
Hospitalitv (sanctity oO, i. 333 
Household', I. 179, 211, 366 ff.; n. 9 
Human (life, etc.), I. 69, 269 ff.; n. 

53, 57, 201, 271 ff., 495 
Hunting, I. 431 ; n. 117fl. 
Hymns, I. 245 ff. ; n. 39 ff., 493 ff. 

Iambics, n. 463 
Iberians, I. 45 
Iccus, n. 163 

575 



INDEX 



Ida, I. 183 ff. 

Idleness, n. 355 £f. 

Ignorance, I. 207 ff., 211 fl. ; n. 105 ft., 

233 ff. 
Ilium, 1. 183, 197 
Illusion, I. 123 
Imitation (in art), I. 99, 139 fl., 305; 

n. 27, 91 fl. 
Immortality, I. 117, 287, 311 ff., 3C5, 

465, 471 fl., 563 
Impiety (penalties of), n. 39, 311, 

351 fl., 377 fl. 
Imports, n. 185 
Incantations, 1. 135, 151 ; n. 373, 383, 

455 fl. 
Incest, n. 157 

Incommensurable, the, n. 109 
Incontinence, n. 301, 459 
Increase (and Decrease), n. 329 fl., 341 
Incurable offenders, n. 201 ff. 
Indolence, I. 351 ; n. 355 fl. 
Informers, I. 335, 381; n. 237, 391, 

453 
Inheritance, I. 23 
Injuries, n. 225 fl., 467 
Injustice, L 119, 123; n. 222 fl., 235 
Innkeepers, II. 407 fl. 
Innovation, I. 103, 113, 417; n. 33 
Insolence, I. 57, 85, 119, 217, 295, 467; 

n. 373 
Inspectors, n. 183, 505 fl., 539 
Inspiration, I. 183, 305 
Institution, I. 5, 29 ff., 43, 47, 51 fl., 

IGl, 261, 485 fl. ; n. 21, 99, 161, 505 
Intemperance, I. 345 fl. 
Interest, I. 373; n. 417 
Interpreters, I. 421, 469; n. 125, 181, 

267, 401,531, 553 
Intestacy, n. 419 ff., 427 
Inventions (of arts), I. 169 
Involuntary, see Voluntary. 
Ionian (life), I. 179 
Iron, I. 173 fl.; n. 523 
Irony, n. 381 
Irrigation, I. 425; IT. 173 
Isis, I. 103 
Italy, I. Ill, 477 
Ivory, U. 523 

Javelin, n. 143 fl., 239 
Jealousy, I. 335 ff. 
Jasting.'i. 477; n. 465 
Joy, I. 341 

Judges, I. 13 ff.. Ill n., 161, 441 ff.; 
n. 203 fl., 247, 459, 481, 523 fl. 



Judgment, I. 327 

Judicial proceedings, n. 523 ff. 

Juices (poisonous), n. 123 

Justice, I. 21, 25, 121 fl., 255 fl., 327; 

n. 219 fl., 225 fl., 263, 305, 315, 

373 fl., 471, 483 

Kaineus, n. 485 

Keeper, see Saviour. 

Kindred, I. 331 fl., 441 ; n. 241 fl., 

249, 259 ff., 425 fl., 441 fl. 
King, I. 117 ff., 183, 215, 219, 225, 

229 fl., 427; n. 365 
Knowledge, n. 273, 421, 551 ff. 
Kore, I. 491 

Lacedaemonians, Laconians, I. 3, 9, 

17, 43, 69 ff., 179, 187 fl., 225, 281, 

313,473; n. 61 fl., 151 
Lachesis, II. 537 
Laius, n. 151 
Land, I. 194 fl., 353 ff., 365, 369; 

n. 171 ff. 
Land-stewards (Land-wardens), I. 

423 ff.; n. 173, 177, 191, 267, 293, 

391, 413, 465, 521 
Law, Laws, I. ix, xiii, 3 ff., 279, 289 ff., 

301 ff. :— 
(classified), I. 23 ; n. 291, 370 ff., 

507 ff. :— 
— — (divine), I. xiv, 287, 291 fl., 293, 

311 ff., 431 :— 

(philosophy of), I, 15 fl., 35 ff., 

41, 67 ff., 18l"ff., 259 :— 

(value oO, n. 523 ff. 

(of riato), I. viiif., 363, 393; 

n. 65, 79 ff., 217 

Law-courts, I. 443 fl.; n. 205 ff., 

273 ff., 433, 439, 453 ff., 469 ff., 495, 

499, 523 fl. 
Lawgiver, I. 15 ff., 123, 183, 223, 

249, 257, 272 ff., 301 ff., 361, 369, 

381, 385 ff., 451 ff'.; n. 199, 215 ff., 

275, 311, 317, 427, 431 
Lawlessness, I. 247 
Law-wardens, I. 27, 153, 397, 405 ff., 

453 ff.; n. 125, 129, 165, 205, 425, 

507 fl., 535, 539 
Legal procedure, n. 183 
Legislation, I. 393, 449 ff., 181 ff., 

189, 193, 267 ff., 449 ff.; U. 35, 171, 

211 ff., 313 
I^egislator, see Lawgiver. 
Leisure, n. 65 ff., 127 
Letters, n. 75 



5:76 



INDEX 



Libations, n. 65 

Liberty, see Freedom. 

Licentious, I. 345 ff. ; U. 297 

Zjf e, 1. 11 7 ff., 343 ft. ; n. 19, 49, 55, 231 

Liehtning, U. 267 

Liie to like, 1. 294 n. ; n. 153 

Limit (of lime), n, 517 ff. 

Line, n, 107 ff., 32S n. 

Lion, I. 263 

Loorians, I. 47 

Lordship, see Headship. 

Lot, I. 213, 369, 415, 419 

(= allotment), I. 357, 365 ff., 

379 ff., 4u5, 471; n. 205, 209 fl., 

281, 423 ff. 
Love, I. 89, 339; n. 153 flf. 
Lovaltv, 1. 21 ff. 
Lu~t, I. 493 ; n. 255 
Lusurj-, I. 45, 215, 229 ff.; n. 15, 63, 

409 
Lvcurgus, I. 23, 29, 219 n., 231 «., 

"480 n.; n. 217, 502 n. 
Lyre playing, II. 73, S3 
Lyric, n." 463 

Macareus, n. 157 

Madness, n. 237, 251, 433, 443, 459 

iiagistrates, I. 393 ff. ; n. 69 (cp. 

Officials) 
Magnetes, ilagnesian (State), I. ix, 

xiv, 352 n.; 11. 189, 225, 411, 491, 

569 
Man (the measure, etc.), I. 295, 475, 

491 fi. ; n. 53, 359 
Marathon, I. 241 
Mariandyni, 1. 473 
Market,' Market-place, 1. 479; n. 

151 ff., 169, 403 ff. 
Market-stewarls, 1. 419, 433 ff.; n. 

191 ff., 293, 391, 405, 413, 465, 

513 
Marriage, I. 25, 311 fi., 459 ff., 463 ff., 

497 ff. 
Marsyas, 1. 169 
Master, I. 49, 20l, 225, 413, 431, 

475 ff.; 11.147,479 
Mathematics, I. 38 7 (cp. Numbers) 
Matricide, n. 251 
Meals (public), iee Mess, Common 

Meals. 
Mean, I. 329; II. 17 (cp. Extremes) 
Measure, due, I. 21 7 ff. 
Measures, I. 63, 387 ; n. 105 
Meats, 1. 491 (cp. Food) 
Medes, i. 229 



VOL. II. PLATO. 



Medicine, I. 73, 127 /i., 133, 157 (cp. 

Doctor, Physic) 
Megara, l. 21 
Memory, l. 273; n. 339 
Menoetios, n, 483 
Mercenaries, I. 21, 237 
Merit (awards of), n. 129, 417, 481, 

511, 539 
Mess (public), I. 7, 483 ff. (cp. (Common 

Meals) 
Messene, I. 189, 221 n., 241 
Metic, u. 397 (cp. Hesident Alien) 
Midas, 1. 115 
MUetiis, 1. 41 
Militarv (service, officers, etc.), 1. 

408 ff., 501 ; n. 89 ff., 477 ff. 
Mines, 1.179; U. 171 
Minister, I. 293; n. 281, 479 
Minos, I. 3, 23, 29, 261 
Mirror, II. 371 
McKlel (Citv, etc.), i. viii, xliiff., 29, 

Sol, 363," 385 
Moderation, I. xiv, 215 n., 299, 305 ff., 

355; n. 407, 533 fl. 
Modestv, I. 77, 329 
Monarchy, I- xv, 183, 223 ff., 273 ff., 

411 
Monev, I. 65, 371, 377, 381; U. 135, 

389 (cp. Coin, Gold) 
Monument, n. 531 
Moon, U. 113 ff., 349 
Mother, see Parents. 
Mother-forms (of con.stitution), I. 223 
Motion, 1. 154 n., 159 Ji.; n. 7 ff., 

327 fl., 337 ff., 561 
Mourners, n., 45, 535 
Murder, n. 239 ff., 255 ff. 
Muse, I. 91, 129, 145 fl., 155, 185, 

305, 495; U. 27, 31 
Music, I. 96 n., 97 ff.. 107 ff., 127 n., 

136 n., 145 ff., 245 ff., 435 ff.; n. 

37 fl., 45 «., 47 ff., 81 ff., 565 
Mvstic (rites), n. 257, 381 
Myth, I. 279 (cp. Story, Tale) 

Naked Games, I. 31 ». 

Name, U. 95, 335 fl. 

Nature, l. 41, 81, 87, 99, 199, 213, 

275, 291, 389, 441 ; n. 23, 27, 51, 

70 n., 103, 151 ff., 159 ff., 271 ff., 

287, 311 fl., 315 ff., 381 
Naval (force, etc.), l. 261 
Necess-itv, i. 367, 415; n. loi ff. 
Neighbour, I. 35, 357, 427 ff., 443, 

447; U. 171 ff., 523 

577 



INDEX 



Nemea, n. 505 

Kemesis, I. 299 

Nestor, I. 279 

Nile, n. 515 

Niaus, I. 197 

Noble (rule of), I. 213, 289 

Nocturnal Synod (Assemblv\ I. xiv S. ; 

n. 379, 383, 509 fl., 539 ff., 565 ff. 
Nome (musical), I. xiii, 245, 317, 469; 

II. 41 flE. 
Novelty, I. 113 ; II. 33 ff., 97 (cp. 

Innovation) 
Number, I. 297 «., 357 ff., 369, 

387 ff., 457; n. 103 ff., 337 ff. 
Nurse, n. 9, 15, 23 ff. 

Oath, I. Ill n., 191, 219; n. 401 ff., 

497 fl. 
Obedience, I. ix, liv, xv, 291 ; n. 161 
Obstruction, n. 529 
Oedipus, U. 157, 449 
Offerins-, II. 521 ff. 
Office, "^Officers, Officials, I. 291 ff., 

349, 379, 393 fl., 401, 405 ff., 

419 ff., 435 fl., 447 ff., 501 
Old (age), I. vii, xv, 105, 109, 131 ff., 

293, 331, 335, 435 fl., 443, 449 fl. 
Oligarch V, I. 273 ff. 
Olive, 1.491; U. 481, 491 
Olvmpia, I. 331 ; n. 67, 115, 163 
Olympus, I. 169 
Omissions (legislative), I. 459, 483; 

II. 523 
One (and Many), H. 549 ff., 555 ff. 
Opinion, I. 2*8, 139 ; U. 339, 499, 

503 
Opportunitv, n. 401 
Opposite?, i. 463; n. 97, 313, 339 fl., 

373 «., 445 
Oracle, I. 3, 61, 129, 279, 281, 359, 

421, 457, 461 ; II. 209, 225, 391, 421, 

511 
Orphans, n. 383, 419 ff., 433 fl. 
Orpheus, Orphic, I. 147, 169, 293 w., 

493 : n. 129 
Outline, I. 453 ; II. 51, 371 
Outrage, II. 285 fl., 297 

Paean, I. 245 

Paian (Apollo), I. 127 

Pain, I. 31 ff., 209, 273, 325, al. 

Painter, Paiutins, I. 103, 449 ff. ; 0. 

313 
Palamedes, I. 169 
Pan, II. 93 



Pancratiast, Pancratium, ii. 27, 131, 

143 
Parents, I. 13, 179 ff., 211, 249, 
299 fl., 321, 333, 419; U. 249 fl., 
401, 431 ff., 437 
Parmenides (alluded to>, ii. 333 n. 
Parricide, n. 251 ff., 537 
Part (and Whole), n. 361 fl. 
Passion, I. 71, 337; n. 149 ff., 219 fl., 

231 ff., 243 ff., 253, 281 
Pasture-land, n. 175 
Patient, I. 309; II. 213, 239 
Patriarchal (law), I. 177 
Patriotism, I. 239 
Patroclus, n. 483 
Pattern, U. 79 

Payment, n. 57, 393 ff., 401, 415 ff. 
Peace, I. 7 ff., 15 ff.; n. 55, 91 ff., 

127, 521 
Pedlar, Peddling, I. 65; n. 171, 407, 

411 
Peleus, n. 483 
Pelopidae, I. 197 
Peloponnesus, I. 195 
Peltast, n. 143 
Penalty, I. 81, 295, 307; n. 199 ff., 

225 fl., 257, 523 fl. (cp. Punish- 
ment) 
Penestae, I. 473 
Perjury, II. 499 (cp. Oath) 
Persephone, I. 491 n. 
Persian, I. 45, 61, 221 fl., 237 fl. 
Persuasion, I. xiii, 113, 117, 279, 301, 

307 fl., 315 ff., 399, 497; n. 301, 

305, 377 
Pestilence, I. 269 
Pherecydes (alluded to), U. 302 n. 
Phoenician, I. 389 
Phoenix, n. 449 

Phrourarchs, I. 423 ff.: n. 172 n. 
Phvlarchs, I. 407 fl., 421 ; II. 145 
Phyle, I. 383 
Physic, Physician, 1. 17; n. 361, 365, 

375 (cp. Doctor, Medicine) 
Piety, I. 297 fl. 
Pilot, I. 263, 269; n. 361, 543 
Pindar, I. 213, 291 ; n. 451 n. 
Planets, U. 113 
Planting, n. 175 
Plataea, I. 265 
Plav, I. 63 ff., 157 ff., 161, 195; n. 

S3 ff., 53 ff. 
Pleasure, I. G7 ff., 89 fl., 97 ff., 109 fl., 

137 ff., 247, 341 fl.; n. 17 ff., 153, 

163, 231 ff. 



578 



INDEX 



Flnto, n. 127 
Phitns, 1. 25 
Poet, Poetrv, I. 101, 111, 141 B., 

145 ff., 1T9, 183, 305; n. 45 ff., 
77 ff., 97 ff., 129, 215 ff., 299, 315, 

463 ff., 475, 527 
Pokon, n. 453 ff. 
Political (jo-'tice), I. 413 

(t.vpes), I. XT 

Polity,"!, ix, 225 3., 251, 279 3., 291 

Cep. Constitution) 
Pollution, n. 243, 265, 353 
Ponta-. n. 59 
Populace, I. 247, 447 
Population I. 273 

Posture, I. 95 ff. ; n. 91 (cp. Gesture) 
Potion, I. 79 ff., 161, 463 
Poverty, I. 27, 175, 269, 355, 375, 379; 

n. 409 
Power, I. XV, 217, 279 ff., 291 
Praise, I. 27, 123, 201, 277, 333; n. 

49. 117 ff., 129, 527 
Prayer, I. 203 ff., 297 ; n. 45 ff. 
Prelude, I. xiii, 315 ff.; n. 305 
Prescription, I. 39, 309, 317 
Price, n. 397 ff., 403, 417 
Priest, Priestess, I. 369, 419 ff.; U. 

39, 43, 299, 385, 493, 5'>9, 513 
Prison, n. 379 ff. 
Private (life, etc.), I. 363, 485; n. 

3, 9, 271 ff., 297 
Prize, I. 105 ff.; n. 129, 141 ff., 

481, 519, 551 
Processions, I. 43 «.: u. 29 
Procles, 1. 189 

Procreation, I. 41, 163, 461, 469, 497 
Produce, n. 187 ff., 521 
Profits, I. 377; U. 413 
Prop, n. 21 
Property, I. 193, 351, 355, 379 ff.; 

n. 195, 279, 395, 421 ff., 477, 521 
Propertv-class, I. 405 (cp. 239, 379>, 

411, "421, 433, 439, 465 ff.; n. 

289 ff. (cp. 395) 
Prophecy, i. 61 
Proportional (equalitv>, I. 413 n. 

(cp. n. 1S9) 
Pro^e, n. 75, 81, 527 
Prosec-ution, n. 259, 267, 283, 383, 467 
Protagoras, I. 295 n., 315 n. 
Proverbs (proverbial savings), i. 43, 

57, 73, 83, 193, 215, 249, 295, 319, 

339, 363, 371, 395, 401, 413, 470 n., 

481, 487; n. 19, 57, 61, 101, lu3, 

171, 305, 317, 389, 4<)9, 421, 525, 567 



Proxenns, I. 59 ff. 
Prytaneis, I. 409, 441 ; U. 513 
Pnbbc opinion, n. 159 
Punishment, I. 327, 351; n. 21, 205, 

247, 291 ff., 391, 459, 483 ff., 553 

(cp. Penalty) 
Puppet, I. 69 ff., 107; n. 57 
Purgation, Purification, I. 351 ff. ; 

n. 237 ff., 259, 265 ff., 399 
Purple, n. iS5 

Pursuit, I. 63 3.; n. 59, 1S3, 217 
Pyrrhiche, n. 91 

Pythagorean, I. 363 n.; ll. 200 n. 
Pythian, n. 65, 421, 495 
I^tho, n. 5<J5 



Quacks, 1. ?3 
Quality, i. 98 / 
537 ff., 551 ff. 



273 ff.; u. 341, 



Eage, n. 245 ff. (cp. Passion) 
Reason, Rational, l. xiv, 29, 155, 205, 

208 n., 209, 238 n., 283, 449; u. 

273, 343, 355, 527, 547 ff., 555, 

563, 569 
Recollection, I. 341 
Register, I. 405 (cp. 381); n. 195, 205, 

393 (cp. 521) 
Re-incamaiion, n. 367 n. 
Religion I. x, xiv, 419 ff.; n. 403 (cp. 

Grod, Prayer, Priest) 
Reputation, I. 75, 331 ; u. 503 ff. 
Resident alien, tee Alien. 
Rest (state of), n. 327 ff. 
Retail trade, I. 257; n. 193 (cp. 171), 

405 ff. 
Revel, I. 43 
Reverence, I. xiv, 243, 299, 331; n. 

35, 285 ff., 401 (cp. Modesty) 
Revolution, l. 41 n., 269; n. 209, 

327 ff., 343 
Rhadamanthys, I. 3 ; n. 497 
Rhapsode, Rhapsody, I. 107 ff.; n. 

147 
Rhetoric, n. 471 n. 
Rhythia, I. 93, 97, 101, 113, 117, 129, 

145 ff. ; n. 37, 51, 81 (cp. Harmony) 
Ridicule, I. 393 ; n. 7 ff., 43, 381, 461 ff. 
Riding, n. 23, 59 
Right, I. 211 ff., 291 
Ritual, I. 299 
Road, I. 425, 433; n. 179 
Robbery, n. 119 ff., 459, 497 (cp. 

Theft) 
Rocking (motion), u. 11 

579 



INDEX 



Eule, Kuler, I. 208 n., ill £f., 237, 
27o, 279, 283 ff., 289 ff.; n. 273, 
401, 479 

Euaning (races), I. 7, 431 ; n. 141 ff., 
163 

Eural stewards, see Land-stewards. 

Sacred line (in draughts), I. 361 
Sacrifices, I. 297 ff., 493; n. 55 ff., 

73, 113, 125 ff., 241, 307, 383 ff., 

497, 501, 505 
Safety, see Salvation. 
Salamis, I. 239, 263 ff. 
Sale, n. 191 ff., 397 ff., 515 
Salvation (safetv, safe-keeping), I. 

241, 263, 287, 293: II. 325, 537 ff., 

565 
Satyrs, n. 93 
Sauromatides, II. 59, 63 
Saviour, I. xv, 219, 257, 471 ; n. 

537, 541 (op I. 453) 
School, I. 435: II. 57, 75 
Science, Scientist, I. 49; U. 315 ff. 
Scourging, n. 203, 263, 293 ff., 393 
Scrutinv, I. 433, 439 ff., 445; II. 495 

(cp. Test) 
Sculptor, n. 523 
Scythian, I. 45 ; n. 25 
Sea, I. 257 
Search, n. 517 
Second-best (state, etc.), I. 361, 385; 

II. 65, 167, 273 
Secret-Service, I. 31 n., 431 
Securitv, II. 515 (cp. Surety) 
Select iudges, n. 207, 237', 433, 471, 

491, 497, 525 (cp. I. 445) 
Self-defence, n. 287 ff. 
Self-inferior (— superior), I. 11 ff., 67; 

U. 167 
Self-love, I. 339 
Self- movement (principle of), I. xyi; 

n. 331 ff., 337 
Serious (work, etc.), I. 161 ; n. 53 ff., 

77, 97, 313 
Service (military, etc.), I. 429 ff., 501 ; 

n. 481 ff., 521 
Sex (sexual relations, etc.), I. 495 ff. ; 

II. 149 ff.. 157 ff., 163 ff. 
Shame, I. 77 n., 81, 153 (cp. Modesty) 
Shepherd, I. 229, 349 
Ship, I. 55, 259, 415; 11. 53 
Shrine, n. 189, 203, 385 ff. 
Sicily, I. Ill 
Sileni, 11. 93 
Silver, r. 175, 371 ff.; n. 47, 105, 523 



Simoaides, I. 367 n. 

Simplicity, I. 175 

Sin, II. 231 ff. 

Singing, 1. 127 tf. (cp. Song) 

Slave, I. 245 ff., 309, 473 ff. ; n. 21, 

239 ff. 
Sleep, u. 67 ff. 
Sling, U. 143 
Smerdis, I. 228 n., 229 n. 
Socrates (alluded to), II. 222 n. 
Soldier, n. 481. 487 
Solid, II. 107 ff:, 328 n. 
Solon, 1.355 n.; n. 217, 390 n. 
Song, I. 127 ff.: n. 49 ff., 129 
Soothsayer, n. 389 
Sophist," n. 381 
Sorcery, II. 455 ff. 
Sorrow, I. 341 
Soul, I. xiii, xvi, 208 »., 209, 323 ff., 

337: n. 335 ff., 365 ff., 533, 541, 

551 ff., 561 ff. 
Spartan, Spartiate, I. 31 n., 43, 126 n., 

218 w.. 399, 481; n. 502 ti. (cp. 

Laconian) 
" Sparti," I. 57 n. 
Spectators, I. 107, 111 
" Sphaeromachia," II. 132 n. 
Spices, n. 185 
Spring, I. 417, 425; II. 181 (cp. 

Fountain) 
Stage, U. 99 
Standard, n. 49 
Star, II. 113 ff., 349 ff., 367 n., 447 n., 

561 ff. 
Starting-principle, n., 329 (cp. 333) 
State (esp. the Magnesiam, I. 165 ff., 

208 «., 255 ff., 349 ff., 371 ff., 403 ff., 

441, 483 ff.; n. 9, 15, 21, 33, 57 ff., 

67 ff., 85 ff., 109 ff., 125 ff., 167 ff., 

183 ff., 199 ff., 209 ft., 215 ff., 225, 

271 ff., 275, 279, 283, 375, 409 ff., 

4-.'l ff., 441, 475, 489 ff., 501 ff., 

521 ff., 537 ff., 553 ff., 569 (cp. 

Polity).— Best State, I. 279, 361 ff.; 

II. 65 n. 
Statues, n. 523 
Stepmother, n. 445 
Story, I. 41, 69, 129, 155, 163, 199, 

:.'83ff.: II. 257, 263, 307, 389, 475 

(cp. Mvth, Tale) 
Stranger," I. 331 ff. : n. 241 ff. 253, 

2S7 ft"., 503 ff., 513 ff. (cp. Foreigner) 
Strife, I. 15, 267, 353; n. 489 (cp. 

Faction, Feud) 
Sulistance, n. 335 ff. 



S8o 



INDEX 



Saffering. II. 219 n. 

Suit, ste Trial. 

Sammons, n. 207 

Sun. n. 113 ff., 181, 347 ff., 505 

Supervision, n. 71, 85, 185, 191, 241, 

437 
Suppliant. I. 333 
Suretv, n. 261, 265, 395 
Surface, n. 107 ff., 328 r,., 367 
Swine, n. 107 
Svracusan, I. 47 
SVstem, I. 29; n. 61 

Tablet, I. 369, 399 ff. 

Tale, I. 167, 2.S3 ff.; n. 117, 241, 351, 

373, 435, 437 (cp. Story, Tradition) 
Tarentum, I. 43 
Taste, L 99, 113 
Taxes, n. 59, 195, 521 
Taxiarch?, I. 407 ff.. 421 
Teachers, n. 57, 69 ff., 79 ff., 105, 553 
Telemachus, n. 55 
Temenu-, I. 189, 219 
Temper, I. 463 
Temperance, I. rlii, sir, 39, 79, 233 ff., 

273ff.,279, 297, 335, 345ff.: n. 163 
Temple, I. 359, 417 ff., 425, 479; n. 

189 ff. 
Temple-robber, n. 137, 201 ff. 
Test, I. 81, 85 ff., 353, 421 ff., 451; 

ir. 421, 491, 527, 539 (cp. Scrutinv) 
Testator, n. 425 ff. 
Thales (alluded to), n. 349 n. 
Thamvras, n. 129 
Theatre, I. 137 
Theatrocracv, I. 247 
Theft, n. 211, 269, 457, 475 ff., 520 ff. 
Themis, n. 467 
Theognis, I. 21 ff. 
Theogonv, n. 303 
Theopompus, I. 218 n. 
Theseu=, I. 205 ; n. 449 
The^salr, I. 5, 473 ; n. 485 
Thetis, n. 483 
Thracian, I. 45, 117; n. 61 
Thurii, I. 41 
Thvestes, n. 157 
Timber, I. 259 

Time, I., 149, 165 ff.; U. 82 n., 51" ff. 
Titans, I. 249 
Title, n. 537 
ToU, n. 185 

Tomb, I. 307; n. 493 ff. 
Trade, I. 257, 371, 377; n. 193 ff., 

405 ff. (cp. Ketail trade) 



Tradition, I. 187, 285 ff., 293; n. 435 

(cp. Storr, Tale) 
Tragedv, I." 107 ff.: n. 97 ff., 157 
Trainine, I. 31, 75, 81, 91, 161, 229, 

367, iil; n. 57, 131 ff., 163, 203 

(cp. Education) 
Traitor, Treason, n. 211, 237 
Transformation, n. 485 
Travel (abroad), n. 511 ff. (cp. I. 371) 
Treasure, n. 389 ff. 
Treasurer. I. 465 ff.: n. 421 
Trial, n. 203 ff., 237 ff., 443 ff. 
Tribal courts, I. 447: n. 397, 523 
Tribal number, I. 457 
Tribes. I. 383 
Triptolemus, I. 491 
Trivial (a<*kais), n. 3, 65 
Trojan (war, etc.), I. 197, 263, 279 
Tro'v, I. 197 (cp. Hium) 
Truth, I. 125, 139 ff., 333, 361 : II. 

227 
Tune, I. 95 ff., 145 ff., 247 ff. ; n. 41, 

51, 82 n., 147 
Tuscany, I. 359 
Tutor, il. 69 ff. 
Typical (case), n. 43 ff., 277 
Tvrant, Tvrannv, I. 281, 289; n. 137, 

217 (cp. Despot) 
Tyrtaeus, 1. 17 ff., 137; n. 217, 291 ff. 

Under-world, n. 531 (cp. Hades) 
Unity, I. 365 

Universe, $ee All, World-all. 
Unjust, 1. 115 ff. : n. 223 ff. 
Unwritten laws, n. 19 (cp. 117), 157, 
167 

Valuation, I. 379 ; n. 173, 521 

Vault, n. 495 

Veste-i interests, I. 353 

Vice, I. 347; n. 391 

Victorv, I. 7, 45 ff., 57, 77, 291, 331 ; 

n. 67, 163 
Village, Vidagers, I. 9 ff., 429 ff. ; u. 

23, 523 
Vine, Vineyard, I. 163, 491 
Vintaee, n. 177 
Violation n. 269 

Violence, n. 285, 291, 297 ff., 459, 477 
Virtue, I. viii, siv, 109, 137, 206, 

257 ff., 272)1., 273, 277, 303: D. 

117 ?'., 155, 389 ff., 545 ff., 557 (cp. 

Excellence, Goodness) 
Voluntarv, I. li, 337, 345 ff.: n. 

223 ff.,"239, 245 ff., 283 



581 



INDEX 



Waggons, I. 43 

Walls, I. 181, 425, 481 

War, I. 7ff., 11, 15 £f., 253, 269, 367; 

n. 91 ff., 127 £f., 521 
Warden, I. 27 ; n. 563 ff., 569 
Warp, I. 349 

Watchfulness, I. 415 £E.; n. 69 
Water, I. 161, 353; n. 175 ff., 181 
Wayside (Goddess of), n. 391 
Wealth, I. 117, 175, 257, 329, 373 fl.; 

n. 135, 255, 389, 405 ff. 
Weaving, l. 1 75 
Weeping, I. 15 (cp. n. 43) 
Weights, I. 387; n. 105 
White (garments, etc.), n. 493, 523 
Whole (and Parts), I. ix, xiii, 23, 215 n., 

291 ; n. 63, 363 ff., 557 ff. 
Wills, n. 419 ff. 
Wine, I. 45, 57, 63, 75, 83 ff., 133, 

155 ff., 161 ff., 463, 469 
Wisdom, I. xiv, xv, 25 f., 225, 272 n. ; 

n. 549 ff. (cp. Reason) 
Witchcraft, n. 383, 455 
Witness, I. 47 ff. ; n. 183, 467 fl., 519 
Wives, I. 363, 467 
Wolves, n. 375 



Women (nature and education of), I. 

45, 109, 365 ff., 487 ff., 497 ff. ; U. 

49 fl., 59 ff., 85 ff., 97 fl., 127 ff., 

143, 295 
Women (officials), I. 497 fl.; n. 23, 

445, 453 
Wood, II. 523 (cp. Timber) 
Woof, I. 349 
Wool-work, n. 61 

Word-play, I. 286 n., 348 n.; U. 149 h. 
World-all", U. 363 
Worship, I. 473 (cp. Religion) 
Wounds, U. 271 fl. 
Woven stufl, U. 193, 523 
Wrestler, Wrestling, n. 27 ff., 143 
Writing, II. 75 

Xerxes, I. 231 

Young, Youth, I. 35 fl., 91, 125 ff., 
313, 331; n. 11 fl., 33, 119 ff., 
285 ff., 307 ff., 401, 443, 493 

Zea=, 1. 3, 5, 29, 33, 41, 121, 293 n., 
333, 413; n. 171, 293, 415, 467, 
475, 505 



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SALLUST. I. C. Rolfe. 
SCRIPTORES HISTORIAE AUGUST.\E. D. Magic. 4 Vols. Vols. 

I and IL 
SEN EC.\ : EPISTULAE MORALES. R. M GummeTe. 3 Vob. (VoL 

Izndlmp.'i 
SENECA : TR.\GEDIES. F.J.Miller, a Vols. (2nd Imp.) 
SUETONIUS. J. C. Rolfe. a VoU. (v^d Imp.) 
TACITUS: DI.\LOGUS. Sir Wm. Peterson, and AGRICOLA and 

GERMANIA. Maurice Hutton. (^rd Imp.) 
TACITUS, HISTORIES. Clifford H. Moore, a Vols. Vol. I. 
TERENCE. John Sargeaunt. 2 VoU. (s^A Imp.) 
VELLEIUS PATERCULUS AND RES GESTAE DIVI AUGUSTI. 

F. W. Shipley. 
VIRGIL. H. R. Fairdoagh. 2V0U. (Voll 4ih Imp. Yal. 11 yd Imp.) 



Greek Authors* 



ACHILLES TATIUS. S. Gaselee. 

AENEAS TACTICUS, ASCLEPIODOTUS AND ONASANDER. 

AESCHINES. C. D. Adams. [The Illinois Club. 

AESCHYLUS. H. Weir Smyth. 2 Vols. 

APOLLODORUS. Sir James G. Frazer. 2 Vols. 

APOLLONIUS RHODIUS. R. C. Seaton. (^^rd Imp.-) 

THE APOSTOLIC FATHERS. Kirsopp Lake. 2 Vols. (Vol. I 4M 

Imp. Vol. II -ird Imp.) 
APPIAN'S ROMAN HISTORY. Horace White. 4 Vols. 
ARISTOPHANES Benjamin Bickley Rogers. 3 Vols. [G. R. Mair. 
CALLIMACHUS and LYCOPHRON. A. W. Mair; and ARATUS, 
CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA. Rev. G. W. Butterworth. 
DAPHNIS AND CHLOE. Thornley's Translation revised by J. M. 

Edmonds; and PARTHENIUS. S. Gaselee. {2nd Imp.) 
DEMOSTHENES, DE CORONA a.vd DE FALSA LEGATIONE, 

C. A. Vince and J. H. Vince. 
DIOCASSIUS: ROiMAN HISTORY. E. Gary. 9 Vols. Vols. I to VIII. 
DIOCJENES LAERTIUS. R. D. Hicks. 2 Vols. 
EPICTETUS. W. A. Oldfather. 2 Vols. Vol. 1. 
EURIPIDES. A. S. Way. 4 Vols. Uth Imp.) 
GALEN : ON THE NATURAL FACULTIES. A. J. Brock. 
THE GREEK ANTHOLOGY. W. R. Paton. 5 Vols, (^rd Imp.) 
THE GREEK BUCOLIC POETS (THEOCRITUS, BION, MOS- 

CHUS). J. M. Edmonds. (4/A Imp.) 
HERODOTUS. A. D. Godley. 4 Vols. {{2nd Imp.) 

HESIOD AND THE HOMERIC HYMNS. H. G. Evelyn White. 
HIPPOCRATES. W. H. S. Jones. 4 Vols. Vols. I and II, 
HOMER: ILIAD. A.T.Murray. 2 Vols. 
HOMER: ODYSSEY. A.T.Murray. 2 Vols. {2nd Imp.) 
JOSEPHU3: THE LIFE and AGAINST APION. H. St. J. Thacke- 
JULI AN. Wilmer Cave Wright. 3 Vols [ray. 8 Vols. Vol. I. 

LUCIAN. A. M. Harmon. 8 Vols. Vols. I to IV. (Vols. I & II 2nd Imp.) 
LYRA GRAECA. J. M. Edmonds. 3 Vols. Vols. I and II. 
MARCUS AURELIUS. C.R.Haines. {2nd Imp.) 
MENANDER. F. G. Allinson. 
PAUSANIAS: DESCRIPTION OF GREECE. W. H. S. Jones, s 

Vols, and Companion Vol. Vols. I and II. 
PHILOSTRATUS : THE LIFE OF APOLLONIUS OF TYANA. 

F. C. Conybeare. 2 Vols. {2nd Imp.) 
PHILOSTRATUS and EUNAPIUS, LIVES OF THE SOPHISTS. 
PINDAR. Sir J. E. Sandys, {^ra Imp.) [Wilmer Cave Wright. 

PLATO : CRATYLUS, PARMENIDES, GREATER HIPPIAS, 

LESSER HIPPIAS. H. N. Fowler. 
PL.\TO: EUTHYPHRO, APOLOGY, CRITO, PHAEDO, PHAED- 

RUS. H. N. Fowler, {^th Imp.) [W. R. M. Lamb. 

PLATO: LACHES, PROT.\GORAS, MENO, EUTHYDEMUS. 
PLATO : LAWS. R. G. Bury. 2 Vols. 

PLATO : LYSIS, SYMPOSIU.M. GORGIAS. W. R. M. Lamb. 
I'LATO: POLITICUS and PHILEBUS. H. N. Fowler. ION. 

W. R. M. Lamb. 
PLATO: THEAETETUS ani> SOPHIST. H. N. Fowler. 
PLUTARCH : THE PARALLEL LIVES. B. Perrin. 11 Vols. 
POLYBIUS. W. R. Paton. 6 Vols. Vols. I to IV. 
PROCOPIUS: HISTORY OF THE WARS. H. B. Dewing. 7 Vols. 
QUINTUS SMYRNAEUS. A. S. Way. [Vols. 1 to IV. 

SOPHOCLES. F. Storr. 2 Vols. (4M Imp.) 
ST. JOHN DAMASCENE: BARLAAM AND lOASAPH. Rev. G. R. 

Woodward and Harold Mattingly. 
STRABO : GEOGRAPHY. Horace L. Jones. S Vols. Vols. I to III. 
THEOPHRASTUS : ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. Sir Arthur Hort, 
THUCYDIDES. C.F.Smith. 4 Vols. [Bart. 2 Vols. 

XENOPHON: CYROPAEDIA. Walter Miller. 2V0IS. \o]. I. {2nd Imp.) 
XENOPHON: HELLENICA, ANABASIS, APOLOGY, and SYM- 
POSIUM. C. L. Brownson and O. J. Todd 3 Vols. 
XENOPHON : MEMORABILIA and OECONOMICUS E. C. 

Marchant, 
XENOPHON: SCRIPTA MINORA. E C. Marchant. 



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